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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733195/the-evolving-role-of-companion-diagnostics-for-breast-cancer-in-an-era-of-next-generation-omics
#1
REVIEW
Jason N Rosenbaum, Paul Weisman
A companion diagnostic is a test for a specific biomarker-approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration-qualifying a patient to receive a specific, associated therapy. As interest has grown in precision medicine over the last decade, the principle of companion diagnostics has gained increasing purchase among laboratory professionals, clinicians, regulators, and even patients. The evolution of the biomarkers used to stratify and treat breast cancer illustrates the history of companion diagnostics, and provides a lens through which to examine potential challenges...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733182/the-association-of-depressive-symptoms-with-rates-of-acute-exacerbations-in-patients-with-copd-results-from-a-3-year-longitudinal-follow-up-of-the-eclipse-cohort
#2
Abebaw Mengistu Yohannes, Hana Mülerová, Kim Lavoie, Jorgen Vestbo, Steve I Rennard, Emile Wouters, Nicola A Hanania
BACKGROUND: Depression increases disability and health care utilization in older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: To determine contribution of depressive symptoms to the incidence of moderate-severe and severe acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) over 3 years. DESIGN: We analyzed data collected from a prospective cohort of patients with COPD (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints; ECLIPSE)...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731649/opinions-of-members-of-the-national-civil-family-proceedings-and-criminal-courts-in-withholding-or-withdrawing-of-life-support-situations-in-pediatrics
#3
Jorge O Selandari, María S Ciruzzi, Adriel J Roitman, Fernanda Ledesma, Célica Menéndez, Hernán O García
INTRODUCTION: The possibility of sustaining life functions makes it difficult to distinguish between a dying patient and a patient with chances of survival, raising a dilemma for everyone around them. On the one side, continuing with life support techniques that would only extend an irreversible process and result in physical and psychological damage and harm their dignity. On the other side, withholding or withdrawing life support without an adequate reflection and diagnostic-therapeutic effort which may lead to the death of a potentially recoverable child...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730665/is-dna-ploidy-related-to-smoking
#4
Celina Faig Lima, Monica Ghislaine Oliveira Alves, Bruna Fernandes do Carmo Carvalho, Thaynara Alves de Lima, Cláudia Malheiros Coutinho-Camillo, Fernando Augusto Soares, Jaqueline Scholz, Janete Dias Almeida
In the oral cavity, genomic instability is caused by long-term exposure to carcinogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between smoking and DNA ploidy METHODS: Cytological material was obtained from patients participating in the Outpatient Smoking Treatment Program of the Heart Institute (INCOR-HCFMUSP), and of the Discipline of Oral Medicine (ICT-UNESP). The inclusion criteria for all groups were the absence of a history of malignant tumors, absence of clinical signs of changes in the selected area, and alcohol consumption of less than 3 units per week...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730149/review-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-the-indian-ocean-commission-a-human-and-animal-health-issue
#5
REVIEW
Noellie Gay, Olivier Belmonte, Jean-Marc Collard, Mohamed Halifa, Mohammad Iqbal Issack, Saindou Mindjae, Philippe Palmyre, Abdul Aziz Ibrahim, Harena Rasamoelina, Loïc Flachet, Laurent Filleul, Eric Cardinale
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major threat to human, animal health, and environment worldwide. For human, transmission occurred through a variety of routes both in health-care settings and community. In animals, AMR was reported in livestock, pets, and wildlife; transmission of AMR can be zoonotic with the probably most important route being foodborne transmission. The Indian Ocean Commission (IOC), composed of Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion (France), and Seychelles recognized the surveillance of AMR in both animal and human as a main public health priority for the region...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729228/tangled-history-of-the-european-uses-of-sphagnum-moss-and-sphagnol
#6
REVIEW
Jacek Drobnik, Adam Stebel
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sphagnum mosses and peat could have been utilized as wound dressings for centuries, however reliable data on this subject are ambiguous; sometimes even no distinction between peat moss (Sphagnum spp.) and peat is made or these terms become confused. The first scientific account on surgical use of peat comes from 1882: a peat digger who successfully, by himself and in the way unknown to the then medicine, cured an open fracture of his forearm with peat. The peat, and very soon the peat moss itself (which is the major constituent of peat) drew attention of the 19(th)-century surgeons...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728257/-eosinophilic-esophagitis-in-children-analysis-of-22-cases
#7
M F Sun, W Z Gu, K R Peng, M N Liu, X L Shu, L Q Jiang, M Z Jiang
Objective: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated esophageal disease.The current domestic reports of EoE in children is rare.The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features, the diagnosis and treatment advance of EoE in children by case analysis and literature review. Method: Clinical data of 22 children with EoE from January, 2011 to December, 2015 in Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine were recorded, retrospective analysis was performed on clinical presentation, gastroendoscopy and histopathological examination features and the treatment...
