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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040653/regulatory-mechanisms-of-sperm-flagellar-motility-by-metachronal-and-synchronous-sliding-of-doublet-microtubules
#1
Gen L Takei, Masakatsu Fujinoki, Kaoru Yoshida, Sumio Ishijima
STUDY QUESTION: What is the role of metachronal and synchronous sliding in sperm flagellar motility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Both metachronal and oscillatory synchronous sliding are essential for sperm flagellar motility, while the change in mode of synchronous sliding between the non-oscillatory synchronous sliding of a specific pair of the doublet microtubules and the oscillatory synchronous sliding between most pairs of doublet microtubules modulates the sperm flagellar motility...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036279/strong-inhibition-of-neutrophil-sperm-interaction-in-cattle-by-selective-pi3-kinase-inhibitors
#2
Jiwon Hong, Bridget L Dicker, Shakeela N Jayasinghe, Francesca De Gregorio, Hong Tian, Dug Yeo Han, Keith R Hudson
The vast majority of sperm are lost from the female reproductive tract in hours following natural mating or artificial insemination in mammals. Multiple complex processes including uterine contractions, mucus barriers and phagocytosis of sperm by neutrophils have been reported to be involved in the sperm loss, although the contribution of each process is uncertain. If phagocytosis by neutrophils has a significant role in sperm loss, inhibition of neutrophil response to sperm could potentially reduce the dose of sperm required for artificial insemination...
October 4, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034050/separation-of-sperm-cells-from-samples-containing-high-concentrations-of-white-blood-cells-using-a-spiral-channel
#3
Jiyoung Son, Raheel Samuel, Bruce K Gale, Douglas T Carrell, James M Hotaling
Microfluidic technology has potential to separate sperm cells from unwanted debris while improving the effectiveness of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Current clinical protocol limitations regarding the separation of sperm cells from other cells/cellular debris can lead to low sperm recovery when the sample contains a low concentration of mostly low motility sperm cells and a high concentration of unwanted cells/cellular debris, such as in semen samples from patients with pyospermia [high white blood cell (WBC) semen]...
September 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024969/preconception-urinary-phthalate-concentrations-and-sperm-dna-methylation-profiles-among-men-undergoing-ivf-treatment-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Haotian Wu, Molly S Estill, Alexander Shershebnev, Alexander Suvorov, Stephen A Krawetz, Brian W Whitcomb, Holly Dinnie, Tayyab Rahil, Cynthia K Sites, J Richard Pilsner
STUDY QUESTION: Are preconception phthalate and phthalate replacements associated with sperm differentially methylated regions (DMRs) among men undergoing IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Ten phthalate metabolites were associated with 131 sperm DMRs that were enriched in genes related to growth and development, cell movement and cytoskeleton structure. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Several phthalate compounds and their metabolites are known endocrine disrupting compounds and are pervasive environmental contaminants...
September 12, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021593/a-coordinated-sequence-of-distinct-flagellar-waveforms-enables-a-sharp-flagellar-turn-mediated-by-squid-sperm-ph-taxis
#5
Tomohiro Iida, Yoko Iwata, Tatsuma Mohri, Shoji A Baba, Noritaka Hirohashi
Animal spermatozoa navigate by sensing ambient chemicals to reach the site of fertilization. Generally, such chemicals derive from the female reproductive organs or cells. Exceptionally, squid spermatozoa mutually release and perceive carbon dioxide to form clusters after ejaculation. We previously identified the pH-taxis by which each spermatozoon can execute a sharp turn, but how flagellar dynamics enable this movement remains unknown. Here, we show that initiation of the turn motion requires a swim down a steep proton gradient (a theoretical estimation of ≥0...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982938/cellular-and-molecular-responses-of-adult-testis-to-changes-in-nutrition-novel-insights-from-the-sheep-model
#6
REVIEW
Yongjuan Guan, Graeme B Martin
This review explores the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate spermatogenesis in the post-pubertal testis that is regressing in response to mild undernutrition, using the sexually mature male sheep as a model. Testis regression leads to reductions in daily sperm production and in the quality of ejaculated spermatozoa (poorer movement, DNA damage). There is also a reduction in spermatogenic efficiency that appears to be caused, at least partially, by increases in germ cell apoptosis. Sertoli cell number does not change with testis regression, although about 1% of Sertoli cells do appear to retain proliferative ability after puberty...
