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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166412/mir-195-inhibits-macrophages-pro-inflammatory-profile-and-impacts-the-crosstalk-with-smooth-muscle-cells
#1
Joao Paulo Bras, Andreia Machado Silva, George A Calin, Mario Adolfo Barbosa, Susana Gomes Santos, Maria Ines Almeida
Macrophages are a main component of atherosclerotic plaques. Recent studies suggest that pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages are pro-atherogenic while M2 macrophages promote plaque stability. Moreover, toll-like receptor signalling pathways are implicated in atherosclerotic plaque formation, evolution and regression. We propose microRNAs as key regulators of these processes. In this context, our goal is to promote inflammation resolution using miR-195 to reduce M1-like macrophage polarization and to evaluate the molecular mechanisms underlying such effect, as well as to explore the functional consequences for smooth muscle cell recruitment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166402/early-pleistocene-archaeological-occurrences-at-the-feiliang-site-and-the-archaeology-of-human-origins-in-the-nihewan-basin-north-china
#2
Shuwen Pei, Fei Xie, Chenglong Deng, Zhenxiu Jia, Xiaomin Wang, Ying Guan, Xiaoli Li, Dongdong Ma, Ignacio de la Torre
The Early Pleistocene archaeological evidence from the fluvio-lacustrine sequence of the Nihewan Basin (North China) offers an excellent opportunity to explore early human evolution and behavior in a temperate setting in East Asia, following the earliest 'Out of Africa'. Here we present the first comprehensive study of the Feiliang (FL) site, with emphasis on the archaeological sequence, site integrity, and stone artifact assemblages. Magnetostratigraphic dating results show that early humans occupied the site ca...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165679/a-two-state-model-of-tree-evolution-and-its-applications-to-alu-retrotransposition
#3
Niema Moshiri, Siavash Mirarab
Models of tree evolution have mostly focused on capturing the cladogenesis processes behind speciation. Processes that derive the evolution of genomic elements, such as repeats, are not necessarily captured by these existing models. In this paper, we design a model of tree evolution that we call the dual-birth model, and we show how it can be useful in studying the evolution of short Alu repeats found in the human genome in abundance. The dual-birth model extends the traditional birth- only model to have two rates of propagation, one for active nodes that propagate often, and another for inactive nodes, that with a lower rate, activate and start propagating...
November 20, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164140/phenotypic-and-genotypic-features-of-a-salmonella-heidelberg-strain-isolated-in-broilers-in-brazil-and-their-possible-association-to-antibiotics-and-short-chain-organic-acids-resistance-and-susceptibility
#4
Elizabeth Santin, Ricardo Mitsuo Hayashi, Jessica Caroline Wammes, Ricardo Gonzalez-Esquerra, Marcelo Falsarella Carazzolle, Caio César de Melo Freire, Paulo Sérgio Monzani, Anderson Ferreira da Cunha
Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg is a human pathogen also found in broilers. A strain (UFPR1) has been associated with field reports of resistance to short-chain organic acids (SCOA) in broilers in the South of Brazil, but was susceptible to a Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic added in feed in a related study. This work aimed to (i) report clinical symptoms caused by SH UFPR1 in broilers, (ii) study its susceptibility to some antibiotics in vitro, and (iii) SCOA in vivo; and (iv) relate these phenotypic observations with its genome characteristics...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164132/conserved-molecular-mechanism-of-tyra-dehydrogenase-substrate-specificity-underlying-alternative-tyrosine-biosynthetic-pathways-in-plants-and-microbes
#5
Craig A Schenck, Yusen Men, Hiroshi A Maeda
L-Tyrosine (Tyr) is an aromatic amino acid synthesized de novo in plants and microbes. In animals, Tyr must be obtained through their diet or synthesized from L-phenylalanine. In addition to protein synthesis, Tyr serves as the precursor of neurotransmitters (e.g., dopamine and epinephrine) in animals and of numerous plant natural products, which serve essential functions in both plants and humans (e.g., vitamin E and morphine). Tyr is synthesized via two alternative routes mediated by a TyrA family enzyme, prephenate, or arogenate dehydrogenase (PDH/TyrAp or ADH/TyrAa), typically found in microbes and plants, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163486/structure-and-diversity-of-the-rhesus-macaque-immunoglobulin-loci-through-multiple-de-novo-genome-assemblies
#6
Akshaya Ramesh, Sam Darko, Axin Hua, Glenn Overman, Amy Ransier, Joseph R Francica, Ashley Trama, Georgia D Tomaras, Barton F Haynes, Daniel C Douek, Thomas B Kepler
The rhesus macaque is a critically important animal model in biomedical research, most recently playing a key role in the development of vaccines against human immunodeficiency virus-1. Nevertheless, the immunoglobulin (Ig) loci of macaques are as yet incompletely determined and our understanding of differences between human and macaque humoral immunity remains deficient. We completed a high-coverage, high-quality whole genome sequencing and assembly project with a single rhesus macaque of Indian origin, and partial genome assemblies using genomic molecular targeting of the Ig loci in nine other rhesus macaques of Indian origin...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163435/evolutionary-analysis-of-hiv-1-pol-proteins-reveals-representative-residues-for-viral-subtype-differentiation
