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History of medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691801/a-brief-history-of-the-opioid-epidemic-and-strategies-for-pain-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Mark R Jones, Omar Viswanath, Jacquelin Peck, Alan D Kaye, Jatinder S Gill, Thomas T Simopoulos
The opioid epidemic has resulted from myriad causes and will not be solved by any simple solution. Consequent to a staggering increase in opioid-related deaths in the USA, various governmental inputs and stakeholder strategies have been proposed and implemented with varying success. This article summarizes the history of opioid use and explores the causes for the present day epidemic. Recent trends in opioid-related data demonstrate an almost fourfold increase in overdose deaths from 1999 to 2008. Tragically, opioids claimed over 64,000 lives just last year...
April 24, 2018: Pain and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691668/introduction-to-working-across-species
#2
EDITORIAL
Rachel Mason Dentinger, Abigail Woods
Comparison between different animal species is omnipresent in the history of science and medicine but rarely subject to focussed historical analysis. The articles in the "Working Across Species" topical collection address this deficit by looking directly at the practical and epistemic work of cross-species comparison. Drawn from papers presented at a Wellcome-Trust-funded workshop in 2016, these papers investigate various ways that comparison has been made persuasive and successful, in multiple locations, by diverse disciplines, over the course of two centuries...
April 24, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690886/loss-of-alpha-smooth-muscle-actin-expression-associated-with-chronic-intestinal-pseudo-obstruction-in-a-young-miniature-bull-terrier
#3
Gian Enrico Magi, Francesca Mariotti, Sara Berardi, Andrea Piccinini, Cecilia Vullo, Angela Palumbo Piccionello, Giacomo Rossi
BACKGROUND: Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare clinical syndrome in veterinary medicine characterized by severe intestinal dysmotility without evidence of mechanical occlusion of the intestinal lumen. The exact pathogenesis of CIPO is unknown. CASE PRESENTATION: A 1-year-old male Miniature Bull Terrier dog was presented with a history of chronic weight loss, regurgitation, lethargy, vomiting and diarrhea. The dog was submitted for exploratory laparotomy...
April 24, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687152/-double-standards-the-medical-student-kurt-gerstein-and-the-history-of-anatomical-body-procurement-in-germany
#4
Mathias Schütz
This article presents a hitherto unknown memorandum authored by Kurt Gerstein, the Confessing Church's resistance fighter and witness to the Holocaust. In this memorandum, submitted to the Reich Ministry of the Interior in April 1938, Gerstein deals extensively with the contemporary system of anatomical body procurement, its roots and predicaments. Putting the memorandum into the wider context of his discordant life allows a gap to be closed in Gerstein's biography, whereby his relationship with medicine presented a means of moral reorientation between a Christian requirement and the National Socialist reality...
April 23, 2018: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686614/traditional-chinese-medicine-for-bradyarrhythmia-evidence-and-potential-mechanisms
#5
Shuo Liu, Guihua Tian, Jing Chen, Xiaoyu Zhang, Aiming Wu, Min Li, Yang Sun, Baoshan Liu, Yanwei Xing, Hongcai Shang
Importance: The incidence of Bradyarrhythmias is high among the population. However, at early stages of the disease, it cannot always get enough attention and is lack of safe and effective therapies, until it is serious enough to resort to pacemaker implantation. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a long history of treating Bradyarrhythmia, with a lot of formulas being widely used in clinical practice. While the effectiveness and the underlying mechanisms of these formulas have not yet been clearly identified...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686582/medicine-as-a-sacred-vocation
#6
Sister Jane Dominic Laurel
This brief survey examines the concept of medicine as a sacred vocation by examining its origins, manifestations, and development in history. In the Paleolithic and Neolithic eras, the practice of medicine was considered a sacred vocation because, like the practice of religion, it sought to preserve life. Moreover, it involved a specialized knowledge and the power of healing, both of which were associated with the sacred and the divine. In Classical Antiquity, the Hippocratic innovations in medicine used human reason and creativity to study the nature of disease...
