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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101935/effect-of-cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrins-on-cryosurvival-of-dog-spermatozoa
#1
J Khan, M Z Tahir, A Khalid, A Sattar, N Ahmad
Cryopreservation affects integrity of cholesterol and phospholipids in the plasma membrane of sperm leading to decreased fertility of frozen-thawed semen. Cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins (CLC) have been shown to improve post-thaw semen quality in various species. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal concentration of CLC for better post-thaw semen quality in dogs. Semen collection, through digital manipulation, was conducted once a week in four adult German shepherd dogs (n = 20 ejaculates; five ejaculates/dog)...
January 18, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087654/effects-of-external-strain-on-the-regulation-of-microtubule-sliding-induced-by-outer-arm-dynein-of-sea-urchin-sperm-flagella
#2
Hiroshi Yoke, Chikako Shingyoji
Oscillatory bending movement of eukaryotic flagella is powered by orchestrated activity of dynein motor proteins that hydrolyze ATP and produce microtubule sliding. Although the ATP concentration within a flagellum is kept uniform at a few mmol l(-1) level, sliding activities of dyneins are dynamically coordinated along the flagellum in accordance with the phase of bending waves. Thus, at the organellar level the dynein not only generates force for bending but also modulates its motile activity by responding to bending of the flagellum...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068667/breeding-site-sampling-across-the-arctic-by-individual-males-of-a-polygynous-shorebird
#3
Bart Kempenaers, Mihai Valcu
Males of many polygynous species compete for access to fertile females without providing them with resources other than sperm and without investing in care for the offspring (male dominance polygyny). In such systems, local competition for access to females is intense and typically only a few males obtain matings, leading to strong sexual selection. Sampling multiple breeding areas could then provide a mechanism for males to increase their chances to reproduce. However, little is known about such sampling behaviour and about the spatial scale at which males compete...
January 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065674/mitochondria-in-teleost-spermatozoa
#4
REVIEW
Patricio Ulloa-Rodríguez, Elías Figueroa, Rommy Díaz, Manuel Lee-Estevez, Stefania Short, Jorge G Farías
There is an extraordinary diversity of reproductive modes in teleost and this variability is related to the phylogenetic relationships and adaption to very different biotopes. As in all vertebrates, sperm is produced as the end product of the process of spermatogenesis, and regarding teleost the spermatozoa lack an acrosome in almost all species and motility is activated as a response to osmolarity and ion content of the aquatic medium where the sperm is released. In this context, mitochondria possess a fundamental role for fish spermatozoa motility and integrity, hence, fertilizing potential; they are the energy supplier that allows flagellar movement and their dysfunction could play a main role in structural and functional damage to the spermatozoa...
January 5, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058736/effect-of-mitochondrial-uncoupling-and-glycolysis-inhibition-on-ram-sperm-functionality
#5
Jda Losano, Dsr Angrimani, A Dalmazzo, B R Rui, M M Brito, C M Mendes, Gkv Kawai, C I Vannucchi, Meoa Assumpção, V H Barnabe, M Nichi
Studies have demonstrated the importance of mitochondria to sperm functionality, as the main source of ATP for cellular homoeostasis and motility. However, the role of mitochondria on sperm metabolism is still controversial. Studies indicate that, for some species, glycolysis may be the main mechanism for sperm energy production. For ram sperm, such pathway is not clear. Thus, we evaluated ram sperm in response to mitochondrial uncoupling and glycolysis inhibition aiming to assess the importance of each pathway for sperm functionality...
