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History of medicine

Amir A Afkhami
The world is currently in the midst of the largest refugee crisis since World War II, with the highest interval of mass displacement in recorded history according to the United Nations. The United States has pledged to maintain its position as one of the world's top resettlement countries in response to this crisis. These new immigrants will arrive with exceptional chronic and acute medical needs, including higher rates of behavioral health disorders. The author describes the health care challenges experienced by refugees seeking asylum in the United States and outlines the ways in which our health care system is currently deficient in helping refugee patients to overcome these challenges...
October 18, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Andrew D Schreiner, Brad A Keith, Karen E Abernathy, Jingwen Zhang, Walter A Brzezinski
BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise plays a role in cardiovascular risk reduction, but may also be a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in a population of long-term, competitive swimmers compared with patients within an internal medicine clinic with known risk factors for atrial fibrillation such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilized survey data comparing the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in swimmers to a general internal medicine population...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Xiangtong Liu, Jason Peter Fine, Zhenghong Chen, Long Liu, Xia Li, Anxin Wang, Jin Guo, Lixin Tao, Gehendra Mahara, Zhe Tang, Xiuhua Guo
The competing risk method has become more acceptable for time-to-event data analysis because of its advantage over the standard Cox model in accounting for competing events in the risk set. This study aimed to construct a prediction model for diabetes using a subdistribution hazards model.We prospectively followed 1857 community residents who were aged ≥ 55 years, free of diabetes at baseline examination from August 1992 to December 2012. Diabetes was defined as a self-reported history of diabetes diagnosis, taking antidiabetic medicine, or having fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 7...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Dawn Schroeder, Wendy Duggleby, Brenda L Cameron
BACKGROUND: In families where genetic testing for the breast cancer 1 and 2 genes (BRCA1/2) has not identified a deleterious mutation, the risk for hereditary breast cancer (HBC) can still be high when there is a strong family history. Little is known about how an awareness of risk for HBC impacts the everyday lives of unaffected women (no personal history for breast and/or ovarian cancer) in these families. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore how unaffected women, living in BRCA1/2-negative families, experience living with risk for HBC...
October 4, 2016: Cancer Nursing
Emma Suggett, John Marriott
BACKGROUND: A number of methods exist for the risk assessment of hospital inpatients to determine the likelihood of patients experiencing drug-related problems (DRPs), including manual review of a patient's medication (medication reviews) and more complex electronic assessment using decision support alerts in electronic prescribing systems. A systematic review was conducted to determine the evidence base for potential risks associated with adult hospital inpatients that could not only lead to medication-related issues but might also be directly associated with pharmacist intervention...
September 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Claudia Reynoso-von Drateln, Noemí Gómez-Hernández, Norma Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos Torres-Lozano
An 81-year-old male and a 47-year-old female experienced recurrent severe bullous dermatosis secondary to an intake of drugs and alternative medicines indicated for arthralgias. The first patient had previously presented with Stevens-Johnson/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) overlap syndrome in 2007 secondary to ingestion of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole indicated for a urinary tract infection; 6 years later, he presented with the same syndrome 2 days after ingestion of oral naproxen tablets 250 mg twice daily...
December 2016: Drug Saf Case Rep
Felix Neumaier, Mario Paterno, Serdar Alpdogan, Etienne E Tevoufouet, Toni Schneider, Jürgen Hescheler, Walid Albanna
Brain surgery to promote behavioural or affective changes in men remains one of the most controversial topics at the interface of medicine, psychiatry, neuroscience and bioethics. Rapid expansion of neuropsychiatric deep brain stimulation has recently revived the field and warrants a careful appraisal of its two sides, namely the promise to help severely devastated patients on the one hand and the dangers of premature application without appropriate justification on the other. Here, we reconstruct the vivid history of the field and examine its present status to delineate the progression from crude free-hand operations into a multi-disciplinary treatment of last resort...
October 13, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Basil H Aboul-Enein, Joshua Bernstein, Jacquelyn E Bowser
There is a positive association between availability of regional peer-reviewed public health information systems and progressive change in community and population health. The objective of this brief report was to identify public health journals in Arabic-speaking countries actively publishing as of 2016. We conducted an electronic search in several electronic database records for public health journals using a combination of search terms. We excluded journals that focused on human medicine, veterinary medicine, nursing, and other discipline-specific or clinical health professions...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
Doreen C Harper, Teena M McGuinness, Jean Johnson
BACKGROUND: The Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degree positions nurse practitioners (NPs) and other advanced practice registered nurses, with clinical competencies similar to other disciplines requiring doctoral education (medicine, physical therapy, psychology, and pharmacy). In addition, all these disciplines also offer residencies. However, nursing is the only discipline that does not require a doctoral degree and/or have a systematic approach to residency training for advanced practice roles...
August 31, 2016: Nursing Outlook
Jonathan A Edlow
Dizziness is a common chief complaint in emergency medicine. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes serious conditions, such as stroke, cardiac arrhythmia, hypovolemic states, and acute toxic and metabolic disturbances. Emergency physicians must distinguish the majority of patients who suffer from benign self-limiting conditions from those with serious illnesses that require acute treatment. Misdiagnoses are frequent and diagnostic test costs high. The traditional approach does not distinguish benign from dangerous causes and is not consistent with best current evidence...