#7
Shohei Nagata, Junnosuke Imai, Gakuto Makino, Masaru Tomita, Akio Kanai
RNA viruses have been used as model systems to understand the patterns and processes of molecular evolution because they have high mutation rates and are genetically diverse. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), the etiological agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, is highly genetically diverse, and is classified into several groups and subtypes. However, it has been difficult to use its diverse sequences to establish the overall phylogenetic relationships of different strains or the trends in sequence conservation with the construction of phylogenetic trees...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163252/the-paradox-of-isochrony-in-the-evolution-of-human-rhythm
#8
Andrea Ravignani, Guy Madison
Isochrony is crucial to the rhythm of human music. Some neural, behavioral and anatomical traits underlying rhythm perception and production are shared with a broad range of species. These may either have a common evolutionary origin, or have evolved into similar traits under different evolutionary pressures. Other traits underlying rhythm are rare across species, only found in humans and few other animals. Isochrony, or stable periodicity, is common to most human music, but isochronous behaviors are also found in many species...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163217/different-principles-of-adp-ribose-mediated-activation-and-opposite-roles-of-the-nudt9-homology-domain-in-the-trpm2-orthologs-of-man-and-sea-anemone
#9
REVIEW
Frank Kühn, Cornelia Kühn, Andreas Lückhoff
A decisive element in the human cation channel TRPM2 is a region in its cytosolic C-terminus named NUDT9H because of its homology to the NUDT9 enzyme, a pyrophosphatase degrading ADP-ribose (ADPR). In hTRPM2, however, the NUDT9H domain has lost its enzymatic activity but serves as a binding domain for ADPR. As consequence of binding, gating of the channel is initiated. Since ADPR is produced after oxidative DNA damage, hTRPM2 mediates Ca(2+) influx in response to oxidative stress which may lead to cell death...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162908/human-canonical-cd157-bst1-is-an-alternatively-spliced-isoform-masking-a-previously-unidentified-primate-specific-exon-included-in-a-novel-transcript
#10
Enza Ferrero, Nicola Lo Buono, Simona Morone, Rossella Parrotta, Cecilia Mancini, Alfredo Brusco, Alice Giacomino, Stefania Augeri, Antonio Rosal-Vela, Sonia García-Rodríguez, Mercedes Zubiaur, Jaime Sancho, Alessandra Fiorio Pla, Ada Funaro
CD157/Bst1 is a dual-function receptor and β-NAD(+)-metabolizing ectoenzyme of the ADP-ribosyl cyclase family. Expressed in human peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes, CD157 interacts with extracellular matrix components and regulates leukocyte diapedesis via integrin-mediated signalling in inflammation. CD157 also regulates cell migration and is a marker of adverse prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer and pleural mesothelioma. One form of CD157 is known to date: the canonical sequence of 318 aa from a 9-exon transcript encoded by BST1 on human chromosome 4...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162694/an-endogenous-retroviral-envelope-syncytin-and-its-cognate-receptor-identified-in-the-viviparous-placental-mabuya-lizard
#11
Guillaume Cornelis, Mathis Funk, Cécile Vernochet, Francisca Leal, Oscar Alejandro Tarazona, Guillaume Meurice, Odile Heidmann, Anne Dupressoir, Aurélien Miralles, Martha Patricia Ramirez-Pinilla, Thierry Heidmann
Syncytins are envelope genes from endogenous retroviruses that have been captured during evolution for a function in placentation. They have been found in all placental mammals in which they have been searched, including marsupials. Placental structures are not restricted to mammals but also emerged in some other vertebrates, most frequently in lizards, such as the viviparous Mabuya Scincidae. Here, we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing of a Mabuya placenta transcriptome and screened for the presence of retroviral env genes with a full-length ORF...
November 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162629/we-re-on-a-road-to-nowhere-culture-and-adaptation-to-the-environment-are-driving-human-evolution-but-the-destination-of-this-journey-is-unpredictable
#12
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162141/more-than-meets-the-i-the-diverse-antiviral-and-cellular-functions-of-interferon-induced-transmembrane-proteins
#13
REVIEW
Guoli Shi, Olivier Schwartz, Alex A Compton
The first responders of human antiviral immunity are components of the intrinsic immune response that reside within each and every one of our cells. This cell-autonomous arsenal consists of nucleic acid sensors and antiviral effectors strategically placed by evolution to detect and restrict invading viruses. While some factors are present at baseline to allow for constant surveillance of the cell interior, others are upregulated by cytokines (such as interferons) that signal a viral infection underway in neighboring cells...