January 6, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054671/natriuretic-peptide-type-c-induces-sperm-attraction-for-fertilization-in-mouse
#6
Nana Kong, Xiaoting Xu, Yu Zhang, Yakun Wang, Xiaoqiong Hao, Yu Zhao, Jie Qiao, Guoliang Xia, Meijia Zhang
Mammalian spermatozoa undergo selective movement along the isthmus of the oviduct to the ampulla during ovulation, which is a prerequisite for fertilization. The factor(s) that involves in selective spermatozoa movement is still unknown. In this study, we found that the oviductal epithelium in mouse ampulla expressed high levels of natriuretic peptide type C (NPPC) in the presence of ovulated oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCCs). Spermatozoa expressed NPPC receptor natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2, a guanylyl cyclase) on the midpiece of flagellum...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054411/peach-gum-polysaccharides-improve-the-spermatogenesis-of-kkay-mice-with-impaired-reproduction-system
#7
Li Qian, Wenjun Wang, Jie Song, Dezhong Chen
PROBLEM: Peach gum polysaccharides (PGPs) exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Nevertheless, the effect of PGPs on the spermatogenesis of KKAy mice with impaired reproduction system remains undetermined. METHOD OF STUDY: PGPs were extracted with hot water. KKAy mice were randomly divided into two groups, namely, control and PGPs (treated with 100 mg/kg PGPs). RESULTS: Oral administration of PGPs decreased the levels of serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and nitrate nitrogen level in the testes of KKAy mice...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995374/nuclear-migration-during-karyogamy-in-rice-zygotes-is-mediated-by-continuous-convergence-of-actin-meshwork-toward-the-egg-nucleus
#8
Yukinosuke Ohnishi, Takashi Okamoto
Fertilization is comprised of two sequential fusion processes; plasmogamy and karyogamy. Karyogamy completes with migration and fusion of the male and female nuclei in the fused cell. In animals, microtubules organized by the centrosome control female/male pronuclei migration. In contrast, the nuclear migration in fused gametes of angiosperms is controlled by actin filaments, but the mechanism that regulates actin filament-dependent nuclear migration is not clear. In this study, we prepared fused rice (Oryza sativa L...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991490/two-pathways-regulate-cortical-granule-translocation-to-prevent-polyspermy-in-mouse-oocytes
#9
Liam P Cheeseman, Jérôme Boulanger, Lisa M Bond, Melina Schuh
An egg must be fertilized by a single sperm only. To prevent polyspermy, the zona pellucida, a structure that surrounds mammalian eggs, becomes impermeable upon fertilization, preventing the entry of further sperm. The structural changes in the zona upon fertilization are driven by the exocytosis of cortical granules. These translocate from the oocyte's centre to the plasma membrane during meiosis. However, very little is known about the mechanism of cortical granule translocation. Here we investigate cortical granule transport and dynamics in live mammalian oocytes by using Rab27a as a marker...
December 19, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862586/effect-of-chronic-glomerulonephritis-on-the-semen-quality-and-cytokines-in-the-semen-of-infertile-males
#10
Huina Zhang, Yingfen Ying, Yilu Chen, Xiaosheng Lu, Yonggang Huang
PROBLEM: The effects of chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) on semen quality and cytokine levels in the semen of infertile males remain undetermined. METHOD OF STUDY: Fifty-eight semen samples from normal males and CGN males with and without infertility, respectively, were analyzed. RESULTS: Semen volume, semen pH, sperm density, percentage of forward movement of sperm, sperm activate rate, sperm survival rate, and rate of normal sperm morphology of infertility males with CGN were significantly lower than those of CGN males without infertility and normal males (P<...
January 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793367/behavioral-cognitive-and-motor-performance-and-physical-development-of-five-year-old-children-who-were-born-after-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-with-the-use-of-testicular-sperm
#11
Aukje M Meijerink, Liliana Ramos, Anjo J W M Janssen, Nienke M Maas-van Schaaijk, Andreas Meissner, Sjoerd Repping, Monique H Mochtar, Didi D M Braat, Kathrin Fleischer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate at the age of 5 years the behavioral, cognitive, and motor performance and physical development of children born after testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). DESIGN: A prospective longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Two university medical centers. PATIENT(S): A total of 103 5-year-olds who were born after TESE-ICSI. INTERVENTION(S): The follow-up of the children was performed by questionnaires at birth and again at 1 year and at 4 years of age...
December 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774660/the-influence-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-on-sperm-morphological-features-and-sperm-dna-integrity-in-dogs
#12
R B Flores, Dsr Angrimani, B R Rui, M M Brito, R A Abreu, C I Vannucchi
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has a high incidence in older intact dogs. Due to the increased prostatic oxidative stress and hormonal imbalance of BPH, sperm damage can arise, such as sperm morphological alterations and DNA fragmentation. This study aimed to compare the reproductive potential of healthy dogs and those affected by benign prostatic hyperplasia. Ten dogs were assigned to two experimental groups: dogs without BPH (control; n = 5) and dogs diagnosed with BPH (n = 5), based on clinical signs and ultrasonographic findings...
October 24, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758006/mitigation-of-sperm-tail-abnormalities-using-demembranation-approach-in-the-clouded-leopard-neofelis-nebulosa
#13
W Tipkantha, P Thuwanut, B Siriaroonrat, P Comizzoli, K Chatdarong
Clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) produced high proportion of abnormal spermatozoa (mainly tail defects) that can limit sperm movement and conception. The study aimed to better identify the origin of those defects using a demembranation approach. Ejaculates (1-2 ejaculations/male; n = 9) were allocated to simple washing (control; resulting in 11.7% ± 1.9% coiled tails) and processed through colloid centrifugation to reduce the number of sperm with tail defects (treatment, resulting in 5.9% ± 0.9% coiled tails)...
October 18, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751987/sperm-kinematic-head-morphometric-and-kinetic-morphometric-subpopulations-in-the-blue-fox-alopex-lagopus
#14
Carles Soler, Jesús Contell, Lorena Bori, MarIa Sancho, Almudena García-Molina, Anthony Valverde, Jan Segarvall
This work provides information on the blue fox ejaculated sperm quality needed for seminal dose calculations. Twenty semen samples, obtained by masturbation, were analyzed for kinematic and morphometric parameters by using CASA-Mot and CASA-Morph system and principal component (PC) analysis. For motility, eight kinematic parameters were evaluated, which were reduced to PC1, related to linear variables, and PC2, related to oscillatory movement. The whole population was divided into three independent subpopulations: SP1, fast cells with linear movement; SP2, slow cells and nonoscillatory motility; and SP3, medium speed cells and oscillatory movement...
