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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933005/social-brain-hypothesis-vocal-and-gesture-networks-of-wild-chimpanzees
#1
Sam G B Roberts, Anna I Roberts
A key driver of brain evolution in primates and humans is the cognitive demands arising from managing social relationships. In primates, grooming plays a key role in maintaining these relationships, but the time that can be devoted to grooming is inherently limited. Communication may act as an additional, more time-efficient bonding mechanism to grooming, but how patterns of communication are related to patterns of sociality is still poorly understood. We used social network analysis to examine the associations between close proximity (duration of time spent within 10 m per hour spent in the same party), grooming, vocal communication, and gestural communication (duration of time and frequency of behavior per hour spent within 10 m) in wild chimpanzees...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932543/members-of-the-zinc-cluster-factor-family-alters-virulence-in-candida-albicans
#2
Luca Issi, Rhys A Farrer, Kelly Pastor, Benjamin Landry, Toni Delorey, George W Bell, Dawn A Thompson, Christina A Cuomo, Reeta P Rao
Virtually all humans are colonized with Candida albicans However, in immunocompromised individuals this benign commensal organism becomes a serious, life-threatening pathogen. Here, we describe and analyze the regulatory networks that modulate innate responses in the host niches. We identified Zcf15 and Zcf29, two Zinc Cluster transcription Factors (ZCF) that are required for C. albicans virulence. Previous sequence analysis of clinical C. albicans isolates from immunocompromised patients indicates that both ZCF genes diverged during clonal evolution...
December 7, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929745/an-elaborate-landscape-of-the-human-antibody-repertoire-against-enterovirus-71-infection-is-revealed-by-phage-display-screening-and-deep-sequencing
#3
Zhe Chen, Xianwen Ren, Jian Yang, Jie Dong, Ying Xue, Lilian Sun, Yafang Zhu, Qi Jin
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), primarily in the Asia-Pacific area, that are often associated with complications of severe to fatal neurological symptoms. There are currently no anti-viral therapies or vaccines available for the treatment of EV71 infection. Illustrating human antibody responses neutralizing EV71 infection could potentially provide valuable information for the development of effective therapies and vaccines. Here, we constructed a comprehensive phage display library based on peripheral blood of eight EV71-infected donors and identified 27 EV71-specific human antibodies, of which four have neutralizing activity in in vitro experiments...
December 8, 2016: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929449/reviewing-the-history-of-pandemic-influenza-understanding-patterns-of-emergence-and-transmission
#4
REVIEW
Patrick R Saunders-Hastings, Daniel Krewski
For centuries, novel strains of influenza have emerged to produce human pandemics, causing widespread illness, death, and disruption. There have been four influenza pandemics in the past hundred years. During this time, globalization processes, alongside advances in medicine and epidemiology, have altered the way these pandemics are experienced. Drawing on international case studies, this paper provides a review of the impact of past influenza pandemics, while examining the evolution of our understanding of, and response to, these viruses...
