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sperm movement

Sergii Boryshpolets, Vitaliy Kholodnyy, Jacky Cosson, Borys Dzyuba
Motility analysis of spermatozoa relies on the investigation of either head trajectories or flagellum characteristics. Those two sets of parameters are far from being independent, the flagellum playing the role of motor, whereas the head plays a passive role of cargo. Therefore, quantitative descriptions of head trajectories represent a simplification of the complex pattern of whole sperm cell motion, resulting from the waves developed by the flagellum. The flagellum itself responds to a large variety of signals that precisely control its axoneme to allow activation, acceleration, slowing down or reorientation of the whole spermatozoon...
April 13, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Gerhard van der Horst, Monique Bennett, John D D Bishop
Sperm movement has been described in several phyla of invertebrates. Yet, sperm motility has only been quantified using computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA-Mot) in externally fertilising species (broadcast spawners) of two phyla, molluscs and echinoderms. In the present study we quantified in detail the nature of the sperm tracks, percentage motility groupings and detailed kinematics of rapid-, medium- and slow-swimming spermatozoa in the oyster Crassostrea gigas and four species never previously studied by CASA-Mot, namely the molluscs Choromytilus meridionalis, Donax serra and Haliotis midae and the echinoderm Parechinus angulosus...
April 9, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
C Pan, Y Wu, Q Yang, J Ye
Depending on the mammal species, the use of seminal plasma during semen processing for cryopreservation has been found to have both beneficial and detrimental effects. This study was designed to determine the effects of seminal plasma concentration on the motility, sperm movement characteristics, and plasma and acrosome membrane integrity of chilled canine spermatozoa. After pooling the semen from seven dogs, samples for each assay were preserved at 4oC for 96h in extenders containing different seminal plasma concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% (v/v) seminal plasma)...
March 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Li Qian
The relationship between the interleukin (IL)-11 levels and semen quality of infertile males remains unknown. In this study, 120 semen samples from 60 normozoospermic volunteers and 60 infertile males were examined. The semen pH of the normozoospermic group was not significantly different from that of the infertile group. The semen volume, semen density, forward movement percentage, activity, survival rate and normal morphology rate of the sperm of the infertile group were significantly lower than those of the normozoospermic group...
March 21, 2018: Cytokine
J P Barbas, T Leahy, A E Horta, M García-Herreros
Sperm cryopreservation in goats has been a challenge for many years due to the detrimental effects of seminal plasma enzymes produced by the bulbo-urethral glands which catalyse the hydrolysis of lecithins in egg yolk to fatty acids and lysolecithins which are deleterious to spermatozoa. This fact implies to carry out additional processing steps during sperm cryopreservation for seminal plasma removal triggering different sperm responses which may affect sperm functionality. The objective of the present study was to determine specific sperm subpopulation responses in different handling steps during the cryopreservation process by using functional sperm kinematic descriptors in caprine ejaculates...
March 20, 2018: Cryobiology
Abdollah Arasteh, Bijan Vosoughi Vahdat, Reza Salman Yazdi
Male infertility is mostly related to semen and spermatozoa, and any diagnosis or treatment requires the investigation of the motility patterns of spermatozoa. The movements of spermatozoa are fast and involve collision and occlusion with each other. In order to extract the motility patterns of spermatozoa, multi-target tracking (MTT) of spermatozoa is necessary. One of the most important steps of MTT is data association, in which the newly arrived observations are used to update the previous tracks. Dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is a powerful tool for modeling and solving various types of problems such as tracking and classification...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joanito Liberti, Boris Baer, Jacobus J Boomsma
BACKGROUND: Promiscuous mating and sperm competition often induce arms races between the sexes with detrimental outcomes for females. However, ants with multiply-inseminated queens have only a single time-window for sperm competition and queens are predicted to gain control over the outcome of sperm storage quickly. The seminal fluid of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants reduces the viability of rival sperm, but how confrontations between unrelated ejaculates affect sperm storage remains unknown...
