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Biomedical engineering

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813592/3d-printed-phema-materials-for-topographical-and-biochemical-modulation-of-dorsal-root-ganglion-cell-response
#1
Adina Badea, Joselle M McCracken, Emily G Tillmaand, Mikhail Eugene Kandel, Aaron W Oraham, Molly B Mevis, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Gabriel Popescu, Jonathan V Sweedler, Ralph G Nuzzo
Understanding and controlling the interactions occurring between cells and engineered materials are central challenges towards progress in the development of biomedical devices. In this work, we describe materials for direct ink writing (DIW), an extrusion-based type of 3D printing, that embed a custom synthetic protein (RGD-PDL) within the microfilaments of 3D-hydrogel scaffolds to modify these interactions and differentially direct tissue-level organization of complex cell populations in vitro. The RGD-PDL is synthesized by modifying poly-ᴅ-lysine (PDL) to varying extents with peptides containing the integrin-binding motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810960/talk-to-the-hand-u-s-army-biophysical-testing
#2
William R Santee, Adam W Potter, Karl E Friedl
BACKGROUND: Many people are unaware of the science underlying the biophysical properties of Soldier clothing and personal protective equipment, yet there is a well-refined biomedical methodology initiated by Army physiologists in World War II. This involves a methodical progression of systematic material testing technologies, computer modeling, and human testing that enables more efficient development and rapid evaluation of new concepts for Soldier health and performance. Sophisticated manikins that sweat and move are a central part of this testing continuum...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809114/boolean-logic-tree-of-label-free-dual-signal-electrochemical-aptasensor-system-for-biosensing-three-state-logic-computation-and-keypad-lock-security-operation
#3
Jiao Yang Lu, Xin Xing Zhang, Wei Tao Huang, Qiu Yan Zhu, Xuezhi Ding, Liqiu Xia, Hong Qun Luo, Nian Bing Li
The most serious and yet unsolved problems of molecular logic computing, consist in how to connect molecular events in complex systems into a usable device with specific functions and how to selectively control branchy logic processes from the cascading logic systems. This report demonstrates that Boolean logic tree is utilized to organize and connect "plug and play" chemical events DNA, nanomaterials, organic dye, biomolecule, and denaturant for developing the dual-signal electrochemical evolution aptasensor system with good resettability for amplification detection of thrombin, controllable and selectable three-state logic computation and keypad lock security operation...
August 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807672/pharmacological-characterization-of-novel-synthetic-opioids-nso-found-in-the-recreational-drug-marketplace
#4
REVIEW
Michael H Baumann, Susruta Majumdar, Valerie Le Rouzic, Amanda Hunkele, Rajendra Uprety, Xi Ping Huang, Jin Xu, Bryan L Roth, Ying-Xian Pan, Gavril W Pasternak
Novel synthetic opioids (NSO) are increasingly encountered in illicit heroin and counterfeit pain pills. Many NSO are resurrected from older biomedical literature or patent applications, so limited information is available about their biological effects. Here we examined the pharmacology of three structurally-distinct NSO found in the recreational drug market: N-(1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl)-N-phenylbutyramide (butyrylfentanyl), 3,4-dichloro-N-[(1R,2R)-2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-methylbenzamide (U-47700) and 1-cyclohexyl-4-(1,2-diphenylethyl)piperazine (MT-45)...
August 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804933/chemical-functionalization-of-polysaccharides-towards-biocompatible-hydrogels-for-biomedical-applications
#5
Andreas Kirschning, Gerald Dräger, Nick Dibbert
Hydrogels have emerged as a highly interdisciplinary topic as they play a significant role for a vast number of applications. They have been studied extensively as materials for contact lenses, wound dressing and as filler material in soft-tissue augmentation, in which classical polymer backbones such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) are typically employed. More recently, polysaccharides have received attention, particularly in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, as ideal candidate materials for artificial extracellular matrices (ECM)...
August 13, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804866/virally-vectored-vaccine-delivery-medical-needs-mechanisms-advantages-and-challenges
#6
Daniel D Pinschewer
Vaccines represent one of the most successful chapters in the history of medicine. Over the past decades, the advent of recombinant cDNA technology has enabled the biomedical community to genetically engineer viruses for vaccine delivery purposes. As a starting point, this review evaluates the unmet medical needs, which drive scientists and industry to exploit such fundamentally new technology for human vaccination. The author discusses the molecular functioning, production and safety profile of replication-competent and -deficient viral vector systems, representing two fundamentally distinct classes of "genetic vaccines"...