January 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685372/emergency-physician-risk-estimates-and-admission-decisions-for-chest-pain-a-web-based-scenario-study
#7
David L Schriger, Michael Menchine, Warren Wiechmann, Guy Carmelli
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We conducted this study to better understand how emergency physicians estimate risk and make admission decisions for patients with low-risk chest pain. METHODS: We created a Web-based survey consisting of 5 chest pain scenarios that included history, physical examination, ECG findings, and basic laboratory studies, including a negative initial troponin-level result. We administered the scenarios in random order to emergency medicine residents and faculty at 11 US emergency medicine residency programs...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684932/-antibiotic-use-and-reduction-in-veterinary-medicine
#8
Thomas Blaha
After a short history of the development of antimicrobial substances and the initially underestimated resistance problem, the paper describes the method of monitoring the use of antibiotics in food animals at farm level. The resulting benchmarking led to a remarkable reduction of the amount of antibiotics used in animals. However, it is also explained that, apart from reducing the use of antibiotics, the rules for "prudent use" of antibiotics have to be complied with. Concluding, a critical analysis of the effectiveness of the current interpretation of the "critically important antimicrobials for human medicine is discussed...
May 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682363/acute-intoxication-following-dimethyltryptamine-ingestion
#9
Matthew H Bilhimer, Rachel F Schult, Kristan V Higgs, Timothy J Wiegand, Rachel M Gorodetsky, Nicole M Acquisto
Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic tea that is most commonly comprised of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi alone or in combination with other plants such as Psychotria viridis . This concoction results in an orally active form of dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a hallucinogenic amine. Despite use in South America as a medicinal agent and component in religious ceremonies, interest in its recreational use and spiritual effects has led to increased use in the United States. We describe a unique case following ingestion of ayahuasca tea in a patient with history of schizophrenia resulting in personal injury and property damage...
2018: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681971/analysis-of-dietary-related-factors-of-recurrent-aphthous-stomatitis-among-college-students
#10
Qian Du, Shenglou Ni, Yanling Fu, Sanhai Liu
Objective: We investigated the occurrence of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) among college students and its potential influence by dietary habits. Methods: Study of dietary habits and RAS among students in Beijing University of Chinese Medicine was carried by homemade questionnaire. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify RAS risk factors and explore their relations. Results: Among 1011 investigated college students, family history (odds ratio (OR) 1...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681550/the-fielding-h-garrison-lecture-great-doctor-history
#11
Barron H Lerner
For decades, physicians wrote much of the history of medicine, often "great man" histories that celebrated their colleagues' accomplishments as part of a celebratory historical narrative. Beginning in the 1970s, social historians challenged this type of scholarship, arguing that it was Whiggish, omitted the flaws of the medical profession, left patients out of the story, and ignored issues of gender, race, and class. This Garrison Lecture revisits this history through the prism of my recent book, The Good Doctor: A Father, a Son, and the Evolution of Medical Ethics, which is essentially a biography of my physician father, Phillip Lerner, and an autobiography...
2018: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681547/to-place-or-not-to-place-toward-an-environmental-history-of-modern-medicine
#12
Christopher Sellers
Reviewing recent, overlapping work by historians of medicine and health and of environmental history, this article proposes a further agenda upon which scholars in both fields may converge. Both environmental and medical historians can seek to understand the past two centuries of medical history in terms of a seesaw dialogue over the ways and means by which physicians and other health professionals did, and did not, consider the influence of place-airs and waters included-on disease. Modernizing and professionalizing as well as new styles of science nourished attendant aspirations for a clinical place neutrality, for a medicine in which patients' own places didn't matter to what doctors thought or did...
2018: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680805/examining-the-use-of-natural-in-breastfeeding-promotion-ethical-and-practical-concerns
#13
Jessica Martucci, Anne Barnhill
References to the 'natural' are common in public health messaging about breastfeeding. For example, the WHO writes that 'Breast milk is the natural first food for babies' and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has a breastfeeding promotion campaign called 'It's only natural', which champions breastfeeding as the natural way to feed a baby. This paper critically examines the use of 'natural' language in breastfeeding promotion by public health and medical bodies. A pragmatic concern with selling breastfeeding as 'natural' is that this may reinforce the already widespread perspective that natural options are presumptively healthier, safer and better, a view that works at cross-purposes to public health and medicine in other contexts...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680098/modeling-clinical-outcomes-in-prostate-cancer-application-and-validation-of-the-discrete-event-simulation-approach
#14
Feng Pan, Odette Reifsnider, Ying Zheng, Irina Proskorovsky, Tracy Li, Jianming He, Sonja V Sorensen
OBJECTIVES: Treatment landscape in prostate cancer has changed dramatically with the emergence of new medicines in the past few years. The traditional survival partition model (SPM) cannot accurately predict long-term clinical outcomes because it is limited by its ability to capture the key consequences associated with this changing treatment paradigm. The objective of this study was to introduce and validate a discrete-event simulation (DES) model for prostate cancer. METHODS: A DES model was developed to simulate overall survival (OS) and other clinical outcomes based on patient characteristics, treatment received, and disease progression history...
