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High performance sport

Jayd Lukenchuk, Laura A Sims, Jason J Shin
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the degree of variability in outcomes assessed after surgery for anterior shoulder instability in recent high-impact literature. METHODS: Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, an extensive review of the literature during a 5-year period from January 2011 through December 2015 was performed across 6 orthopaedic journals with high impact factors to identify all studies investigating outcomes after anterior shoulder instability...
October 18, 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Aaron Manzanares, Ruperto Menayo, Francisco Segado
In a sport conditioned by natural elements such as sailing, visual perception is a key factor for the performance. The research has shown that the visual behaviour of athletes at different skill levels varies, which may cause differences in the performance achieved. The aim of this research was to examine the visual behaviour of sailors from different ranking positions at the start of a race in a simulated situation. Twenty junior sailors (N=10 top and N=10 bottom ranking) participated in the study. The visual behaviour was recorded at the start of a sailing simulation...
October 21, 2016: Motor Control
Rosario Scarfone, Antonio Ammendolia
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological demands and technical-tactical performances of field players in Italian elite beach soccer team. METHODS: Three official matches of the Italian First Division beach soccer tournament were analyzed to evaluate the heart rate (HR) and time-motion analysis considering: standing, walking, jogging, running and sprinting, and technical-tactical aspects. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine the effects of time on the physiological measures and time motion analysis...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Yaira Barranco-Ruiz, Antonio Martínez-Amat, Cristina Casals, Jerónimo Aragón-Vela, Silvia Rosillo, Silvana N Gomes, Ana Rivas-García, Rafael Guisado, Jesús R Huertas
The effect of exercise-induced oxidative stress on health and aging is not clearly explained. This study examined the effects of habitual sport practice, age, and submaximal exercise on the blood markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, and antioxidant response. Seventy-two healthy men were grouped by their habitual sport practice: inactive (<1.5 h/week), recreational (3-8 h/week), and trained athletes (>8 h/week), and further divided by age: young (18-25 years), adult (40-55 years), and senior (>55 years)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Toshinori Sakai, Fumitake Tezuka, Kazuta Yamashita, Yoichiro Takata, Kosaku Higashino, Akihiro Nagamachi, Koichi Sairyo
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data. OBJECTIVE: To investigate recent outcomes of conservative treatment for bony healing in pediatric patients with lumbar spondylolysis (LS) and to identify the problems that need to be resolved. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Several diagnostic and therapeutic techniques for LS have been developed recently, leading to better outcomes for bony healing. METHODS: Overall, 63 consecutive pediatric patients (53 boys and 10 girls) with LS (average age: 13...
October 17, 2016: Spine
Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, Samuel L Buckner, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke
The principle of progressive overload must be adhered to for individuals to continually increase muscle size with resistance training. While the majority of trained individuals adhere to this principle by increasing the number of sets performed per exercise session, this does not appear to be an effective method for increasing muscle size once a given threshold is surpassed. Opposite the numerous studies examining differences in training loads and sets of exercise performed, a few studies have assessed the importance of training frequency with respect to muscle growth, none of which have tested very high frequencies of training (e...
October 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
L Maïmoun, F Paris, O Coste, C Sultan
Participation in recreational physical activity is widely acknowledged to provide significant health benefits. Conversely, intense training imposes several constraints, such as intermittent or chronic metabolic and psychogenic training stressors and maintenance of very low body fat to maximize performance. Adolescent and adult athletic women are therefore at risk of overtraining and/or poor dietary intake, which may have several consequences for endocrine function particularly on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis...
October 14, 2016: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
Eric W Djimeu, Annette N Brown
BACKGROUND: Seven new impact evaluations of pilot programs for increasing the demand for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) provide evidence of what works and what does not. The study findings suggest that financial compensation designed to relieve the opportunity or transportation costs from undergoing the procedure can increase the uptake of VMMC. There is also evidence that programs using peer influence can be effective, although so far only sports-based programs demonstrate a strong effect...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Myosotis Massidda, Valeria Bachis, Laura Corrias, Francesco Piras, Marco Scorcu, Claudia Culigioni, Daniele Masala, Carla M Calò
BACKGROUND: The ACTN3 gene may influence performance in team sports, in which sprint action and high-speed movements, regulated by the anaerobic energy system, are crucial to the ultimate success of a match. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism and elite team sport athletic status in Italian male athletes. METHODS: We compared the genotype and allele frequency of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism between team sport athletes (n = 75), endurance athletes (n = 40), sprint/power athletes (n = 64), and non-athletic healthy controls (n = 192) from Italy...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
M Schapschröer, S Lemez, J Baker, J Schorer
BACKGROUND: Many researchers have considered the impact of physical exercise on perceptual-cognitive performance. There have also been a substantial number of studies that have examined how perceptual-cognitive skills differ between elite athletes and non-athletes. However, the knowledge on how physical exercise interacts with perceptual-cognitive skill is limited. This systematic review aims to provide detailed information on how athletes' perceptual-cognitive performance is influenced by acute physical exercise load and whether these effects differ between elite athletes and lesser skilled groups...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Thomas Trojian, Pina Violano, Matthew Hall, Charles Duncan
BACKGROUND: Connecticut (CT) passed its original sport-related concussion (SRC) law (PA 10-62) in 2010. The law requires that a health-care professional evaluate high school athletes with concussion symptoms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two level 1 Trauma Center Emergency Department (ED) records for SRC before and after the Connecticut Public Act (CT PA) 10-62 to determine if the law had an effect on the presentation to the ED of SRCs. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of two level 1 Trauma Center Emergency Departments database was performed...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
A Rodríguez-Seijo, A Cachada, A Gavina, A C Duarte, F A Vega, M L Andrade, R Pereira
Soil pollution at firing ranges is an issue of growing importance, due to the accumulation in soils of contaminants derived from ammunition and clay targets. The concentration of Pb and PAHs was determined in five soils of an abandoned shooting range in Galicia (northwest Spain), and an ecotoxicological characterization was performed in order to obtain an assessment of risks. Therefore, the retention capacity of soils was assessed using test organisms of different trophic levels, and the role of soils as habitat for soil invertebrates was assessed by reproduction tests and bioaccumulation assays with earthworms...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Salzitsa Anastasova, Blair Crewther, Pawel Bembnowicz, Vincenzo Curto, Henry Md Ip, Bruno Rosa, Guang-Zhong Yang
In sport, exercise and healthcare settings, there is a need for continuous, non-invasive monitoring of biomarkers to assess human performance, health and wellbeing. Here we report the development of a flexible microfluidic platform with fully integrated sensing for on-body testing of human sweat. The system can simultaneously and selectively measure metabolite (e.g. lactate) and electrolytes (e.g. pH, sodium) together with temperature sensing for internal calibration. The construction of the platform is designed such that continuous flow of sweat can pass through an array of flexible microneedle type of sensors (50µm diameter) incorporated in a microfluidic channel...