July 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726808/prevalence-of-germ-line-mutations-in-cancer-genes-among-pancreatic-cancer-patients-with-a-positive-family-history
#8
Kari G Chaffee, Ann L Oberg, Robert R McWilliams, Neil Majithia, Brian A Allen, John Kidd, Nanda Singh, Anne-Renee Hartman, Richard J Wenstrup, Gloria M Petersen
PurposePanel-based genetic testing has identified increasing numbers of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) who carry germ-line mutations. However, small sample sizes or number of genes evaluated limit prevalence estimates of these mutations. We estimated prevalence of mutations in PDAC patients with positive family history.MethodsWe sequenced 25 cancer susceptibility genes in lymphocyte DNA from 302 PDAC patients in the Mayo Clinic Biospecimen Resource for Pancreatic Research Registry. Kindreds containing at least two first-degree relatives with PDAC met criteria for familial pancreatic cancer (FPC), while the remaining were familial, but not FPC...
July 20, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726574/rise-of-the-pigs-utilization-of-the-porcine-model-to-study-musculoskeletal-biomechanics-and-tissue-engineering-during-skeletal-growth
#9
Stephanie G Cone, Paul B Warren, Matthew B Fisher
Large animal models play an essential role in the study of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine as well as biomechanics.  The porcine model has been increasingly used to study the musculoskeletal system, including specific joints, such as the knee and temporomandibular joints, and tissues, such as bone, cartilage, and ligaments. In particular, pigs have been utilized to evaluate the role of skeletal growth on the biomechanics and engineered replacements of these joints and tissues. In this review, we explore the publication history of the use of pig models in biomechanics, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine studies, discuss inter-species comparative studies, highlight studies on the effect of skeletal growth and other biological considerations in the porcine model, and present challenges and emerging opportunities for using this model to study functional tissue engineering and regenerative medicine...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724463/china-s-national-health-guiding-principles-a-perspective-worthy-of-healthcare-reform
#10
Ping Zhang, Yuan Liang
For countries faced with much talk but little action on healthcare reform, China's National Health Guiding Principles (CNHGP), with its 60-year history, may provide a new perspective. There are four values of CNHGP for healthcare reform. First, these principles provide an innovative strategic framework for healthcare reform with three levels, from 'One priority population' to 'Four approaches' and then to 'Two aims.' The second is the importance of mass/grassroots participation, which runs through all three levels of CNHGP...
July 20, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721159/pcsk9-inhibitors-from-discovery-of-a-single-mutation-to-a-groundbreaking-therapy-of-lipid-disorders-in-one-decade
#11
Krzysztof Jaworski, Piotr Jankowski, Dariusz A Kosior
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the main risk factors for coronary heart disease and significantly contributes to the high mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases. Statin therapy represents the gold standard in the reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration. Nevertheless, many patients still cannot achieve the recommended target levels, due to either inadequate effectiveness or intolerance of these drugs. Monoclonal antibodies that inhibit proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) have emerged as a promising option in lipid-lowering treatment...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718604/-sexual-medicine-in-lausanne-past-present-and-future
#12
Sandra Fornage, Francesco Bianchi-Demicheli
Sexuality is a natural function, part of global health and has to be evaluated in every patient. When difficulties or dyfunctions happen in this domain, a specific mangement should be proposed. Sexual medicine is a « young » transversal discipline developping these last years in the french-speaking area of Switzerland. We present in this article a short history of sexual medicine in Lausanne and the recent activity in the Sexual Medicine Consultation of the Maternity in the CHUV.
March 15, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717657/medical-genetics-and-genomic-medicine-in-the-united-states-of-america-part-1-history-demographics-legislation-and-burden-of-disease
#13
Carlos R Ferreira, Debra S Regier, Donald W Hadley, P Suzanne Hart, Maximilian Muenke
Medical genetics and genomic medicine in the United States of America. Part 1: history, demographics, legislation, and burden of disease.
July 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717259/a-computerized-tutor-prototype-for-prostate-cryotherapy-key-building-blocks-and-system-evaluation
#14
Yoed Rabin, Kenji Shimada, Purva Joshi, Anjali Sehrawat, Robert Keelan, Dona M Wilfong, James T McCormick
This paper focuses on the evaluation of a prototype for a computer-based tutoring system for prostate cryosurgery, while reviewing its key building blocks and their benchmark performance. The tutoring system lists geometrical constraints of cryoprobe placement, displays a rendered shape of the prostate, simulates cryoprobe insertion, enables distance measurements, simulates the corresponding thermal history, and evaluates the mismatch between the target region shape and a pre-selected planning isotherm. The quality of trainee planning is measured in comparison with a computer-generated plan, created for each case study by a previously developed planning algorithm, known as bubble-packing...
