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Biomedical engineering

William A Suk, Michelle L Heacock, Brittany A Trottier, Sara M Amolegbe, Maureen D Avakian, Heather F Henry, Danielle J Carlin, Larry G Reed
BACKGROUND: The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Basic Research and Training Program (SRP) funds a wide range of transdisciplinary research projects spanning the biomedical and environmental sciences and engineering, supporting and promoting the application of that research to solving real-world problems. OBJECTIVES: We used a case study approach to identify the economic and societal benefits of SRP-funded research, focusing on the use of potentially hazardous substance remediation and site monitoring tools...
June 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Giovanni D'Addio, Luigi Iuppariello, Paolo Bifulco, Bernardo Lanzillo, Nicola Pappone, Mario Cesarelli
OBJECTIVES: Smart fabrics and interactive textiles are a relatively new area of research, with many potential applications in the field of biomedical engineering. The ability of smart textiles to interact with the body provides a novel means to sense the wearer's physiology and respond to the needs of the wearer. Physiological signals, such as heart rate, breathing rates, and activity levels, are useful indicators of health status. These signals can be measured by means of textile-based sensors integrated into smart clothing which has the ability to keep a digital record of the patient's physiological responses since his or her last clinical visit, allowing doctors to make a more accurate diagnosis...
December 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Vineet Govinda Gupta, Sameer Bakhshi
Aljitawi OS, Paul S, Ganguly A, Lin TL, Ganguly S, Vielhauer G, Capitano ML, Cantilena A, Lipe B, Mahnken JD, Wise A, Berry A, Singh AK, Shune L, Lominska C, Abhyankar S, Allin D, Laughlin M, McGuirk JP, Broxmeyer HE. (Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapy; Hematology and Transplantation Translational Research Laboratory ; Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas; Division of Hematology/Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Program, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York; Department of Urology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana; Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Biostatistics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas; Cleveland Cord Blood Center, Cleveland, Ohio; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA...
September 2017: National Medical Journal of India
Lucienne N Duru, Zhenzhen Quan, Talal Jamil Qazi, Hong Qing
Stem cell research has recently become a hot research topic in biomedical research due to the foreseen unlimited potential of stem cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. For many years, medicine has been facing intense challenges, such as an insufficient number of organ donations that is preventing clinicians to fulfill the increasing needs. To try and overcome this regrettable matter, research has been aiming at developing strategies to facilitate the in vitro culture and study of stem cells as a tool for tissue regeneration...
June 18, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Ahmad Mohammad Abdel-Mawgoud, Gregory Stephanopoulos
Glycosylated lipids (GLs) are added-value lipid derivatives of great potential. Besides their interesting surface activities that qualify many of them to act as excellent ecological detergents, they have diverse biological activities with promising biomedical and cosmeceutical applications. Glycolipids, especially those of microbial origin, have interesting antimicrobial, anticancer, antiparasitic as well as immunomodulatory activities. Nonetheless, GLs are hardly accessing the market because of their high cost of production...
