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High performance sport

Enda F Whyte, Chris Richter, Siobhan O'Connor, Kieran A Moran
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries frequently occur during side cutting maneuvers when fatigued or reacting to the sporting environment. Trunk and hip biomechanics are proposed to influence ACL loading during these activities. However, the effects of fatigue and unanticipation on the biomechanics of the kinetic chain may be limited by traditional discrete point analysis. We recruited twenty-eight male, varsity, Gaelic footballers (21.7±2.2 years; 178.7±14.6m; 81.8±11.4kg) to perform anticipated and unanticipated side cutting maneuvers pre- and post- a high intensity, intermittent exercise protocol (HIIP)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Kurt P Spindler, Laura J Huston, Kevin M Chagin, Michael W Kattan, Emily K Reinke, Annunziato Amendola, Jack T Andrish, Robert H Brophy, Charles L Cox, Warren R Dunn, David C Flanigan, Morgan H Jones, Christopher C Kaeding, Robert A Magnussen, Robert G Marx, Matthew J Matava, Eric C McCarty, Richard D Parker, Angela D Pedroza, Armando F Vidal, Michelle L Wolcott, Brian R Wolf, Rick W Wright
BACKGROUND: The long-term prognosis and risk factors for quality of life and disability after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remain unknown. Hypothesis/Purpose: Our objective was to identify patient-reported outcomes and patient-specific risk factors from a large prospective cohort at a minimum 10-year follow-up after ACL reconstruction. We hypothesized that meniscus and articular cartilage injuries, revision ACL reconstruction, subsequent knee surgery, and certain demographic characteristics would be significant risk factors for inferior outcomes at 10 years...
March 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Derek Kellar, Sharlene Newman, Franco Pestilli, Hu Cheng, Nicholas L Port
Objectives: Though sub-concussive impacts are common during contact sports, there is little consensus whether repeat blows affect brain function. Using a "lifetime exposure" rather than acute exposure approach, we examined oculomotor performance and brain activation among collegiate football players and two control groups. Our analysis examined whether there are group differences in eye movement behavioral performance and in brain activation during smooth pursuit. Methods: Data from 21 off-season Division I football "starters" were compared with a) 19 collegiate cross-country runners, and b) 11 non-athlete college students who were SES matched to the football player group (total N  = 51)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Naser Naser, Ajmol Ali, Paul Macadam
Futsal, the 5-a-side version of soccer (i.e. 1 goalkeeper and 4 outfield players), was introduced in 1930 and continues to grow in popularity around the world. Competitive games comprise of two 20-min periods of high-intensity and intermittent activities requiring substantial physical, tactical, and technical efforts from the players. A greater understanding of the physical and skill requirements will aid the development of futsal and enable practitioners to undertake appropriate training regimes for the demands of the sport...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Ronald J Maughan, Louise M Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M Phillips, Eric S Rawson, Neil P Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Lucas J C van Loon, Susan M Shirreffs, Lawrence L Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M Ali, Richard Gm Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis P Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, Lars Engebretsen
Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including (1) the management of micronutrient deficiencies, (2) supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and (3) provision of direct benefits to performance or (4) indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Joseph M Stonecypher, Lindsey C Blom, James E Johnson, Jocelyn H Bolin, Robert C Hilliard
Tripartite efficacy refers to the beliefs of the individuals within a dyad regarding personal abilities (self-efficacy), the partner's abilities (other-efficacy), or relation-inferred self-efficacy. This efficacy model has recently gained popularity in sports research (Jackson, Whipp, & Beauchamp, 2013), although there has not been any longitudinal research on efficacy beliefs and performance within this complex intra-dyad tripartite efficacy model. In a case study, we examined six individual players on a high school basketball team to explore any longitudinal changes in these tripartite efficacy beliefs through a season of play...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Christopher A Abeare, Isabelle Messa, Brandon G Zuccato, Bradley Merker, Laszlo Erdodi
Importance: Estimated base rates of invalid performance on baseline testing (base rates of failure) for the management of sport-related concussion range from 6.1% to 40.0%, depending on the validity indicator used. The instability of this key measure represents a challenge in the clinical interpretation of test results that could undermine the utility of baseline testing. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of invalid performance on baseline testing and to assess whether the prevalence varies as a function of age and validity indicator...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Zaira S Chaudhry, Steven M Raikin, Marc I Harwood, Meghan E Bishop, Michael G Ciccotti, Sommer Hammoud
BACKGROUND: Although most anterior tibial stress fractures heal with nonoperative treatment, some may require surgical management. To our knowledge, no systematic review has been conducted regarding surgical treatment strategies for the management of chronic anterior tibial stress fractures from which general conclusions can be drawn regarding optimal treatment in high-performance athletes. PURPOSE: This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the surgical outcomes of anterior tibial stress fractures in high-performance athletes...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Steven H Doeven, Michel S Brink, Silke J Kosse, Koen A P M Lemmink
Background: Insufficient postmatch recovery in elite players may cause an increased risk of injuries, illnesses and non-functional over-reaching. Objective: To evaluate postmatch recovery time courses of physical performance and biochemical markers in team ball sport players. Study design: Systematic review. Data sources: PubMed and Web of Science. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: This systematic review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Kazunori Yoh, Hiroki Nishikawa, Hirayuki Enomoto, Noriko Ishii, Yoshinori Iwata, Akio Ishii, Yukihisa Yuri, Yuho Miyamoto, Kunihiro Hasegawa, Chikage Nakano, Ryo Takata, Takashi Nishimura, Nobuhiro Aizawa, Yoshiyuki Sakai, Naoto Ikeda, Tomoyuki Takashima, Hiroko Iijima, Shuhei Nishiguchi
Introduction and purpose: Patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) have long been known to have high rates of depression. Depression in patients with PC can be linked to sleep disturbance. The American College of Sports Medicine notes that physical exercise is safe for most patients with cancer and physical inactivity should be avoided. However, clinical impacts of exercise interventions (EIs) on patients with PC have been poorly investigated. We aim to prospectively examine the effect of EIs on sleep disturbance in patients with PC using actigraphy, which is an objective measurement of motor activity and sleep...
