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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792826/fast-evolving-human-specific-neural-enhancers-are-associated-with-aging-related-diseases
#1
Han Chen, Chunyan Li, Zhicheng Zhou, Han Liang
The antagonistic pleiotropy theory hypothesizes that evolutionary adaptations maximizing the fitness in early age increase disease burden after reproduction. This theory remains largely untested at the molecular level. Here, we analyzed enhancer evolution in primates to investigate the relationships between aging-related diseases and enhancers acquired after the human-chimpanzee divergence. We report a 5-fold increased evolutionary rate of enhancers that are activated in neural tissues, leading to fixation of ∼100 human-specific enhancers potentially under adaptation...
May 23, 2018: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792781/is-bla-ctx-m-1-riding-the-same-plasmid-among-horses-in-sweden-and-france
#2
Agnese Lupo, Marisa Haenni, Estelle Saras, Joanna Gradin, Jean-Yves Madec, Stefan Börjesson
A predominance of the blaCTX-M-1 /IncHI1 plasmid combination in horses has been reported in Czech-Republic, Denmark, and The Netherlands. To clarify a possible specific plasmid epidemiology of blaCTX-M-1 in horses in a European perspective, a collection of 74 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli recovered from diseased horses in France and Sweden during the period 2009-2014 was investigated in respect of their genetic relatedness, plasmid content, and molecular features. Overall, 80% of E...
May 24, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791254/a-genome-wide-mirna-screen-identifies-regulators-of-tetraploid-cell-proliferation
#3
Marc A Vittoria, Elizabeth M Shenk, Kevin P O'Rourke, Amanda F Bolgioni, Sanghee Lim, Victoria Kacprzak, Ryan J Quinton, Neil J Ganem
Tetraploid cells, which are most commonly generated by errors in cell division, are genomically unstable and have been shown to promote tumorigenesis. Recent genomic studies have estimated that ∼40% of all solid tumors have undergone a genome-doubling event during their evolution, suggesting a significant role for tetraploidy in driving the development of human cancers. To safeguard against the deleterious effects of tetraploidy, non transformed cells that fail mitosis and become tetraploid activate both the Hippo and p53 tumor suppressor pathways to restrain further proliferation...
May 23, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790924/typhoidal-salmonella-serovars-ecological-opportunity-and-the-evolution-of-a-new-pathovar
#4
Hirotaka Hiyoshi, Connor R Tiffany, Denise N Bronner, Andreas J Bäumler
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are severe systemic infections caused by human-adapted typhoidal Salmonella serovars that are indistinguishable in their clinical presentation, but differ from human gastroenteritis caused by zoonotic non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars. Typhoidal Salmonella serovars evolved from ancestral gastrointestinal pathogens through genetic changes that supported a change in pathogen ecology. Typhoidal Salmonella serovars share virulence properties that were acquired through convergent evolution and therefore this group is not defined by the presence of shared virulence genes that are absent from non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars...
May 21, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790165/igg1-b-cell-immunity-predates-ige-responses-in-epicutaneous-sensitization-to-foods
#5
Rodrigo Jiménez-Saiz, Yosef Ellenbogen, Joshua Koenig, Melissa E Gordon, Tina D Walker, Domenico Rosace, Paul Spill, Kelly Bruton, Joshua Kong, Kristin Monteiro, Jianping Wen, Elaine I Tuomanen, Roland Kolbeck, Derek K Chu, Susan Waserman, Manel Jordana
BACKGROUND: The generation of IgE-mediated food allergy in humans is silent, and only diagnosed upon manifestation of clinical symptoms. While experimental models have been used to investigate some mechanisms of allergic sensitization, the generation of humoral immunity and memory remain to be elucidated. Here, we defined the evolution of allergen-specific B cell responses during epicutaneous sensitization to foods. METHODS: Wild-type and genetic knockout animals, and drug or antibody strategies for cell depletion and immunoglobulin signaling blockade were used to investigate epicutaneous sensitization and disease progression; we analyzed allergen-specific germinal centers and IgG1+ memory B cells by flow cytometry, evaluated humoral responses and determined clinical reactivity (anaphylaxis)...