March 23, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
D J Miller
Millions or billions of sperm are deposited by artificial insemination or natural mating into the cow reproductive tract but only a few arrive at the site of fertilization and only one fertilizes an oocyte. The remarkable journey that successful sperm take to reach an oocyte is long and tortuous, and includes movement through viscous fluid, avoiding dead ends and hostile immune cells. The privileged collection of sperm that complete this journey must pass selection steps in the vagina, cervix, uterus, utero-tubal junction and oviduct...
March 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
A Mostek, M Slowinska, S Judycka, H Karol, A Ciereszko, M A Dietrich
During semen cryopreservation, spermatozoa are exposed to physical and chemical stressors that result in their functional and structural damage. Growing evidence suggests that most cryoinjuries result from oxidative stress accompanying sperm cryopreservation. Elevated amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during cryopreservation can react with sperm macromolecules, including proteins. The goal of this study was to investigate the oxidative modifications (measured as carbonylation level changes) of carp spermatozoa proteins triggered by the cryopreservation process...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
G Charles Ostermeier, Cristina Cardona, Melissa A Moody, Alana J Simpson, Romeo Mendoza, Eric Seaman, Alexander J Travis
Sperm must mature functionally in the process of capacitation to become able to fertilize. Capacitation depends on membrane lipid changes, and can be quantitatively assessed by redistribution of the ganglioside GM1 , the basis of the Cap-Score™ sperm function test. Here, differences in Cap-Score were compared among and within men at two time points. Ejaculates were liquefied, washed, and incubated for 3 hours under capacitating (Cap) conditions, then fixed and analyzed immediately (Day0); after being incubated 3 hours under Cap conditions then maintained 22-24 hours in fix (Day1-fix); or after 22-24 hours incubation under Cap conditions prior to fixation (Day1)...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Minjun Yang, Ruina Zhi, Lu Lu, Mingxin Dong, Yuzhu Wang, Fang Tian, Minjie Xia, Jingying Hu, Qiuyun Dai, Shibo Jiang, Weihua Li
B07 is a small-molecule CCR5 antagonist-based HIV-1 entry inhibitor that is being developed as an anti-HIV microbicide for preventing sexual transmission of HIV. Here we evaluated its spermicidal and contraceptive potential, including sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, and contraceptive efficacy tested in rabbits. We found that B07 inhibited sperm motility and movement patterns in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Within 30 min, B07 induced sperm immobilization with the minimum 100% effective concentration and median effective concentration of 640...
February 26, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Myrina Boulais, Marc Suquet, Eve Julie Arsenault-Pernet, Florent Malo, Isabelle Queau, Patricia Pignet, Dominique Ratiskol, Jacqueline Le Grand, Matthias Huber, Jacky Cosson
Investigating the roles of chemical factors stimulating and inhibiting sperm motility is required to understand the mechanisms of spermatozoa movement. In this study, we described the composition of the seminal fluid (osmotic pressure, pH, and ions) and investigated the roles of these factors and salinity in initiating spermatozoa movement in the Pacific oyster. The acidic pH of the gonad (5.82 ± 0.22) maintained sperm in the quiescent stage and initiation of flagellar movement was triggered by a sudden increase of spermatozoa external pH (pHe) when released in seawater (SW)...
February 26, 2018: Biology Open
Toru Hyakutake, Kotaro Mori, Koichi Sato
Mammalian spermatozoa in organisms with internal fertilization are required to swim in the cervical and oviductal mucus, whose rheological properties differ substantially from those of water. Moreover, on the way to the oviduct, a change in sperm motility called hyperactivation may occur. In the present study, we focused on the motion characteristics of hyperactivated bovine sperm and investigated the effect of the surrounding fluid on motility. We prepared two kinds of polyacrylamide with high-viscosity non-Newtonian fluid properties, similar to the actual cervical and oviductal mucus...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Yuki Katoh, Michiko Tamba, Manabu Matsuda, Kazuhiro Kikuchi, Naomichi Okamura
In order to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the sperm capacitation, we have identified the proteins tyrosine-phosphorylated during the capacitation especially in conjunction with the regulation of the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in sperm. In the present study, the effects of the tyrosine phosphorylation of cytosolic NADP + -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) on its catalytic activity and on the levels of ROS in sperm have been studied. The tyrosine phosphorylated IDPc showed a significantly lowered enzymatic activity...