March 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Julie Polisena, Rossana Castaldo, Oriana Ciani, Carlo Federici, Simone Borsci, Matteo Ritrovato, Daniel Clark, Leandro Pecchia
OBJECTIVES: Current health technology assessment (HTA) methods guidelines for medical devices may benefit from contributions by biomedical and clinical engineers. Our study aims to: (i) review and identify gaps in the current HTA guidelines on medical devices, (ii) propose recommendations to optimize the impact of HTA for medical devices, and (iii) reach a consensus among biomedical engineers on these recommendations. METHODS: A gray literature search of HTA agency Web sites for assessment methods guidelines on devices was conducted...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
Philip van Damme, Manuel Quesada-Martínez, Ronald Cornet, Jesualdo Tomás Fernández-Breis
Ontologies and terminologies have been identified as key resources for the achievement of semantic interoperability in biomedical domains. The development of ontologies is performed as a joint work by domain experts and knowledge engineers. The maintenance and auditing of these resources is also the responsibility of such experts, and this is usually a time-consuming, mostly manual task. Manual auditing is impractical and ineffective for most biomedical ontologies, especially for larger ones. An example is SNOMED CT, a key resource in many countries for codifying medical information...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Lutao Jiang, Yan Liang, Qingqing Huo, Yuji Pu, Wei Lu, Shangcong Han, Jie Cao, Bin He, Yong Sun
Bio-inspired supramolecular self-assembly have been widely explored in biomedical engineering, especially in the field of drug delivery. Here, viral capsid analogue pH-Sensitive polymeric micelles HA-Hyd-DOX were reported, where natural polysacarrides hyaluronic acid (HA) and anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), were linked through a hydrazone bond with a high drug loading content of 33.09 wt%. The polymeric micelles look like artificial virus capsids from "core-shell" structures. In addition, the polymeric backbone HA and hydrazone bonds were destroyed in the presence of hyaluronidase in cancer cells and under the acidic conditions of pH = 5 respectively, thereby prodrug-based polymeric micelles could penetrate into the tumor and DOX could be released in lysosomes to enhance anticancer efficacy...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Vivek Navale, Philip E Bourne
Biomedical research has become a digital data-intensive endeavor, relying on secure and scalable computing, storage, and network infrastructure, which has traditionally been purchased, supported, and maintained locally. For certain types of biomedical applications, cloud computing has emerged as an alternative to locally maintained traditional computing approaches. Cloud computing offers users pay-as-you-go access to services such as hardware infrastructure, platforms, and software for solving common biomedical computational problems...
June 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Cheyann Lee Wetteland, Huinan Liu
This article reports a new process for creating polymer-based nanocomposites with enhanced dispersion of ceramic nanoparticles without using any surfactants, and the resulted changes in their optical and biological properties. Specifically, dispersion of two different ceramic nanoparticles, i.e, hydroxyapatite (nHA) and magnesium oxide (nMgO) nanoparticles, in a model biodegradable polymer, namely poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), was studied. High-power sonication was integrated with dual asymmetric centrifugal (DAC) mixing to improve dispersion of nanoparticles during solvent casting...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Xiaojing Wang, Guowei Wang, Sarah Zingales, Baodong Zhao
Repairing bone defects poses a major orthopedic challenge because current treatments are constrained by the limited regenerative capacity of human bone tissue. Novel therapeutic strategies, such as stem cell therapy and tissue engineering, have the potential to enhance bone healing and regeneration, and hence may improve quality of life for millions of people. However, the ex vivo expansion of stem cells and their in vivo delivery pose technical difficulties that hamper clinical translation and commercial development...
June 13, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Kevin L Sack, Eric Aliotta, Daniel B Ennis, Jenny S Choy, Ghassan S Kassab, Julius M Guccione, Thomas Franz
Predictive computational modeling has revolutionized classical engineering disciplines and is in the process of transforming cardiovascular research. This is particularly relevant for investigating emergent therapies for heart failure, which remains a leading cause of death globally. The creation of subject-specific biventricular computational cardiac models has been a long-term endeavor within the biomedical engineering community. Using high resolution (0.3 × 0.3 × 0.8 mm) ex vivo data, we constructed a precise fully subject-specific biventricular finite-element model of healthy and failing swine hearts...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Michelly C G Pellá, Michele K Lima-Tenório, Ernandes T Tenório-Neto, Marcos R Guilherme, Edvani C Muniz, Adley F Rubira
The advances in the field of biomaterials have led to several studies on alternative biocompatible devices and to their development focusing on their properties, benefits, limitations, and utilization of alternative resources. Due to their advantages like biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low cost, polysaccharides have been widely used in the development of hydrogels. Among the polysaccharides studied on hydrogels preparation, chitosan (pure or combined with natural/synthetic polymers) have been widely investigated for use in biomedical field...