April 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678720/a-completely-human-derived-biomaterial-mimicking-limbal-niche-platelet-rich-fibrin-gel
#15
Gamze Dereli Can, Özge Ekin Akdere, Mehmet Erol Can, Bahri Aydın, Nurullah Cagil, Menemşe Gümüşderelioğlu
Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a natural biomaterial and has excellent biochemical and physical properties with a history of proven biocompatibility in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Recent reports of fibrin-based matrices have offered new opportunities to apply PRF as a supplement for in vitro cell culture. Here, custom-modified human-derived PRF (HPRF) was produced via different centrifugation protocols, then, characterized by morphologically and chemically and utilized as a substrate and as a conditioned medium for limbal explant culture for the first time...
April 17, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678131/secimtools-a-suite-of-metabolomics-data-analysis-tools
#16
Alexander S Kirpich, Miguel Ibarra, Oleksandr Moskalenko, Justin M Fear, Joseph Gerken, Xinlei Mi, Ali Ashrafi, Alison M Morse, Lauren M McIntyre
BACKGROUND: Metabolomics has the promise to transform the area of personalized medicine with the rapid development of high throughput technology for untargeted analysis of metabolites. Open access, easy to use, analytic tools that are broadly accessible to the biological community need to be developed. While technology used in metabolomics varies, most metabolomics studies have a set of features identified. Galaxy is an open access platform that enables scientists at all levels to interact with big data...
April 20, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678060/knowledge-driven-interpretation-of-multi-view-data-in-medicine
#17
Parvathy Sudhir Pillai, Lei Feng, Tze-Yun Leong
We propose a new approach to clinical decision support with interpretable recommendations from multi-view data. We introduce a Bayesian network structure learning method to help identify the relevant factors and their relationships. Guided by minimal domain knowledge, this method highlights the significant associations among the demography, medical and family history, lifestyle, and biomarker data to facilitate informed clinical decisions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for detecting mild neurocognitive disorder in the elderly from a real-life dataset in Singapore...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676109/-research-actuality-and-quality-influencing-factor-of-epimedii-folium
#18
Ai-Ping Deng, Wen-Tao Fang, Qing-Gang Zhou, Hong-Jun Yang, Ling Wang, Tie-Gui Nan, Li-Ping Kang, Lan-Ping Guo, Lu-Qi Huang, Zhi-Lai Zhan
Epimedii Folium has a long history in China as a common traditional Chinese medicine. Key factors of Epimedii Folium quality were summarized based on ancient literatures, Chinese Pharmacopoeias and modern research in different period of history. The main reason for unqualified Epimedii Folium is unstable icariin. Therefore, it's suggested that: the precondition of the quality control of epimedium is to find the proper quality marker. It's suggested that the medicinal parts should be reverted to "dry whole plant overground" to solve Epimedium resource shortage problem...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676108/-fecal-tibetan-medicines
#19
Huan Du, Tong Xu, Hai-Jiao Li, Qi Li, Chen-Lei GangHuan, Gang Fan, Yi Zhang
Fecal Tibetan medicines have a long history of application in China, with a good clinical efficacy. In order to promote the development and modernization of these medicines, we consulted ancient and modern Tibetan medicine literatures to collect and summarize the names, original species, natures, flavor, functions and processing methods of fecal Tibetan medicines. A total of 35 fecal Tibetan medicines were collected, such as Jiufen, Heibingpian, Langfen, Mafen, Goufen, Gezifen. The most commonly used medicines were Jiufen and Heibingpian...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675485/comparison-of-the-pregnancy-outcomes-between-the-medical-and-surgical-treatments-in-tubal-ectopi-pregnancy
#20
Azadeh Yousefnezhad, Azar Pirdehghan, Mahboubeh Roshandel Rad, Aemeh Eskandari, Shahnaz Ahmadi
Background: Various treatments have been proposed to treat ectopic pregnancy, but their impact on future pregnancies is still the subject of controversy. Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the medical and surgical treatment methods and their impact on the subsequent fertility results and complications in women with a history of ectopic pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In this analytical, cross-sectional study, 370 women with the history of ectopic pregnancy, (treared with single dose of methotrexate or salpingectomy by laparotomy), that referred to Al-Zahra Hospital, Rasht, Guilan between 2009 to 2013 were enrolled...
January 2018: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
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