December 6, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928938/sequence-and-structure-based-analysis-of-proteins-involved-in-mirna-biogenesis
#5
Chhaya Sharma, Debasisa Mohanty
miRNA biogenesis is a multistage process for generation of a mature miRNA and involves several different proteins. In this work, we have carried out sequence as well as structure based analysis for crucial proteins involved in miRNA biogenesis, namely, Dicer, Drosha, Argonaute (Ago) and Exportin-5 to understand evolution of these proteins in animal kingdom and also to identify key sequence and structural features which are determinants of their function. Our analysis reveals that in animals the miRNA biogenesis pathway first originated in molluscs...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928015/reassortment-between-swine-h3n2-and-2009-pandemic-h1n1-in-the-united-states-resulted-in-influenza-a-viruses-with-diverse-genetic-constellations-with-variable-virulence-in-pigs
#6
Daniela S Rajão, Rasna Walia, Brian Campbell, Phillip C Gauger, Alicia Janas-Martindale, Mary Lea Killian, Amy L Vincent
: Repeated spillovers of the H1N1 pandemic virus (H1N1pdm09) from humans to pigs resulted in substantial evolution of influenza A viruses infecting swine, contributing to the genetic and antigenic diversity of influenza A virus (IAV) currently circulating in swine. The reassortment with endemic swine viruses and maintenance of some of the H1N1pdm09 internal genes resulted in the circulation of different genomic constellations in pigs. Here, we performed a whole genome phylogenetic analysis of 496 IAV circulating in swine from 2009 to 2016 in the U...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928014/histidine-375-modulates-cd4-binding-in-hiv-1-crf01_ae-envelope-glycoproteins
#7
Daria Zoubchenok, Maxime Veillette, Jérémie Prévost, Eric Sanders-Buell, Kshitij Wagh, Bette Korber, Agnès L Chenine, Andrés Finzi
: The envelope glycoproteins (Env) from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mediate viral entry. The binding of the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein to CD4 triggers conformational changes in gp120 that allow high-affinity binding to its coreceptors. Contrary to all other Envs from the same phylogenetic group M, which possess a serine (S) at position 375, those from CRF01_AE strains possess a histidine (H) at this location. This residue is part of the Phe43 cavity where residue 43 of CD4 (a phenylalanine) engages with the gp120...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928012/emergence-of-a-viral-rna-polymerase-variant-during-gene-copy-number-amplification-promotes-rapid-evolution-of-vaccinia-virus
#8
Kelsey R Cone, Zev N Kronenberg, Mark Yandell, Nels C Elde
: Viruses are under relentless selective pressure from host immune defenses. To study how poxviruses adapt to innate immune detection pathways, we performed serial infections of vaccinia virus in primary human cells. Independent courses of experimental evolution with a recombinant strain lacking E3L revealed several high frequency point mutations in conserved poxvirus genes, suggesting important roles for essential poxvirus proteins in innate immune subversion. Two distinct mutations were identified in the viral RNA polymerase gene A24R, which seem to act through different mechanisms to increase virus replication...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927847/preserved-seminiferous-tubule-integrity-with-spermatogonial-survival-and-induction-of-sertoli-and-leydig-cell-maturation-after-long-term-organotypic-culture-of-prepubertal-human-testicular-tissue
#9
F de Michele, J Poels, L Weerens, C Petit, Z Evrard, J Ambroise, D Gruson, C Wyns
STUDY QUESTION: Is an organotypic culture system able to provide the appropriate testicular microenvironment for in-vitro maturation of human immature testicular tissue (ITT)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our organotypic culture system provided a microenvironment capable of preserving seminiferous tubule (ST) integrity and Leydig cell (LC) functionality and inducing Sertoli cell (SC) maturation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cryopreservation of human ITT is a well-established strategy to preserve fertility in prepubertal boys affected by cancer, with a view for obtaining sperm...