November 2016: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Martha A Monson, Karen J Gibbons, M Sean Esplin, Michael W Varner, Tracy A Manuck
OBJECTIVE: To characterize subsequent pregnancy outcomes among women with a history of previable, preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM) and assess factors associated with recurrent preterm birth. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of women cared for with a history of one or more singleton pregnancy complicated by preterm PROM at less than 24 weeks of gestation between 2002 and 2013 who were cared for in two tertiary care health systems by a single group of maternal-fetal medicine specialists...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jing Zhang, Chengyu Liu, Chenliang Pan, Ming Bai, Jin Zhang, Yu Peng, Dingchang Zheng, Zheng Zhang
Recurrent angina (RA) has an important influence on health status of patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study aimed to retrospectively investigate the effect of multiple clinical factors on both short-term and long-term development of RA.A total of 398 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients were studied for up to 12 months. The primary clinical outcome, RA, was assessed at 1-month and 12-month. In multivariate analyses, the effect of clinical factors, including baseline demographics, medical history, infarction-related arteries, procedural characteristics of PCI, and the use of medicines, was investigated in patients with and without RA...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Roland Bal
The call for evidence-based policy is often accompanied by rather uncritical references to the success of evidence-based medicine, leading to often unsuccessful translation attempts. In this paper, I reflect on the practice of evidence-based medicine in an attempt to sketch a more productive approach to translating evidence into the practice of policy making. Discussing three episodes in the history of evidence-based medicine - clinical trials, and the production and use of clinical guidelines - I conclude that the success of evidence-based medicine is based on the creation of reflexive practices in which evidence and practice can be combined productively...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
Chana Wiesman, Esther Rose, Allison Grant, Adam Zimilover, Susan Klugman, Nicole Schreiber-Agus
PURPOSE: The notion of offering population-based screening to the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population for the BRCA1/2 founder mutations continues to gain support. A program called the BRCAcommunity initiative was designed to identify the benefits and barriers associated with implementing this screening in a clinical setting. METHODS: Interested AJ individuals were stratified into high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) groups based on self-reported cancer histories. Those at HR were offered traditional genetic counseling/testing; those at LR were offered group genetic counseling and subsidized AJ BRCA founder mutation testing...
October 13, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Grigoriy E Gurvits, Gloria Lan, Amy Tan, Arlene Weissman
BACKGROUND: Increasing prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) poses significant challenges to medical community. Preventive medicine, including vaccination against opportunistic infections, is important in decreasing morbidity and mortality in patients with IBD. We conduct first study to evaluate general awareness and adherence to immunisation guidelines by primary care physicians in the USA. METHODS: We administered an electronic questionnaire to the research panel of the American College of Physicians (ACP) assessing current vaccination practices, barriers to vaccination and provider responsibility for administering vaccinations and compared responses with the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization consensus guidelines and expert opinion from the USA...
October 12, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Tennille K Marx, Róbert Glávits, John R Endres, Philip A Palmer, Amy E Clewell, Timothy S Murbach, Gábor Hirka, Ilona Pasics
Morus alba L. (white mulberry) leaves are one of the oldest recognized traditional Chinese medicines. More recently, M alba leaves and their constituents, particularly iminosugars (or azasugars), have garnered attention for their ability to maintain normal blood glucose concentrations, an effect identified in both animal studies and human clinical trials. Reducose (Phynova Group Limited) is a commercial water-soluble extract of M alba leaves standardized to 5% 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), an iminosugar with α-glucosidase inhibition properties...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
Matthew J Kolek, Amy J Graves, Meng Xu, Aihua Bian, Pedro Luis Teixeira, M Benjamin Shoemaker, Babar Parvez, Hua Xu, Susan R Heckbert, Patrick T Ellinor, Emelia J Benjamin, Alvaro Alonso, Joshua C Denny, Karel G M Moons, Ayumi K Shintani, Frank E Harrell, Dan M Roden, Dawood Darbar
Importance: Atrial fibrillation (AF) contributes to substantial morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditures. Accurate prediction of incident AF would enhance AF management and potentially improve patient outcomes. Objective: To validate the AF risk prediction model originally developed by the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology-Atrial Fibrillation (CHARGE-AF) investigators using a large repository of electronic medical records (EMRs)...
October 12, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
Jaime D Stringer
Sexual dysfunction occurs in men and women and the prevalence increases with age. Dysfunction can occur in one or more areas of the normal sexual response cycle: desire, arousal, or orgasm. It can also be due to pain. Family physicians should routinely screen all men and women for sexual dysfunction, given its high prevalence and high correlation with other conditions. Risk factors include use of prescription drugs (eg, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, diuretics, antihormonals), recreational drugs, alcohol, and/or nicotine; certain health and lifestyle issues; and many chronic medical conditions, such as heart disease and diabetes...
October 2016: FP Essentials
Claus Hamann, MaryKate Martelon
BACKGROUND: History supports the staff and single serpent, the asklepian, as the symbol of healing and medicine, yet its confusion with the caduceus (a winged staff with two snakes wrapped around it) persists. No population-based information on serpent symbol use exists. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of asklepian and caduceus display among Internet images of medical and health professional schools' emblems, and to compare asklepian and caduceus display between medical and health professional schools, examining the effects of school longevity and geographic location on symbol display...
May 25, 2016: JMIR Med Educ
Luis Hernandez, Shien Guo, Hector Toro-Diaz, Stuart Carroll, Syed Feisal Syed Farooq
AIMS: Peginterferon beta-1a 125 mcg administered subcutaneously every two weeks, a new disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), was approved in January 2015 by the Scottish Medicines Consortium. This study assesses long-term clinical and economic outcomes of peginterferon beta-1a compared with other self-injectable DMTs (interferon beta-1a [22 mcg, 30 mcg, and 44 mcg], interferon beta-1b, and glatiramer acetate 20 mg) in the treatment of RRMS, from the National Health Service and personal social services perspective in Scotland...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Medical Economics
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