September 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Veronica Zubillaga, Asier M Salaberria, Teodoro Palomares, Ana Alonso-Varona, Sujit Kootala, Jalel Labidi, Susana C M Fernandes
The precise role and value of incorporating nanoforms in biologically active matrices for medical applications is not known. In our current work, we incorporate two chitin nanoforms (i.e., nanocrystals or nanofibers) into Genipin-chitosan crosslinked matrices. These materials were studied as 2D films and 3D porous scaffolds to assess their potential as primary support and guidance for stem cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The incorporation of either nanoforms in these 2D and 3D materials reveals significantly better swelling properties and robust mechanical performance in contrast to nanoform-free chitosan matrices...
June 11, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Sry D Hujaya, Gabriela S Lorite, Seppo J Vainio, Henrikki Liimatainen
Herein, we report the fabrication of a polyion complex hydrogel from two oppositely charged derivatives of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF). CNF was produced from dissolving pulp through subsequent periodate oxidation, chemical modification, and microfluidization. Three different durations for periodate oxidation (30 min, 120 min, and 180 min) resulted in three different aldehyde contents. Further, two types of chemical modifications were introduced to react with the resulting aldehydes: chlorite oxidation to yield anionic CNF with carboxylic acid groups (DCC) and imination with Girard's reagent T to yield cationic CNF containing quaternary ammonium groups (CDAC)...
June 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
M Mehedi Hasan, M Nuruzzaman Khan, Papia Haque, Mohammed Mizanur Rahman
The present study describes the fabrication of a novel alginate-di-aldehyde (ADA) cross-linked gelatin (GEL)/nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) bioscaffold by lyophilization process. The physico-chemical properties of the scaffolds were evaluated in order to assess its suitability for tissue engineering application. ADA was prepared from periodate oxidation of alginate which facilitate the crosslinking between free amino group of gelatin and available aldehyde group of ADA through Schiff's base formation. nHAp was synthesized from waste egg-shells by wet chemical method...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Kulsoom Farhat, Akbar Waheed, Anwar Kamal Pasha, Muhammad Ismail
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of anti-emetic efficacy of ondansetron with 18792A>G polymorphism in the target gene of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 subtype B. METHODS: The prospective clinical study was conducted at Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi and the genetic analysis was carried out at Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering, Islamabad from August 2012 to September 2013. The subjects enrolled were undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia...
May 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Mirasbek Kuterbekov, Paul Machillot, Pierre Lhuissier, Catherine Picart, Alain M Jonas, Karine Glinel
Porous polymeric microcarriers are a versatile class of biomaterial constructs with extensive use in drug delivery, cell culture and tissue engineering. Currently, most methods for their production require potentially toxic organic solvents with complex setups which limit their suitability for biomedical applications and their large-scale production. Herein, we report an organic, solvent-free method for the fabrication of porous poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) microcarriers. The method is based on the spherulitic crystallization of PLLA in its miscible blends with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)...
June 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Pingqiang Cai, Xiaoqian Zhang, Ming Wang, Yun-Long Wu, Xiaodong Chen
Nano-bio interfaces are emerging from the convergence of engineered nanomaterials and biological entities. Despite rapid growth, clinical translation of biomedical nanomaterials is heavily compromised by the lack of comprehensive understanding of biophysicochemical interactions at nano-bio interfaces. In the past decade, a few investigations have adopted a combinatorial approach toward decoding nano-bio interfaces. Combinatorial nano-bio interfaces comprise the design of nanocombinatorial libraries and high-throughput bioevaluation...
June 8, 2018: ACS Nano
Ya-Hui Han, Ranjith Kumar Kankala, Shi-Bin Wang, Ai-Zheng Chen
In recent times, photo-induced therapeutics have attracted enormous interest from researchers due to such attractive properties as preferential localization, excellent tissue penetration, high therapeutic efficacy, and minimal invasiveness, among others. Numerous photosensitizers have been considered in combination with light to realize significant progress in therapeutics. Along this line, indocyanine green (ICG), a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved near-infrared (NIR, >750 nm) fluorescent dye, has been utilized in various biomedical applications such as drug delivery, imaging, and diagnosis, due to its attractive physicochemical properties, high sensitivity, and better imaging view field...
May 24, 2018: Nanomaterials
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