December 6, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926929/functional-and-evolutionary-analyses-identify-proteolysis-as-a-general-mechanism-for-nlrp1-inflammasome-activation
#10
Joseph Chavarría-Smith, Patrick S Mitchell, Alvin M Ho, Matthew D Daugherty, Russell E Vance
Inflammasomes are cytosolic multi-protein complexes that initiate immune responses to infection by recruiting and activating the Caspase-1 protease. Human NLRP1 was the first protein shown to form an inflammasome, but its physiological mechanism of activation remains unknown. Recently, specific variants of mouse and rat NLRP1 were found to be activated upon N-terminal cleavage by the anthrax lethal factor protease. However, agonists for other NLRP1 variants, including human NLRP1, are not known, and it remains unclear if they are also activated by proteolysis...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926928/an-interactome-centered-protein-discovery-approach-reveals-novel-components-involved-in-mitosome-function-and-homeostasis-in-giardia-lamblia
#11
Samuel Rout, Jon Paulin Zumthor, Elisabeth M Schraner, Carmen Faso, Adrian B Hehl
Protozoan parasites of the genus Giardia are highly prevalent globally, and infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans, with proliferation and pathology restricted to the small intestine. This narrow ecological specialization entailed extensive structural and functional adaptations during host-parasite co-evolution. An example is the streamlined mitosomal proteome with iron-sulphur protein maturation as the only biochemical pathway clearly associated with this organelle. Here, we applied techniques in microscopy and protein biochemistry to investigate the mitosomal membrane proteome in association to mitosome homeostasis...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925615/positive-selection-in-cathelicidin-host-defense-peptides-adaptation-to-exogenous-pathogens-or-endogenous-receptors
#12
S Zhu, B Gao
The cause of adaptive protein evolution includes internal (for example, co-evolution of ligand-receptor pairs) and external (for example, adaptation to different ecological niches) mechanisms. Host defense peptides (HDPs) are a class of vertebrate-specific cationic antimicrobial peptides evolving under positive selection. Besides their antibiotic activity, HDPs also exert an effect on multiple host immune cells, thus providing an ideal model to study selective agents driving their evolution. On the basis of a combination of computational and experimental approaches, we studied the evolution of LL-37-type HDPs in mammals, the mature peptide of cathelicidin CAP18 (herein termed CAP18-MP) and investigated the driving force behind the evolution...
December 7, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925305/extracellular-matrix-in-epitheliochorial-endotheliochorial-and-haemochorial-placentation-and-its-potential-application-for-regenerative-medicine
#13
REVIEW
Ara da Anunciação, A M Mess, D Orechio, B A Aguiar, P O Favaron, M A Miglino
A placenta is defined as structural approximation of maternal and foetal tissues to perform physiological exchange. Associated processes of differentiation and the establishment of its cells take place within the extracellular matrix (ECM) that provides a rich environment of collagens, fibronectins, cytokines and other components. Placental ECM is promising for tissue regeneration purposes, because it has immune tolerance capacities that may cause only minimal rejections of transplants with immunological differences between donor and recipient...
December 7, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925075/leadership-and-cooperation-25-years-of-mission-as-a-who-collaborating-center
#14
Isabel Amélia Costa Mendes, Carla Aparecida Arena Ventura, Maria Auxiliadora Trevizan, Leila Maria Marchi-Alves, Simone de Godoy, Juliana Gazzotti
Objective: analyse the evolution in the mission and vision of a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre in Nursing in Brazil in the context of the implementation of its terms of reference. Method: Historical-social documentary research with a qualitative approach. Results: During the 25 years of its activities as a Collaborating Centre, its mission to "promote and stimulate the development of nursing research in the region, with a focus on Latin America" triggered activities in the context of its terms of reference in four areas: Human Resource Formation for Research, Knowledge Production, Knowledge Dissemination, Encouragement of Exchange and Stimulus of Partnerships...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924811/insights-into-the-evolution-of-pathogenicity-of-escherichia-coli-from-genomic-analysis-of-intestinal-e-coli-of-marmota-himalayana-in-qinghai-tibet-plateau-of-china
#15
Shan Lu, Dong Jin, Shusheng Wu, Jing Yang, Ruiting Lan, Xiangning Bai, Sha Liu, Qiong Meng, Xuejiao Yuan, Juan Zhou, Ji Pu, Qiang Chen, Hang Dai, Yuanyuan Hu, Yanwen Xiong, Changyun Ye, Jianguo Xu
Escherichia coli is both of a widespread harmless gut commensal and a versatile pathogen of humans. Domestic animals are a well-known reservoir for pathogenic E. coli. However, studies of E. coli populations from wild animals that have been separated from human activities had been very limited. Here we obtained 580 isolates from intestinal contents of 116 wild Marmot Marmota himalayana from Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China, with five isolates per animal. We selected 125 (hereinafter referred to as strains) from the 580 isolates for genome sequencing, based on unique pulse field gel electrophoresis patterns and at least one isolate per animal...