2018: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
Martin K Erikstad, Rune Høigaard, Bjørn Tore Johansen, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala, Tommy Haugen
Childhood sport participation is argued to be important to understand differences in self-regulation and performance level in adolescence. This study sought to investigate if football-specific activities in childhood (6-12 years of age) is related to self-regulatory skills and national under 14- and 15-team selection in Norwegian elite youth football. Data of practice histories and self-regulatory skills of 515 youth football players selected at Norwegian regional level were collected and further analysed using multilevel analyses...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Aleksandra Żebrowska, Barbara Hall, Aleksandra Kochańska-Dziurowicz, Grażyna Janikowska
BACKGROUND: An integral part of the treatment of diabetes is physical activity. Scientific reports have shown the beneficial effects of hypoxia and exercise on cardiovascular and metabolic variables in patients with diabetes. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of normobaric hypoxia and exercise on the serum concentrations of proangiogenic factors and glycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 28 adults (aged 30...
February 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
J M Gómez-Canedo
Tibialis anterior tendon rupture is a relatively rare injury, with diverse etiologies, that can cause significant deficits in the functionality of the ankle. These injuries are sometimes diagnosed too late, being in many occasions the alteration in walking the symptom that makes the patient go to the doctor. The six weeks will mark the limit between acute and chronic injury, requiring different therapeutic approaches, along with other parameters such as age, functional demand or concomitant pathologies. OBJECTIVE: To present two cases of acute rupture, with different etiology, the surgical technique used and the final results...
September 2017: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
Iris Veen, D Killian, L Vlaminck, J C M Vernooij, W Back
BACKGROUND: Debate surrounds the use of high rein tension for obtaining different head and neck positions in the training of sport horses on account of possible welfare issues. OBJECTIVES: To compare auxiliary rein tension in two methods for obtaining a standardized head and neck position on a hard and a soft surface; Draw Reins and Concord Leader. STUDY DESIGN: Intervention study. METHODS: Left and right rein tensions were measured in 11 base-level trained client-owned sport horses (mean age ± standard deviation: 10 ± 3...
March 8, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Roland Sieghartsleitner, Claudia Zuber, Marc Zibung, Achim Conzelmann
Characteristics of learning activities in early sport participation play a key role in the development of the sporting talent. Therefore, pathways of specialisation or diversification/sampling are as well debated as the implementation of practice- or play-oriented activities. The related issues are currently perceived as a two-dimensional construct of domain specificity and performance orientation . In this context, it has been shown that early specialisation, with experiences in practice and play, has led to Swiss junior national team football players reaching higher success levels as adults...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Derrick D Brown
Vegetarianism provides a catchall term for a variety of diets that exclude the consumption of some or all animal products. Contrary to popular claims, appropriately designed and managed vegetarian diets contain foods nutritionally sufficient for health, well-being, and physical performance. Vegetarian dancers can meet their protein needs from primarily or exclusively (vegan) plant-based sources when a variety of these foods are consumed daily and energy intake is adequate. However, the quality and timing of dietary intake is of key importance to meet the physical demands typical of high intensity, intermittent types of dance styles...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Dance Medicine & Science
Melissa A Christino, Frances A Tepolt, Dai Sugimoto, Lyle J Micheli, Mininder S Kocher
BACKGROUND: Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in pediatric patients has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the demographics, technique, and results of ACL revision surgery in children and adolescents. METHODS: This was a retrospective case series with outcomes assessment of patients 18 years old and younger who underwent revision ACL surgery over a 16-year period at a single institution. Medical records were reviewed for demographics, clinical and operative data, and patients were contacted for outcomes at a minimum of 1 year after revision surgery...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
M Uldahl, H M Clayton
BACKGROUND: Information is needed to guide sport administrators in formulating rules for equipment use in competitions. OBJECTIVES: To seek associations between spurs, bits, nosebands and whips with injuries in horses during competitions in four equestrian sports. STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional study. METHODS: Post-competition evaluations were performed in 3,143 horse/rider combinations competing in Danish Equestrian Federation competitions in dressage, show jumping, eventing and endurance by trained evaluators who recorded the presence and type of spurs, bits, nosebands, and whips...
March 4, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Amanda J Schroeder, Yehia H Bedeir, Adam P Schumaier, Vishal S Desai, Brian M Grawe
PURPOSE: To determine if cyst management is necessary in the setting of SLAP lesions with concomitant paralabral ganglion cysts. METHODS: We performed a systematic review according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, including all studies that met inclusion criteria from January 1975 to July 2015. We included patients with a SLAP II-VII lesion and a concomitant paralabral ganglion cyst who underwent arthroscopic labral repair with or without cyst decompression...
February 28, 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Jaime Alcántara-Durán, David Moreno-González, Miriam Beneito-Cambra, Juan F García-Reyes
In this work, a sensitive nanoflow liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry screening method has been developed for the determination of multiclass drugs of abuse and sport drugs in human urine. 81 drugs belonging to different multiclass pharmaceuticals were targeted. The method is based on the use of a nanoLC column (75 µm × 150 mm, 3 µm particle size and 100 Å pore) with the nanospray emitter tip integrated so that dead volumes are significantly minimized. Data acquisition method included both full-scan and all ion fragmentation experiments using an Orbitrap analyser (Q-Exactive) operated in the positive ionization mode...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
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