November 21, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161958/leukemia-inhibitory-factor-is-essential-for-the-self-renewal-of-embryonic-stem-cells-from-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-through-stat3-signaling
#14
Jing Wei, Zhenhua Fan, Zhuo Yang, Yujie Zhou, Fan Da, Linyan Zhou, Wenjing Tao, Deshou Wang
To date, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the self-renewal of embryonic stem (ES) cells from fish species. Here we report that the leukemia inhibitory factor (named as OnLif) from a teleost fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), is essential for the proliferation, survival and pluripotency maintenance of Nile tilapia ES cells (TES1) via activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3). This protein has 221 amino acid residues with similar sequence features to mammalian LIF...
November 22, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161957/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-a-marsupial-the-tasmanian-devil-sarcophilus-harrisii-insight-into-the-evolution-of-mammalian-pluripotency
#15
Prasanna Weeratunga, Arash Shahsavari, Dmitry A Ovchinnikov, Ernst Jurgen Wolvetang, Deanne Jeanette Whitworth
We demonstrate the generation of Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) induced pluripotent stem cells (DeviPSCs) from dermal fibroblasts by lentiviral delivery of human transcription factors. DeviPSCs display characteristic pluripotent stem cell colony morphology, with individual cells having a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio and alkaline phosphatase activity. DeviPSCs are leukemia inhibitory factor-dependent and have reactivated endogenous OCT4 (POU5F1), POU2 (POU5F3), SOX2, NANOG and DAX1 genes, retained a normal karyotype, and concurrently silenced exogenous human transgenes...
November 22, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161826/modeling-ebola-virus-disease-transmissions-with-reservoir-in-a-complex-virus-life-ecology
#16
Tsanou Berge, Samuel Bowong, Jean Lubuma, Martin Luther Mann Manyombe
We propose a new deterministic mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in a complex Ebola virus life ecology. Our model captures as much as possible the features and patterns of the disease evolution as a three cycle transmission process in the two ways below. Firstly it involves the synergy between the epizootic phase (during which the disease circulates periodically amongst non-human primates populations and decimates them), the enzootic phase (during which the disease always remains in fruit bats population) and the epidemic phase (during which the EVD threatens and decimates human populations)...
February 1, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161685/intergenotype-recombination-among-new-norovirus-gii-4-variants-in-the-complete-genome
#17
Jinfeng Xu, Tingjun Liu, Hua Wang, Hongxing Shen
GII.4 noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. A new variant of GII.4, the Sydney variant, has recently become more prevalent on a global scale. Intragenotype recombinations are widespread within the pandemic NoV GII.4 lineage, and are likely to be important forces driving the evolution and emergence of novel GII.4 viruses. In this study, we sought to examine the role that intergenotype recombination has played in the emergence of GII.4 Sydney 2012 variants. The results show that the GII...
November 22, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161434/designing-a-mutant-candida-uricase-with-improved-polymerization-state-and-enzymatic-activity
#18
Lei Tao, Dandan Li, Yonghong Li, Xinchang Shi, Junzhi Wang, Chunming Rao, Yingqi Zhang
As human uricase has been silenced during evolution, counterparts from other species become an alternative for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Candida uricase is a promising option among them, but its aggregation propensity remains a major obstacle to clinical use. In this study, we designed two mutations according to homology-modeled 3D structure of Candida uricase: Cys249Ser substitution and C-terminal Leu deletion. The wild-type uricase and three mutants containing either or both of the mutations were expressed in Escherichiacoli BL21 and validated by mass spectrometry...
November 17, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161401/the-evolution-of-airway-management-new-concepts-and-conflicts-with-traditional-practice
#19
A F McNarry, A Patel
In the last 25 yr, there have been several advances in the safe management of the airway. Videolaryngoscopes and supraglottic airways, now in routine use by new trainees in anaesthesia, have had their genesis in the recent past. The 4th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Difficult Airway Society published in 2011 a seminal report that has influenced airway management worldwide . Understanding how the report's recommendations were constructed and how clinical guidelines compliment rather than contradict them is important in understanding the tenets of safe airway management...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161110/biotechnological-applications-of-an-insect-specific-alphavirus
#20
Jesse H Erasmus, Scott C Weaver
The coupling of viral and arthropod host diversity, with evolving methods of virus discovery, has resulted in the identification and classification of a growing number of novel insect-specific viruses (ISVs) that appear to be evolutionarily related to many human pathogens but have either lost or have yet to gain the ability to replicate in vertebrates. The discovery of ISVs has raised many questions as to the origin and evolution of many human pathogenic viruses and points to the role that arthropods may play in this evolutionary process...
November 21, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
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