December 7, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924271/amino-acid-residues-of-bitter-taste-receptor-tas2r16-that-determine-sensitivity-in-primates-to-%C3%AE-glycosides
#16
Hiroo Imai, Nami Suzuki-Hashido, Yoshiro Ishimaru, Takanobu Sakurai, Lijie Yin, Wenshi Pan, Masaji Ishiguro, Katsuyoshi Masuda, Keiko Abe, Takumi Misaka, Hirohisa Hirai
In mammals, bitter taste is mediated by TAS2Rs, which belong to the family of seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. Since TAS2Rs are directly involved in the interaction between mammals and their dietary sources, it is likely that these genes evolved to reflect species-specific diets during mammalian evolution. Here, we analyzed the amino acids responsible for the difference in sensitivities of TAS2R16s of various primates using a cultured cell expression system. We found that the sensitivity of TAS2R16 varied due to several amino acid residues...
2016: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924021/aagatlas-1-0-a-human-autoantigen-database
#17
Dan Wang, Liuhui Yang, Ping Zhang, Joshua LaBaer, Henning Hermjakob, Dong Li, Xiaobo Yu
Autoantibodies refer to antibodies that target self-antigens, which can play pivotal roles in maintaining homeostasis, distinguishing normal from tumor tissue and trigger autoimmune diseases. In the last three decades, tremendous efforts have been devoted to elucidate the generation, evolution and functions of autoantibodies, as well as their target autoantigens. However, reports of these countless previously identified autoantigens are randomly dispersed in the literature. Here, we constructed an AAgAtlas database 1...
October 19, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924001/histone-chaperone-activity-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-nrp1-is-blocked-by-cytochrome-c
#18
Katiuska González-Arzola, Antonio Díaz-Quintana, Francisco Rivero-Rodríguez, Adrián Velázquez-Campoy, Miguel A De la Rosa, Irene Díaz-Moreno
Higher-order plants and mammals use similar mechanisms to repair and tolerate oxidative DNA damage. Most studies on the DNA repair process have focused on yeast and mammals, in which histone chaperone-mediated nucleosome disassembly/reassembly is essential for DNA to be accessible to repair machinery. However, little is known about the specific role and modulation of histone chaperones in the context of DNA damage in plants. Here, the histone chaperone NRP1, which is closely related to human SET/TAF-Iβ, was found to exhibit nucleosome assembly activity in vitro and to accumulate in the chromatin of Arabidopsis thaliana after DNA breaks...
December 6, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923922/mechanisms-of-evolution-in-high-consequence-drug-resistance-plasmids
#19
Susu He, Michael Chandler, Alessandro M Varani, Alison B Hickman, John P Dekker, Fred Dyda
: The dissemination of resistance among bacteria has been facilitated by the fact that resistance genes are usually located on a diverse and evolving set of transmissible plasmids. However, the mechanisms generating diversity and enabling adaptation within highly successful resistance plasmids have remained obscure, despite their profound clinical significance. To understand these mechanisms, we have performed a detailed analysis of the mobilome (the entire mobile genetic element content) of a set of previously sequenced carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923877/poison-and-alarm-the-asian-hornet-vespa-velutina-uses-sting-venom-volatiles-as-alarm-pheromone
#20
Ya-Nan Cheng, Ping Wen, Shi-Hao Dong, Ken Tan, James C Nieh
In colonial organisms, alarm pheromones can provide a key fitness advantage by enhancing colony defense and warning of danger. Learning which species use alarm pheromone and the key compounds involved therefore enhances our understanding of how this important signal has evolved. However, our knowledge of alarm pheromones is more limited in the social wasps and hornets as compared to the social bees and ants. Vespa velutina is an economically important and widespread hornet predator that attacks humans and honey bees...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
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