May 22, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789784/canine-leishmaniasis-an-overview-of-the-current-status-and-strategies-for-control
#6
REVIEW
Raul Rio Ribeiro, Marilene Suzan Marques Michalick, Manoel Eduardo da Silva, Cristiano Cheim Peixoto Dos Santos, Frédéric Jean Georges Frézard, Sydnei Magno da Silva
Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a vector-borne disease caused by Leishmania infantum and is transmitted by female phlebotomine sand flies primarily between animals and secondarily to humans. The course of infection may be different from one individual dog to another, ranging from spontaneous cure to acute evolution that leads to death, if proper management and therapy are not adopted. A parasitological cure is rarely achieved and clinical recurrences in CanL are frequent. Vaccination associated with the use of topical insecticides is undoubtedly the most effective form of prevention and control of the disease...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789743/modelling-provides-clues-to-the-evolution-of-human-brain-size
#7
Richard McElreath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789565/the-wide-utility-of-rabbits-as-models-of-human-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Pedro J Esteves, Joana Abrantes, Hanna-Mari Baldauf, Lbachir BenMohamed, Yuxing Chen, Neil Christensen, Javier González-Gallego, Lorenzo Giacani, Jiafen Hu, Gilla Kaplan, Oliver T Keppler, Katherine L Knight, Xiang-Peng Kong, Dennis K Lanning, Jacques Le Pendu, Ana Lemos de Matos, Jia Liu, Shuying Liu, Ana M Lopes, Shan Lu, Sheila Lukehart, Yukari C Manabe, Fabiana Neves, Grant McFadden, Ruimin Pan, Xuwen Peng, Patricia de Sousa-Pereira, Ana Pinheiro, Masmudur Rahman, Natalie Ruvoën-Clouet, Selvakumar Subbian, Maria Jesús Tuñón, Wessel van der Loo, Michael Vaine, Laura E Via, Shixia Wang, Rose Mage
Studies using the European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus contributed to elucidating numerous fundamental aspects of antibody structure and diversification mechanisms and continue to be valuable for the development and testing of therapeutic humanized polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Additionally, during the last two decades, the use of the European rabbit as an animal model has been increasingly extended to many human diseases. This review documents the continuing wide utility of the rabbit as a reliable disease model for development of therapeutics and vaccines and studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying many human diseases...
May 22, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789488/superhydrophobic-natural-and-artificial-surfaces-a-structural-approach
#9
REVIEW
Roxana-Elena Avrămescu, Mihaela Violeta Ghica, Cristina Dinu-Pîrvu, Răzvan Prisada, Lăcrămioara Popa
Since ancient times humans observed animal and plants features and tried to adapt them according to their own needs. Biomimetics represents the foundation of many inventions from various fields: From transportation devices (helicopter, airplane, submarine) and flying techniques, to sports' wear industry (swimming suits, scuba diving gear, Velcro closure system), bullet proof vests made from Kevlar etc. It is true that nature provides numerous noteworthy models (shark skin, spider web, lotus leaves), referring both to the plant and animal kingdom...