September 30, 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709298/removal-of-extracellular-coat-from-giant-sperm-in-female-receptacle-induces-sperm-motility-in-mytilocypris-mytiloides-cyprididae-ostracoda-crustacea
#15
Renate Matzke-Karasz, Robin J Smith, Martin Heß
Previous studies of cypridoidean ostracods have noted that (1) their giant spermatozoa are immotile inside the male, (2) these spermatozoa are motile in the female seminal receptacle and (3) these receptacles are often filled with empty sperm coats. Such findings have led previous authors to hypothesize that sperm must shed their coats in the female receptacle to become motile. We present light and electron microscopy results and video recordings of mating experiments with virgin specimens of Mytilocypris mytiloides...
October 5, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676322/addition-of-different-concentrations-of-prostasome-like-vesicles-at-neutral-or-slightly-alkaline-ph-decreases-canine-sperm-motility
#16
R Zelli, R Orlandi, J Verstegen, A Troisi, A Elad Ngonput, L Menchetti, L Cardinali, A Polisca
Prostasome-like vesicles (PV) are components of the canine prostatic fluid during ejaculation and despite some enzymatic activities have been identified recently, their functions in the reproductive events in this species are still poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated at neutral or slightly alkaline pH, the effects of different concentrations of purified PV on sperm cell motility characteristics and the impact on the short- and long-term preservation of preserved semen maintained at room temperature...
January 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659810/analysis-of-the-effects-of-polyphenols-on-human-spermatozoa-reveals-unexpected-impacts-on-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-oxidative-stress-and-dna-integrity-implications-for-assisted-reproductive-technology
#17
R J Aitken, L Muscio, S Whiting, H S Connaughton, B A Fraser, B Nixon, N D Smith, G N De Iuliis
The need to protect human spermatozoa from oxidative stress during assisted reproductive technology, has prompted a detailed analysis of the impacts of phenolic compounds on the functional integrity of these cells. Investigation of 16 individual compounds revealed a surprising variety of negative effects including: (i) a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) via mechanisms that were not related to opening of the permeability transition pore but associated with a reduction in thiol expression, (ii) a decline in intracellular reduced glutathione, (iii) the stimulation of pro-oxidant activity including the induction of ROS generation from mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial sources, (iv) stimulation of lipid peroxidation, (v) the generation of oxidative DNA damage, and (vi) impaired sperm motility...
December 1, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647906/molecular-mechanism-of-zn2-inhibition-of-a-voltage-gated-proton-channel
#18
Feng Qiu, Adam Chamberlin, Briana M Watkins, Alina Ionescu, Marta Elena Perez, Rene Barro-Soria, Carlos González, Sergei Y Noskov, H Peter Larsson
Voltage-gated proton (Hv1) channels are involved in many physiological processes, such as pH homeostasis and the innate immune response. Zn(2+) is an important physiological inhibitor of Hv1. Sperm cells are quiescent in the male reproductive system due to Zn(2+) inhibition of Hv1 channels, but become active once introduced into the low-Zn(2+)-concentration environment of the female reproductive tract. How Zn(2+) inhibits Hv1 is not completely understood. In this study, we use the voltage clamp fluorometry technique to identify the molecular mechanism of Zn(2+) inhibition of Hv1...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624985/morphometric-and-kinematic-sperm-subpopulations-in-split-ejaculates-of-normozoospermic-men
#19
Pilar Santolaria, Carles Soler, Pilar Recreo, Teresa Carretero, Araceli Bono, José M Berné, Jesús L Yániz
This study was designed to analyze the sperm kinematic and morphometric subpopulations in the different fractions of the ejaculate in normozoospermic men. Ejaculates from eight normozoospermic men were collected by masturbation in three fractions after 3-5 days of sexual abstinence. Analyses of sperm motility by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA-Mot), and of sperm morphometry by computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASA-Morph) using fluorescence were performed. Clustering and discriminant procedures were performed to identify sperm subpopulations in the kinematic and morphometric data obtained...
November 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619699/living-together-and-living-apart-the-sexual-lives-of-bryophytes
#20
REVIEW
David Haig
Haploid gametophytes of bryophytes spread by clonal growth but mate locally, within an area defined by the range of sperm movement. Rarity of establishment from spores or vegetative competition can result in unisexual populations unable to reproduce sexually. Females typically outcompete males, probably because females expend fewer resources than males on the production of gametes. Extreme sexual dimorphism-tiny males growing as epiphytes on much larger females-has evolved many times. Haploid selfing is common in bryophytes with bisexual gametophytes, and results in completely homozygous sporophytes...
October 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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