January 28, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716677/incidence-of-active-tuberculosis-in-individuals-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-rural-china-follow-up-results-of-a-population-based-multicentre-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Lei Gao, Xiangwei Li, Jianmin Liu, Xinhua Wang, Wei Lu, Liqiong Bai, Henan Xin, Haoran Zhang, Hengjing Li, Zongde Zhang, Yu Ma, Mufei Li, Boxuan Feng, Jiang Du, Hongtao Sui, Rong Zhao, Haoxiang Su, Shouguo Pan, Ling Guan, Fei Shen, Jian He, Shumin Yang, Hongyan Si, Xu Cheng, Zuhui Xu, Yunhong Tan, Tianzhu Chen, Weiguo Xu, Hong Peng, Zhijian Wang, Tao Zhu, Xiaoyou Chen, Xinhua Zhou, Xueling Guan, Qi Jin
BACKGROUND: The management of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is a new priority action for the WHO End Tuberculosis (TB) Strategy. However, national guidelines on latent tuberculosis infection testing and treatment have not yet been developed in China. Here, we present the results from the 2-year follow-up of a study that aimed to track the development of active disease in individuals with latent tuberculosis infection, identify priority populations for latent infection management, and explore the most suitable latent infection diagnostic approach...
July 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716571/antiviral-effect-of-forsythoside-a-from-forsythia-suspensa-thunb-vahl-fruit-against-influenza-a-virus-through-reduction-of-viral-m1-protein
#16
Anna Hing-Yee Law, Cindy Lai-Hung Yang, Allan Sik-Yin Lau, Godfrey Chi-Fung Chan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Yinqiaosan is a classical traditional Chinese medicine formula, which has been used to treat respiratory diseases since ancient China. It consists of nine herbs and among them, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl fruit is one of the major herbal components. Despite the long history of Yinqiaosan, the active compounds and the mechanisms of action of this formula remain elusive. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to examine the suppressive effect of Yinqiaosan on influenza virus and to identify the active components in the formula targeting influenza...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713872/systems-medicine-complexity-within-simplicity-without
#17
EDITORIAL
Richard Berlin, Russell Gruen, James Best
This paper presents a brief history of Systems Theory, progresses to Systems Biology, and its relation to the more traditional investigative method of reductionism. The emergence of Systems Medicine represents the application of Systems Biology to disease and clinical issues. The challenges faced by this transition from Systems Biology to Systems Medicine are explained; the requirements of physicians at the bedside, caring for patients, as well as the place of human-human interaction and the needs of the patients are addressed...
2017: J Healthc Inform Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711897/studying-risk-factors-for-skin-cancer-development
#18
Оlena О Оshyvalova
INTRODUCTION: In most countries with a population of mainly European origin, non-melanoma skin carcinoma incidence rate has increased over the last decade. Understanding of what is the best way to identify people at high risk for skin cancer development will help to optimize the strategy for prevention and treatment tactics. Aim of the research involves studying risk factors for skin cancer development in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in situ (cSCC and SCCis correspondingly) and patients with actinic keratosis (AK)...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711556/medicine-based-evidence-for-individualized-decision-making-case-study-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosis
#19
Ashley E Wivel, Kate Lapane, Christi Kleoudis, Burton H Singer, Ralph I Horwitz
To guide management decisions of an index patient evidence is required from comparisons between approximate matches to the profile of the index case, where some matches contain responses to treatment and others act as controls. We describe a method for constructing clinically relevant histories/profiles using data collected but unreported from two recent phase 3 RCTs assessing belimumab in subjects with clinically active and serologically positive SLE. Outcomes were the SRI (SLE Responder Index) measured at 52 weeks...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711275/chemotherapy-induced-stroke-mimic-5-fluorouracil-encephalopathy-fulfilling-criteria-for-tissue-plasminogen-activator-therapy
#20
May Thuy Nguyen, Robyn Stoianovici, Luigi Brunetti
Stroke mimics, especially those involving chemotherapy related neurotoxicity, can confound the clinical diagnosis of acute stroke. Here we describe the case of a 63year-old male with a recent history of stage IIIC colon cancer who presented with confusion on the second day of modified FOLFOX6 (5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin) chemotherapy and subsequently received alteplase, tissue plasminogen activator therapy (tPA), for presumed ischemic stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging scans after tPA administration did not reveal evidence of an infarction and the patients' neurological symptoms resolved completely after discontinuation of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)...
July 6, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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