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Peroxidase proliferator activator receptor

Shu-Fang Xia, Guo-Wei Le, Peng Wang, Yu-Yu Qiu, Yu-Yu Jiang, Xue Tang
Myricetin is an effective antioxidant in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the regressive effect of myricetin on pre-existing hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet or a HFD for 12 weeks and then half of the mice were treated with myricetin (0.12% in the diet, w/w) while on their respective diets for further 12 weeks. Myricetin treatment significantly alleviated HFD-induced steatosis, decreased hepatic lipid accumulation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels, and increased antioxidative enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities...
December 11, 2016: Nutrients
Eunjin Lim, Ji Ye Lim, Eunju Kim, Yoo-Sun Kim, Jae-Ho Shin, Pu Reum Seok, Sangwon Jung, Sang-Ho Yoo, Yuri Kim
Type 2 diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide. Xylobiose (XB) consists of two molecules of d-xylose and is a major disaccharide in xylooligosaccharides that are used as prebiotics. We hypothesized that XB could regulate diabetes-related metabolic and genetic changes via microRNA expression in db/db mice. For six weeks, C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice received 5% XB as part of the total sucrose content of their diet. XB supplementation improved glucose tolerance with reduced levels of OGTT AUC, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, and HOMA-IR...
December 5, 2016: Nutrients
Chia-Ter Chao, Jenq-Wen Huang, Chih-Kang Chiang, Yen-Ching Chen, Cheng-Chung Fang, Fu-Chang Hu, Chen-Chih Chang, Chung-Jen Yen
BACKGROUND: Increased oxidative stress significantly modifies the outcome of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and is counteracted by anti-oxidative capacity. However, whether anti-oxidant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence the outcome of ESRD individuals with or without DM has not been tested before. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled multi-center ESRD patients of Han Chinese origin betwen 2002 and 2003, recording their anti-oxidant (superoxide dismutase [SOD2], glutathione peroxidase [GPX1]) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) genotyping results, and stratified based on DM...
December 7, 2016: Nephrology
Guo-Min Zhang, Ming-Tian Deng, Yan-Li Zhang, Yi-Xuan Fan, Yong-Jie Wan, Hai-Tao Nie, Zi-Yu Wang, Feng Wang, Zhi-Hai Lei
During goat follicular development, abnormal expression of peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) in granulosa cells (GCs) may contribute to follicular atresia with unknown regulatory mechanisms. In this study, we investigate the effect of ectopic expression or interference of PGC-1α on cell apoptosis of goat first passage granulosa cells (FGCs) in vitro. The results indicate that PGC-1α silencing by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in goat FGCs significantly reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number (P < 0...
October 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Jun-Xian Wang, Cheng Zhang, Lin Fu, Da-Gang Zhang, Bi-Wei Wang, Zhi-Hui Zhang, Yuan-Hua Chen, Yan Lu, Xi Chen, De-Xiang Xu
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of rosiglitazone (RSG), a synthetic PPAR-γ agonist, on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver injury. Male CD-1 mice were injected with APAP (300mg/kg). Some mice were pretreated with RSG (20mg/kg) 48, 24 and 1h before APAP injection. As expected, RSG pretreatment alleviated APAP-induced acute liver injury...
January 4, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Saïd Nemmiche
Changes in the intracellular thiol-disulfide balance are considered major determinants in the redox status/signalling of the cell. Cellular signalling is very sensitive to both exogenous and intracellular redox status and respond to many exogenous pro-oxidative or oxidative stresses. Redox status has dual effects on upstream signalling systems and downstream transcription factors. Redox signalling pathways use ROS to transfer signals from different sources to the nucleus to regulate such functions as growth, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis...
November 1, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Bonglee Kim, Moon-Jea Woo, Chul-Soo Park, Sang-Hun Lee, Jin-Soo Kim, Boim Kim, Seho An, Sung-Hoon Kim
Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (HDT) was known to have anti-fatigue, anti-diabetes, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. In the present study, the anti-fatty liver mechanism of HDT was elucidated in oleic acid (OA)-treated Hep G2 cells and acute hyperlipidemia mouse model using Triton WR-1339. Here, HDT activated p-AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), proliferator activated receptor-α, carnitine palmitoyltransferase and also inhibited the expression of lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis proteins, such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, SREBP-2, and fatty acid synthase in OA-treated Hep G2 cells...