May 22, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788292/biological-processes-modulating-longevity-across-primates-a-phylogenetic-genome-phenome-analysis
#10
Gerard Muntané, Xavier Farré, Juan Antonio Rodríguez, Cinta Pegueroles, David A Hughes, João Pedro de Magalhães, Toni Gabaldón, Arcadi Navarro
Aging is a complex process affecting different species and individuals in different ways. Comparing genetic variation across species with their aging phenotypes will help understanding the molecular basis of aging and longevity. Although most studies on aging have so far focused on short-lived model organisms, recent comparisons of genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic data across lineages with different lifespans are unveiling molecular signatures associated with longevity. Here, we examine the relationship between genomic variation and maximum lifespan (MLS) across primate species...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788236/a-novel-adeno-associated-virus-capsid-with-enhanced-neurotropism-corrects-a-lysosomal-transmembrane-enzyme-deficiency
#11
Julie Tordo, Claire O'Leary, André S L M Antunes, Nuria Palomar, Patrick Aldrin-Kirk, Mark Basche, Antonette Bennett, Zelpha D'Souza, Hélène Gleitz, Annie Godwin, Rebecca J Holley, Helen Parker, Ai Yin Liao, Paul Rouse, Amir Saam Youshani, Larbi Dridi, Carla Martins, Thierry Levade, Kevin B Stacey, Daniel M Davis, Adam Dyer, Nathalie Clément, Tomas Björklund, Robin R Ali, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna, Ahad A Rahim, Alexey Pshezhetsky, Simon N Waddington, R Michael Linden, Brian W Bigger, Els Henckaerts
Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are popular in vivo gene transfer vehicles. However, vector doses needed to achieve therapeutic effect are high and some target tissues in the central nervous system remain difficult to transduce. Gene therapy trials using AAV for the treatment of neurological disorders have seldom led to demonstrated clinical efficacy. Important contributing factors are low transduction rates and inefficient distribution of the vector. To overcome these hurdles, a variety of capsid engineering methods have been utilized to generate capsids with improved transduction properties...
May 16, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787903/flood-risk-d-evolution-disentangling-key-drivers-of-flood-risk-change-with-a-retro-model-experiment
#12
Andreas Paul Zischg, Patrick Hofer, Markus Mosimann, Veronika Röthlisberger, Jorge A Ramirez, Margreth Keiler, Rolf Weingartner
Flood risks are dynamically changing over time. Over decades and centuries, the main drivers for flood risk change are influenced either by perturbations or slow alterations in the natural environment or, more importantly, by socio-economic development and human interventions. However, changes in the natural and human environment are intertwined. Thus, the analysis of the main drivers for flood risk changes requires a disentangling of the individual risk components. Here, we present a method for isolating the individual effects of selected drivers of change and selected flood risk management options based on a model experiment...
May 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787866/handedness-dependent-functional-organizational-patterns-within-the-bilateral-vestibular-cortical-network-revealed-by-fmri-connectivity-based-parcellation
#13
V Kirsch, R Boegle, D Keeser, E Kierig, B Ertl-Wagner, T Brandt, M Dieterich
Current evidence points towards a vestibular cortex that involves a multisensory bilateral temporo-parietal-insular network with a handedness-dependent hemispheric lateralization. This study aimed to identify handedness-dependent organizational patterns of (lateralized and non-lateralized) functional subunits within the human vestibular cortex areas. 60 healthy volunteers (30 left-handed and 30 right-handed) were examined on a 3T MR scanner using resting state functional MRI (fMRI). The data was analyzed in four major steps using a functional connectivity based parcellation (fCBP) approach: (1) independent component analysis (ICA) on a whole brain level to identify different resting state networks (RSN); (2) creation of a vestibular informed mask from four whole brain ICs that included reference coordinates of the vestibular network extracted from meta-analyses of vestibular neuroimaging experiments; (3) Re-ICA confined to the vestibular informed mask; (4) cross-correlation of the activated voxels within the vestibular subunits (parcels) to each other (P-to-P) and to the whole-brain RSN (P-to-RSN)...
May 19, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787621/recent-evolution-of-the-human-skin-barrier
#14
REVIEW
Erin A Brettmann, Cristina de Guzman Strong
The skin is the first line of defense against the environment, with the epidermis as the outermost tissue providing much of the barrier function. Given its direct exposure to and encounters with the environment, the epidermis must evolve to provide an optimal barrier for the survival of an organism. Recent advances in genomics have identified a number of genes for the human skin barrier that have undergone evolutionary changes since humans diverged from chimpanzees. Here we highlight a selection of key and innovative genetic findings for skin barrier evolution in our divergence from our primate ancestors and among modern human populations...