August 14, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803514/investigation-sensitivity-analysis-and-multi-objective-optimization-of-effective-parameters-on-temperature-and-force-in-robotic-drilling-cortical-bone
#7
Vahid Tahmasbi, Majid Ghoreishi, Mojtaba Zolfaghari
The bone drilling process is very prominent in orthopedic surgeries and in the repair of bone fractures. It is also very common in dentistry and bone sampling operations. Due to the complexity of bone and the sensitivity of the process, bone drilling is one of the most important and sensitive processes in biomedical engineering. Orthopedic surgeries can be improved using robotic systems and mechatronic tools. The most crucial problem during drilling is an unwanted increase in process temperature (higher than 47 °C), which causes thermal osteonecrosis or cell death and local burning of the bone tissue...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802850/thermo-sensitive-chitosan-copolymer-gold-hybrid-nanoparticles-as-a-nanocarrier-for-delivery-of-erlotinib
#8
Marziyeh Fathi, Parham Sahandi Zangabad, Jaleh Barar, Ayuob Aghanejad, Hamid Erfan-Niya, Yadollah Omidi
Here, using (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-oleic acid)-g-chitosan ((PNIPAAm-co-OA)-g-CS), CS copolymer-gold hybrid nanoparticles (CGH NPs) were synthesized by autoreduction of auric cations (HAuCl4) in aqueous solution in the absence of any other reducing agent. The engineered thermo-sensitive CS copolymer with free amino groups could reduce auric cations and stabilized the resultant NPs. CGH NPs were prepared using different concentrations of CS copolymer (0.1-1% w/v) and HAuCl4 (50-500μL, 0.2% w/v). They were characterized in terms of structure, surface Plasmon band, zeta potential, atomic absorption, stability, size and size distribution...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799737/method-to-assemble-genomic-dna-fragments-or-genes-on-human-artificial-chromosome-with-regulated-kinetochore-using-a-multi-integrase-system
#9
Nicholas C O Lee, Jung-Hyun Kim, Nikolai Petrov, Hee-Sheung Lee, Hiroshi Masumoto, William C Earnshaw, Vladimir Larionov, Natalay Kouprina
The production of cells capable of carrying multiple transgenes to Mb-size genomic loci has multiple applications in biomedicine and biotechnology. In order to achieve this goal, three key steps are required: i) Cloning of large genomic segments; ii) Insertion of multiple DNA blocks at a precise location and iii) The capability to eliminate the assembled region from cells. In this study, we designed the Iterative Integration System (IIS) that utilizes recombinases Cre, ΦC31 and ΦBT1, and combined it with Human Artificial Chromosome (HAC) possessing a regulated kinetochore (alphoid(tetO)-HAC)...
August 11, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795726/a-hollow-fiber-system-for-simple-generation-of-human-brain-organoids
#10
Yujuan Zhu, Li Wang, Fangchao Yin, Yue Yu, Yaqing Wang, Hui Liu, Hui Wang, Ning Sun, Haitao Liu, Jianhua Qin
3D organoids exhibit near-physiological morphogenesis and histology relying on the self-organization of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), representing a new class of in vitro model for studying developmental biology and diseases. An engineered approach is highly desirable to generate sufficient organoids in a simple and efficient manner. Herein, we present a new strategy for the simple formation of massive human brain organoids from hiPSCs within a hollow fiber reactor system by combining fiber materials with the developmental biology principle...
August 10, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795530/construction-of-silica-based-micro-nanoplatforms-for-ultrasound-theranostic-biomedicine
#11
REVIEW
Yang Zhou, Xiaoxia Han, Xiangxiang Jing, Yu Chen
Ultrasound (US)-based biomedicine has been extensively explored for its applications in both diagnostic imaging and disease therapy. The fast development of theranostic nanomedicine significantly promotes the development of US-based biomedicine. This progress report summarizes and discusses the recent developments of rational design and fabrication of silica-based micro/nanoparticles for versatile US-based biomedical applications. The synthetic strategies and surface-engineering approaches of silica-based micro/nanoparticles are initially discussed, followed by detailed introduction on their US-based theranostic applications...
August 10, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792773/easy-to-apply-polyoxazoline-based-coating-for-precise-and-long-term-control-of-neural-patterns
#12
Serge Weydert, Stefan Zürcher, Stefanie Tanner, Ning Zhang, Rebecca Ritter, Thomas Peter, Mathias J Aebersold, Greta Thompson-Steckel, Csaba Forró, Markus Rottmar, Flurin Stauffer, Irene A Valassina, Giulia Morgese, Edmondo M Benetti, Samuele Tosatti, János Vörös
Arranging cultured cells in patterns via surface modification is a tool used by biologists to answer questions in a specific and controlled manner. In the past decade, bottom-up neuroscience emerged as a new application, which aims to get a better understanding of the brain via reverse engineering and analyzing elementary circuitry in vitro. Building well-defined neural networks is the ultimate goal. Antifouling coatings are often used to control neurite outgrowth. Because erroneous connectivity alters the entire topology and functionality of minicircuits, the requirements are demanding...