November 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980232/fertilization-2-polyspermic-fertilization
#7
Shusei Mizushima
During fertilization in animals, a haploid egg nucleus fuses with a haploid sperm nucleus to restore the diploid genome. In most animals including mammals, echinoderms, and teleostei, the penetration of only one sperm into an egg is ensured at fertilization because the entry of two or more sperm is prevented by polyspermy block systems in these eggs. On the other hand, several animals such as birds, reptiles, and most urodele amphibians exhibit physiological polyspermy, in which the entry of several sperm into one egg is permitted...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933593/dynein-promotes-porcine-oocyte-meiotic-progression-by-maintaining-cytoskeletal-structures-and-cortical-granule-arrangement
#8
Yilong Miao, Changyin Zhou, Zhaokang Cui, Liansheng Tang, Xiayan ShiYang, Yajuan Lu, Mianqun Zhang, Xiaoxin Dai, Bo Xiong
Cytoplasmic dynein is a family of cytoskeletal motor proteins that move towards the minus-end of the microtubules to perform functions in a variety of mitotic processes such as cargo transport, organelle positioning, chromosome movement and centrosome assembly. However, its specific roles during mammalian oocyte meiosis have not been fully defined. Herein, we investigated the critical events during porcine oocyte meiotic maturation after inhibition of dynein by Ciliobrevin D treatment. We found that oocyte meiotic progression was arrested when inhibited of dynein by showing the poor expansion of cumulus cells and decreased rate of polar body extrusion...
September 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891125/effect-of-cryoprotectants-and-thawing-temperatures-on-chicken-sperm-quality
#9
M Miranda, B Kulíková, J Vašíček, L Olexiková, N Iaffaldano, P Chrenek
There is need for standardization of freezing-thawing protocol for rooster semen to minimize variability among results. Therefore, we aimed to compare effect of four different permeating cryoprotectants and two thawing temperatures (37 vs. 5°C) on sperm post-thaw motility and to analyse combined effect of the best permeating cryoprotectant (P-CPA) with one of four non-permeating cryoprotectants (N-CPA) on post-thaw quality of rooster semen evaluated in vitro. Pooled semen from Ross PM3 rooster heavy line was diluted in Kobidil extender and frozen in cryoprotectant solution containing 6% dimethylacetamide, 7...
September 11, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869108/cryopreservation-of-sperm-in-grey-mullet-mugil-cephalus-linnaeus-1758
#10
Ramachandran Balamurugan, Natesan Munuswamy
The aim of this study was to document the effects of cryopreservation on sperm motility and viability in Grey mullet Mugil cephalus. Cryopreservation of sperm was attempted by using two extenders ringer solution for marine fish (RSMF) and V2 extender (V2E) and cryoprotectants dimethylacetamide (DMA), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol (GLY), propylene glycol (PG) and methanol (MeOH). Cryoprotectants were assessed at different concentrations individually as well as in combination with varying equilibration times (10 and 30min)...
October 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863939/semen-quality-and-pregnancy-loss-in-a-contemporary-cohort-of-couples-recruited-before-conception-data-from-the-longitudinal-investigation-of-fertility-and-the-environment-life-study
#11
Michael L Eisenberg, Katherine J Sapra, Sung Duk Kim, Zhen Chen, Germaine M Buck Louis
OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between semen quality and pregnancy loss in a cohort of couples attempting to conceive. DESIGN: Observational prospective cohort. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Three hundred and forty-four couples with a singleton pregnancy observed daily through 7 postconception weeks of gestation. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Association between semen quality and pregnancy loss...
October 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854585/sperm-chemorepulsion-a-supplementary-mechanism-to-regulate-fertilization
#12
H A Guidobaldi, M Cubilla, A Moreno, M V Molino, L Bahamondes, L C Giojalas
STUDY QUESTION: Are human spermatozoa able of chemorepulsive behaviour? SUMMARY ANSWER: Capacitated human spermatozoa are able to be chemorepelled by synthetic Progesterone Receptor Ligands (sPRL, known as contraceptives) and zinc (a cation released by the oocyte upon fertilization). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Moving cells can be oriented towards or against a molecular gradient, processes called chemoattraction and chemorepulsion, respectively, which have been described in unicellular organisms such as amoebas and bacteria, to organismic cells such macrophages and developmental cells...