May 22, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786551/three-dimensional-cell-culture-from-evolution-to-revolution
#15
REVIEW
Sharmin Alhaque, Michael Themis, Hassan Rashidi
Recent advances in the isolation of tissue-resident adult stem cells and the identification of inductive factors that efficiently direct differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells along specific lineages have facilitated the development of high-fidelity modelling of several tissues in vitro Many of the novel approaches have employed self-organizing three-dimensional (3D) culturing of organoids, which offer several advantages over conventional two-dimensional platforms. Organoid technologies hold great promise for modelling diseases and predicting the outcome of drug responses in vitro Here, we outline the historical background and some of the recent advances in the field of three-dimensional organoids...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785877/hepatitis-b-virus-lymphotropism-emerging-details-and-challenges
#16
Shivali S Joshi, Carla S Coffin
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is predominantly a hepatotropic virus but also infects cells of the lymphatic system. HBV genomes (DNA, messenger (m)RNA, covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA) and proteins have been found in extrahepatic sites such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow and cerebrospinal fluid. HBV entry into hepatocytes occurs by binding of the HBV preS1 surface protein to its specific receptor, the bile acid transporter, sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP)...
May 22, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784982/the-palaeoecological-context-of-the-oldowan-acheulean-in-southern-africa
#17
Michaela Ecker, James S Brink, Lloyd Rossouw, Michael Chazan, Liora K Horwitz, Julia A Lee-Thorp
The influence of climatic and environmental change on human evolution in the Pleistocene epoch is understood largely from extensive East African stable isotope records. These records show increasing proportions of C4 plants in the Early Pleistocene. We know far less about the expansion of C4 grasses at higher latitudes, which were also occupied by early Homo but are more marginal for C4 plants. Here we show that both C3 and C4 grasses and prolonged wetlands remained major components of Early Pleistocene environments in the central interior of southern Africa, based on enamel stable carbon and oxygen isotope data and associated faunal abundance and phytolith evidence from the site of Wonderwerk Cave...
May 21, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784978/genomes-of-all-known-members-of-a-plasmodium-subgenus-reveal-paths-to-virulent-human-malaria
#18
Thomas D Otto, Aude Gilabert, Thomas Crellen, Ulrike Böhme, Céline Arnathau, Mandy Sanders, Samuel O Oyola, Alain Prince Okouga, Larson Boundenga, Eric Willaume, Barthélémy Ngoubangoye, Nancy Diamella Moukodoum, Christophe Paupy, Patrick Durand, Virginie Rougeron, Benjamin Ollomo, François Renaud, Chris Newbold, Matthew Berriman, Franck Prugnolle
Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent agent of human malaria, shares a recent common ancestor with the gorilla parasite Plasmodium praefalciparum. Little is known about the other gorilla- and chimpanzee-infecting species in the same (Laverania) subgenus as P. falciparum, but none of them are capable of establishing repeated infection and transmission in humans. To elucidate underlying mechanisms and the evolutionary history of this subgenus, we have generated multiple genomes from all known Laverania species...
June 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784818/acoustic-evolution-of-old-italian-violins-from-amati-to-stradivari
#19
Hwan-Ching Tai, Yen-Ping Shen, Jer-Horng Lin, Dai-Ting Chung
The shape and design of the modern violin are largely influenced by two makers from Cremona, Italy: The instrument was invented by Andrea Amati and then improved by Antonio Stradivari. Although the construction methods of Amati and Stradivari have been carefully examined, the underlying acoustic qualities which contribute to their popularity are little understood. According to Geminiani, a Baroque violinist, the ideal violin tone should "rival the most perfect human voice." To investigate whether Amati and Stradivari violins produce voice-like features, we recorded the scales of 15 antique Italian violins as well as male and female singers...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784778/extant-fold-switching-proteins-are-widespread
#20
Lauren L Porter, Loren L Looger
A central tenet of biology is that globular proteins have a unique 3D structure under physiological conditions. Recent work has challenged this notion by demonstrating that some proteins switch folds, a process that involves remodeling of secondary structure in response to a few mutations (evolved fold switchers) or cellular stimuli (extant fold switchers). To date, extant fold switchers have been viewed as rare byproducts of evolution, but their frequency has been neither quantified nor estimated. By systematically and exhaustively searching the Protein Data Bank (PDB), we found ∼100 extant fold-switching proteins...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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