February 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Xiaorong Huang, Xiongbo Peng, Fei Xie, Wanying Mao, Hong Chen, Meng-Xiang Sun
During male gametogenesis in cereals, the generative cell undergoes a positioning process that parallels the dynamics of the central vacuole, which is believed to be associated with generative cell movement in the male gametophyte. However, the impact of the generative cell positioning and the central vacuole dynamics on male gametogenesis has remained poorly understood. Here, we report that OsGCD1 (GAMETE CELLS DEFECTIVE1) dysfunction influenced pollen development and disrupted pollen germination. Loss of function of OsGCD1 altered the central vacuole dynamics and the generative cell was mispositioned...
February 9, 2018: New Phytologist
G Bernáth, Zs Csenki, Z Bokor, L Várkonyi, J Molnár, T Szabó, Á Staszny, Á Ferincz, K Szabó, B Urbányi, L O Pap, B Csorbai
The present study investigated the effects of chilled storage and cryopreservation on ide sperm motility and fertilizing capacity alongside the longevity of sperm movement. The parameters of motility (progressive motility-pMOT, curvilinear velocity-VCL and straightness-STR) have been recorded during 48 h of chilled storage (4 °C) at 24-h intervals. The longevity of sperm movement was measured following activation for up to 120 s (in a range at 10-120 s) in freshly stripped and thawed sperm. A formerly established cryopreservation method was tested on ide sperm where motility parameters, hatching rate and larval malformation (according to 7 category groups) were investigated...
January 31, 2018: Cryobiology
Jurandir Joaquim Bernardes Júnior, Jhon Edison Jimenez, Robie Allan Bombardelli, Alex Pires de Oliveira Nuñer
Understanding the effects of environmental factors on sperm motility characteristics can increase artificial reproduction efficiency in species that do not spawn naturally in captivity, such as Megaleporinus obtusidens. This study evaluated the effects of the osmolality (25, 85, 145, 205, 265, and 325 mOsm kg-1) and composition of activating solutions (NaCl, KCl, or fructose) on the percentage of motile sperm, and the swimming velocity and path straightness of M. obtusidens spermatozoa. The concentrations of major ions in the seminal fluid were also assessed and Na+ (74...
January 29, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Farhad Golshan Iranpour, Khatereh Fazelian, Gholam Reza Dashti
Background: Nonoxynol-9 a nonionic surfactant is widely used for its spermicidal effects. Finding new sperm immobilizing agents is necessary because Nonoxynol-9 damages the tissues of female reproductive system. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Thymoquinone (TQ) as a potential spermostatic compound on the motility and viability of human spermatozoa. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the effects of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 µg/ml, 1 and 10 mg/ml of TQ on normozoospermic semen samples were investigated...
October 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Tomoki Shojima, Feng Hou, Yusuke Takahashi, Yoshitaka Matsumura, Masahiko Okai, Akira Nakamura, Katsutoshi Mizuno, Kazuo Inaba, Masaki Kojima, Takuya Miyakawa, Masaru Tanokura
Sperm chemotaxis toward a chemoattractant is very important for the success of fertilization. Calaxin, a member of the neuronal calcium sensor protein family, directly acts on outer-arm dynein and regulates specific flagellar movement during sperm chemotaxis of ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. Here, we present the crystal structures of calaxin both in the open and closed states upon Ca2+ and Mg2+ binding. The crystal structures revealed that three of the four EF-hands of a calaxin molecule bound Ca2+ ions and that EF2 and EF3 played a critical role in the conformational transition between the open and closed states...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chiara Gertosio, Mariasole Magistrali, Paola Musso, Cristina Meazza, Mauro Bozzola
Over the past 30 years, advances in antineoplastic treatment led to a significant increase in the survival of patients with childhood cancer. In Europe and the United States, 82% of children, adolescents, and young adults survive 5 years from the cancer diagnosis and the majority achieves long-term survival into adulthood. The impact of cancer therapy on fertility is related to the age of the patient and to the duration, dose/intensity, and type of treatment. Exposure to chemotherapy or to radiation to gonads or pituitary brings long-term complications of cancer-directed therapies that include effects on reproductive capacity...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
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