October 20, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Yong-Chao Ma, Zhi-Xin Wang, Shao-Ju Jin, Yan-Xin Zhang, Guo-Qiang Hu, Dong-Tao Cui, Jiang-Shuan Wang, Min Wang, Fu-Qing Wang, Zhi-Jun Zhao
Both tyrosine kinase and topoisomerase II (TopII) are important anticancer targets, and their respective inhibitors are widely used in cancer therapy. However, some combinations of anticancer drugs could exhibit mutually antagonistic actions and drug resistance, which further limit their therapeutic efficacy. Here, we report that HMNE3, a novel bis-fluoroquinolone chalcone-like derivative that targets both tyrosine kinase and TopII, induces tumor cell proliferation and growth inhibition. The viabilities of 6 different cancer cell lines treated with a range of HMNE3 doses were detected using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay...
2016: PloS One
Ruijuan Zhang, Yan Yu, Senke Hu, Jinghua Zhang, Haixia Yang, Bei Han, Yue Cheng, Xiaoqin Luo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined by a nonalcohol relevant pathological accumulation of fat in the liver. Previous studies have shown that sesamin exerts antioxidant effects and improves lipid metabolism of the fatty liver. In this study, we hypothesized that sesamin improves lipid homeostasis of Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) by regulating the expression of genes related to de novo lipogenesis and β-oxidation. We induced NAFLD in rats with HFD and examined the effect of sesamin in vivo...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Augustine Arukwe, Camilla Catarci Carteny, Trine Eggen
There is limited knowledge on the toxicological, physiological, and molecular effects attributed to organophosphate (OP) compounds currently used as flame retardants or additives in consumer products. This study investigated the effects on oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in juvenile Atlantic salmon liver and brain samples after exposure to two OP compounds, tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP). In this study, groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon were exposed using a semistatic experimental protocol over a 7-d period to 3 different concentrations (0...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Zeping Zhao, Matthew Barcus, Jonggun Kim, Krystal L Lum, Courtney Mills, Xin Gen Lei
BACKGROUND: Prolonged high intakes of dietary selenium have been shown to induce gestational diabetes in rats and hyperinsulinemia in pigs. OBJECTIVE: Two experiments were conducted to explore metabolic and molecular mechanisms for the diabetogenic potential of high dietary selenium intakes in pigs. METHODS: In Expt. 1, 16 Yorkshire-Landrace-Hampshire crossbred pigs (3 wk old, body weight = 7.5 ± 0.81 kg, 50% males and 50% females) were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0...
September 2016: Journal of Nutrition
M Masouminia, S Samadzadeh, A S Mendoza, B A French, B Tillman, S W French
There are many homeostatic mechanisms for coping with stress conditions in cells, including autophagy. In many studies autophagy, as an intracellular pathway which degrades misfolded and damaged protein, and Mallory-Denk Body (MDB) formation have been shown to be protective mechanisms against stress such as alcoholic hepatitis. Alcohol has a significant role in alteration of lipid homeostasis, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) and peroxidase proliferator-activated receptors through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent mechanism...
August 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Alexis Werion, Virginie Joris, Michael Hepp, Lida Papasokrati, Lancelot Marique, Christine de Ville de Goyet, Victoria Van Regemorter, Michel Mourad, Benoit Lengelé, Chantal Daumerie, Etienne Marbaix, Sonia Brichard, Marie-Christine Many, Julie Craps
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of multiple target genes involved in several metabolic pathways as well as in inflammation. The expression and cell localization of caveolin-1 (Cav-1), thyroperoxidase (TPO), and dual oxidase (DUOX), involved in extracellular iodination, is modulated by Th1 cytokines in human normal thyroid cells and in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were (i) to analyze the PPARγ protein and mRNA expression at the follicular level in HT versus controls in correlation with the one of Cav-1; (ii) to study the effects of Th1 cytokines on PPARγ and catalase expression in human thyrocyte primary cultures; and (iii) to study the effects of pioglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, on thyroxisome components (Cav-1, TPO, DUOX) and on catalase, involved in antioxidant defense...