August 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790821/parallel-comparative-studies-on-toxicity-of-quantum-dots-synthesized-and-surface-engineered-with-different-methods-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#13
Fengjun Liu, Wen Ye, Jun Wang, Fengxiang Song, Yingsheng Cheng, Bingbo Zhang
Quantum dots (QDs) have been considered to be promising probes for biosensing, bioimaging, and diagnosis. However, their toxicity issues caused by heavy metals in QDs remain to be addressed, in particular for their in vivo biomedical applications. In this study, a parallel comparative investigation in vitro and in vivo is presented to disclose the impact of synthetic methods and their following surface modifications on the toxicity of QDs. Cellular assays after exposure to QDs were conducted including cell viability assessment, DNA breakage study in a single cellular level, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) receptor measurement, and transmission electron microscopy to evaluate their toxicity in vitro...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783079/an-ultra-low-power-turning-angle-based-biomedical-signal-compression-engine-with-adaptive-threshold-tuning
#14
Jun Zhou, Chao Wang
Intelligent sensing is drastically changing our everyday life including healthcare by biomedical signal monitoring, collection, and analytics. However, long-term healthcare monitoring generates tremendous data volume and demands significant wireless transmission power, which imposes a big challenge for wearable healthcare sensors usually powered by batteries. Efficient compression engine design to reduce wireless transmission data rate with ultra-low power consumption is essential for wearable miniaturized healthcare sensor systems...
August 6, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778063/coaxial-electrospun-pcl-gelatin-ma-fibers-as-scaffolds-for-vascular-tissue-engineering
#15
P Coimbra, P Santos, P Alves, Sónia P Miguel, Marco P Carvalho, Kevin D de Sá, I J Correia, P Ferreira
Coaxial electrospinning is a technique that allows the production of nanofibers with a core-shell structure. Such fibers present several advantages as materials for the preparation of scaffolds, namely due to the possibility of combining a core with the desired mechanical properties with a shell prepared from biocompatible materials that will establish proper interactions with the host. Herein, core-shell fibrous meshes, composed of a polycaprolactone (PCL) core and a functionalized gelatin shell, were prepared by coaxial electrospinning and then photocrosslinked under UV light aiming to be used in vascular tissue regeneration...
July 26, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776059/highly-tough-anti-fatigue-and-rapidly-self-recoverable-hydrogels-reinforced-with-core-shell-inorganic-organic-hybrid-latex-particles
#16
Shan Xia, Shixin Song, Xiuyan Ren, Guanghui Gao
The introduction of SiO2 particles as crosslinking points into hydrogels has been recognized as a suitable way for toughening hydrogels, due to their versatile functionalization and large specific surface area. However, chemically linked SiO2 nanocomposite hydrogels often exhibited negligible fatigue resistance and poor self-recoverable properties due to the irreversible cleavage of covalent bonds. Here, we proposed a novel strategy to improve stretchability, fatigue resistance and self-recoverable properties of hydrogels by using SiO2-g-poly(butyl acrylate) core-shell inorganic-organic hybrid latex particles as hydrophobic crosslinking centers for hydrophobic association...
August 4, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774440/heart-rate-variability-metrics-for-fine-grained-stress-level-assessment
#17
Tânia Pereira, Pedro R Almeida, João P S Cunha, Ana Aguiar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In spite of the existence of a multitude of techniques that allow the estimation of stress from physiological indexes, its fine-grained assessment is still a challenge for biomedical engineering. The short-term assessment of stress condition overcomes the limits to stress characterization with long blocks of time and allows to evaluate the behaviour change in real-world settings and also the stress level dynamics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate time and frequency domain and nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) metrics for stress level assessment using a short-time window...
September 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773871/expression-of-concern-nanodimensional-and-nanocrystalline-apatites-and-other-calcium-orthophosphates-in-biomedical-engineering-biology-and-medicine-materials-2009-2-1975-2045
#18
Maryam Tabrizian
We wish to make readers aware that the text in the published paper [1] contains substantial overlap with a previous paper by the same author [2].[...].
September 2, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773109/thermomechanical-properties-of-polylactic-acid-graphene-composites-a-state-of-the-art-review-for-biomedical-applications
#19
REVIEW
Ilker S Bayer
Due to its biodegradable and bioabsorbable characteristics polylactic acid (PLA) has attracted considerable attention for numerous biomedical applications. Moreover, a number of tissue engineering problems for function restoration of impaired tissues have been addressed by using PLA and its copolymers due to their biocompatibility and distinctive mechanical properties. Recent studies on various stereocomplex formation between enantiomeric PLA, poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(d-lactide) (PDLA) indicated that stereocomplexation enhances the mechanical properties as well as the thermal- and hydrolysis-resistance of PLA polymers...
July 4, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772604/special-issue-3d-printing-for-biomedical-engineering
#20
EDITORIAL
Chee Kai Chua, Wai Yee Yeong, Jia An
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has a long history of applications in biomedical engineering. The development and expansion of traditional biomedical applications are being advanced and enriched by new printing technologies. New biomedical applications such as bioprinting are highly attractive and trendy. This Special Issue aims to provide readers with a glimpse of the recent profile of 3D printing in biomedical research.
February 28, 2017: Materials
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