August 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833824/effects-of-latrunculin-a-on-the-relocation-of-sperm-izumo1-during-gamete-interaction-in-the-mouse
#13
Chong Zhou, Li Huang, De-Shun Shi, Jian-Rong Jiang
The sperm protein IZUMO1 plays a central role in gamete fusion. In mouse sperm, IZUMO1 is enriched at the acrosomal cap before the acrosome reaction, and at the equatorial segment following this reaction; its relocation is dependent on filamentous actin. How actin polymerization affects IZUMO1 relocation during gamete interaction remains unknown. The present study addressed these processes using latrunculin A (LatA), an inhibitor of actin polymerization. We report that 25 µM LatA blocked actin polymerization in the capacitated sperm head, resulting in a marked decrease in sperm with relocated IZUMO1 during the A23187-induced acrosome reaction and cumulus layer penetration...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767606/varicoceles-affect-semen-quality-of-infertile-men-in-southern-china-a-cross-sectional-study-of-5447-cases
#14
Yunshan Zhang, Tianzhong Ma, Zexuan Su, Mushi Ye, Huanshu Tian, Jianchang Li, Jianjun Liu
The association of varicoceles with infertility is well established, but the exact effect of varicoceles on semen quality among patients with infertility is still poorly known. The study aimed to examine the prevalence of varicoceles among Chinese men with infertility and to examine the factors associated with semen quality.This was a cross-sectional study of 5447 male patients treated for infertility at the Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University from October 2012 to December 2015. The patients were divided on the basis of the presence of varicoceles...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750295/effect-of-zearalenone-on-circulating-testosterone-concentration-testicular-and-epididymal-morphology-and-epididymal-sperm-characteristics-in-wild-boars
#15
W Bielas, W Niżański, J Nicpoń, J E Nicpoń, A Partyka, R Mordak, M Nowak, R Ciaputa
This study investigated the effect of exposure to zearalenone (ZEN) and its metabolites on the characteristics of epididymal spermatozoa, testicular and epididymal biometry and histology, and the concentration of testosterone in blood plasma in male wild boars. The study was performed during more than one year on 18 clinically healthy male wild boars with initial and final body weight, of 39 ± 4 kg and 59 ± 3 kg, respectively. The animals were divided into two experimental groups (group I and group II) and one control group (group C) comprising 6 boars per group...
July 18, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727099/identification-of-differentially-expressed-proteins-in-testicular-semen-of-sex-reversed-female-xx-and-normal-male-xy-rainbow-trout
#16
J Nynca, M Adamek, A Ciereszko
Masculinized females, named sex-reversed females (SRF), have a male phenotype but retain the female genotype (XX) and all spermatozoa produced in their testes carry the X chromosome. Masculinization of females leads to incomplete testicular development and the production of lower-quality semen. The mechanism of masculinization is unknown at present. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify differentially abundant proteins in testicular semen of normal males and SRF using a difference in-gel electrophoresis approach...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724632/hydrogen-peroxide-produced-by-superoxide-dismutase-sod-2-activates-sperm-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Taro Sakamoto, Hirotaka Imai
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a ubiquitous antioxidant enzyme that catalytically converts the superoxide radical to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In mammals, high SOD activity is detectable in sperm and seminal plasma, and loss of SOD activity has been correlated with male infertility; however, the underlying mechanisms of sperm infertility remain to be clarified. Here we report that the deletion of two major SOD genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, sod-1 and sod-2, causes sperm activation defects, leading to a significant reduction in brood size...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723911/male-reproductive-system-and-spermatogenesis-of-limodromus-assimilis-paykull-1790
#18
Lea F Schubert, Stephanie Krüger, Gerald B Moritz, Veit Schubert
Based on advanced light and electron microscopy, we describe the male reproductive system and sperm development of Limodromus assimilis. The genital tract consists of pairs of uni-follicular testes, spermatic ducts with diverticula regions, seminal vesicles, accessory glands, an unpaired ejaculatory duct and an aedeagus containing an internal sac equipped with sclerotic scales. Based on their morphology, we draw conclusions about their functions. After spermatogenesis within the follicle, the spermatozoa become released from the sperm cysts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681565/tubulin-acetylation-a-novel-functional-avenue-for-cdyl-in-sperm
#19
Sweta Parab, Veena Dalvi, Sushma Mylavaram, Abhipriya Kishore, Susan Idicula-Thomas, Shobha Sonawane, Priyanka Parte
Motility in sperm is driven by the flagella, the principal component of which is the axoneme. The microtubules which make up the 9 + 2 axoneme are composed of heterodimers of alpha and beta tubulins and undergo several post-translational modifications. We have earlier reported that HDAC6 functions as tubulin deacetylase in sperm and has a role in sperm movement. While exploring the specific tubulin acetyltransferase (TAT) in sperm, we observed the presence of Chromodomain Y-Like (CDYL), on the principal piece of rat spermatozoa which compelled us to explore its function in sperm...
July 6, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624941/does-static-electric-field-from-ultra-high-voltage-direct-current-transmission-lines-affect-male-reproductive-capacity-evidence-from-a-laboratory-study-on-male-mice
#20
Sixia Wu, Guoqing Di, Zhengguang Li
With the development of ultra-high-voltage direct-current (UHVDC) transmission technology and increase in transmission voltage, the issue of environmental static electric field (SEF) pollution is standing out and its possible health effects have caused much public attention. In this study, the effects of chronic exposure to SEF on reproductive capacity of male mice were investigated. Twenty Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were exposed to SEF (56.3 ± 1.4 kV/m, 49 days) generated by a high-voltage device...
June 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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