September 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Hong-Ming Su, Li-Na Feng, Xiao-Dong Zheng, Wei Chen
BACKGROUND: Myricetin is a naturally occurring antioxidant commonly found in various plants. However, little information is available with respect to its direct anti-obesity effects. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of myricetin on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. RESULTS: Administration of myricetin dramatically reduced the body weight of diet-induced obese mice compared with solely HFD-induced mice...
June 2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Lívia H Yamashiro, Carolina Eto, Marina Soncini, Verônica Horewicz, Magno Garcia, Aline D Schlindwein, Edmundo C Grisard, Darcita B Rovaris, André Báfica
Proinflammatory cytokines are critical mediators that control Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) growth during active tuberculosis (ATB). To further inhibit bacterial proliferation in diseased individuals, drug inhibitors of cell wall synthesis such as isoniazid (INH) are employed. However, whether INH presents an indirect effect on bacterial growth by regulating host cytokines during ATB is not well known. To examine this hypothesis, we used an in vitro human granuloma system generated with primary leukocytes from healthy donors adapted to model ATB...
August 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Xiao-yun Zhao, Kai Shao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the roles of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes mellitus (DM) mice model. METHODS: Eight-week-old C57BL/6 mice were allocated into control group, IR group, and DM group. Body mass was recorded. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed to determine any abnormal glucose metabolism. The liver pathological changes were detected by biopsy...
April 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
Y Chen, Y-H Tsai, S-H Tseng
BACKGROUND: Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are responsible for the regeneration of intestinal epithelium. In a previous study, we demonstrated that sodium selenite is 1 of the key factors that enhances the growth of ISCs in crypt culture medium. The goal of the present article was to investigate the effect of selenite on the proliferative and antioxidative activities of ISCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five-week old BALB/C mice were administered phosphate-buffered saline or sodium selenite (4 mg/kg/d) for 7 days before ISCs were harvested...
March 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Wei-Ming Chen, Lee-Hsin Shaw, Pey-Jium Chang, Shui-Yi Tung, Te-Sheng Chang, Chein-Heng Shen, Yung-Yu Hsieh, Kuo-Liang Wei
The present study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of resveratrol (RSV) against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in vivo, and investigate the underlying mechanisms by which RSV exerts its anti-oxidative effects on hepatic cells. C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: Untreated control, ethanol-treated, RSV-treated, and ethanol + RSV-treated. The plasma lipid profile, hepatic lipid accumulation and antioxidative enzyme activities were analyzed. HepG2 cells were used as a cellular model to analyze the effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in the RSV-mediated protection of ethanol-induced oxidative stress...
April 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Vikas Kumar Roy, Rachna Verma, Amitabh Krishna
The protective effects of carnitine have been attributed to inhibition of apoptosis, alleviating oxidative stress and DNA repair mechanism by decreasing oxidative radicles. Carnitine also increases mitochondrial biogenesis via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α). The role of carnitine in testicular PGC1α expression has not been documented. We hypothesised that the effects of carnitine as an antioxidant, inhibitor of apoptosis and controller of steroidogenesis in mouse testis may involve PGC1α as a regulator...
April 11, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Ehab M Abdella, Ayman M Mahmoud, Azza M El-Derby
CONTEXT: Seaweeds of the genera Turbinaria and Padina have long been used as food and in traditional medicine for treating several diseases. OBJECTIVE: The current study determines the protective efficacy of the brown seaweeds Turbinaria ornata (Turner) J. Agardh (Sargassaceae) and Padina pavonia (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux (Dictyotaceae) against liver injury induced by azoxymethane (AOM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Swiss mice received 10 mg/kg AOM once a week for two consecutive weeks and then 100 mg/kg daily dose of either T...
November 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
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