September 21, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Tim J Gabbett, Rod Whiteley
We have observed that in professional sporting organisations the staff responsible for physical preparation and medical care typically practice in relative isolation and display tension in regards their attitudes toward training load prescription (much more, and much less training respectively). Recent evidence shows that relatively high chronic training loads, when they are appropriately reached, are associated with reduced injury risk and better performance. Understanding this link between performance and training loads removes this tension, but requires a better understanding of the relationship between the acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR), and it's association with performance and injury...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Araceli Boraita, Maria-Eugenia Heras, Francisco Morales, Manuel Marina-Breysse, Alicia Canda, Manuel Rabadan, Maria-Isabel Barriopedro, Amai Varela, Alejandro de la Rosa, José Tuñón
BACKGROUND: There is limited information regarding the aortic root upper physiological limits in all planes in elite athletes according to static and dynamic cardiovascular demands and sex. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 3281 healthy elite athletes (2039 men and 1242 women) aged 23.1±5.7 years, with body surface area of 1.9±0.2 m(2) and 8.9±4.9 years and 19.2±9.6 hours/week of training. Maximum end-diastolic aortic root diameters were measured in the parasternal long axis by 2-dimensional echocardiography...
October 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Yaira Barranco-Ruiz, Jeronimo Aragón-Vela, Cristina Casals, Antonio Martínez-Amat, Rafael A Casuso, Jesus R Huertas
OBJECTIVE: Controlling antioxidant supplementation in athletes involved in studies related to oxidative stress and muscle damage is the key to ensure results. The aim of this study was to confirm through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis whether well-trained individuals lied during a personal interview when asked if they were taking supplements with antioxidants, and how this could affect oxidative stress, muscle damage, and antioxidant response. METHODS: A total of 94 men, well trained in endurance sports, volunteered in this study...
July 28, 2016: Nutrition
Oui Sik Yoo, Yong Seuk Lee, Myung Chul Lee, Jae Hong Park, Jae Won Kim, Doo Hoon Sun
BACKGROUND: After open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO), the proximal fragment resembles the anatomy of the proximal tibia that is aligned in the anterior-posterior direction and the distal fragment resembles the anatomy of the mid shaft that is aligned in the proximal-distal direction. In addition, the medial portion of the proximal fragment becomes aligned medially and the medial portion of the distal fragment, laterally, depending on the magnitude of the posterior opening gap. Therefore, there would be a mismatch between the post-correction bony surface and the previous pre-contoured plate geometry...
October 10, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Bădicu Georgian, Balint Lorand
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to present a methodology based on a questionnaire focused on social health, our study aims at highlighting, in a declarative and comparative manner, the development of social relationships between individuals, more or less for both adults who perform leisure sports activities and for those who do not practice. METHODS: The study was conducted between October 2012, March 2013 on a sample of 500 adults, who responded to a survey questionnaire, of whom 318 individuals perform leisure sports activities and 182 do not perform this kind of activities...
2016: SpringerPlus
Michael J Duncan, Neil D Clarke, Martin Cox, Mike Smith
In many sport and exercise situations, cognitive performance is required under conditions of high physiological load and high cognitive anxiety. However, few studies have assessed all these components in situ. The current study sought to address this issue. Fourteen adults (9 males, 5 females) completed 2 incremental exercise trials (perceived competition or perceived practice) in a counterbalanced order. Cognitive performance, via a test of visual discrimination, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), blood lactate (Bla), and anxiety scores, was recorded at rest, 70% [Formula: see text] and 90% [Formula: see text]...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Michelle E Costanzo, John W VanMeter, Christopher M Janelle, Allen Braun, Matthew W Miller, Jessica Oldham, Bartlett A H Russell, Bradley D Hatfield
Skilled individuals demonstrate a spatially localized or relatively lower response in brain activity characterized as neural efficiency when performing within their domain of expertise. Elite athletes are experts in their chosen sport and thus must be not only adept in the motor domain but must be resilient to performing under the stress of high-level competition. Such stability of performance suggests this population processes emotion and mental stress in an adaptive and efficient manner. This study sought to determine if athletes with a history of successful performance under circumstances of mental stress demonstrate neural efficiency during affective challenges compared to age-matched controls...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
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