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Biomedical engineering

Min Zeng, Sha Jin, Kaiming Ye
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting enables the creation of tissue constructs with heterogeneous compositions and complex architectures. It was initially used for preparing scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. It has recently been adopted to create living tissues, such as cartilage, skin, and heart valve. To facilitate vascularization, hollow channels have been created in the hydrogels by 3D bioprinting. This review discusses the state of the art of the technology, along with a broad range of biomaterials used for 3D bioprinting...
February 1, 2018: SLAS Technology
Jae Yoon Lee, YoungWon Koo, GeunHyung Kim
This work investigated the printability and applicability of a core/shell cell-printed scaffold for medium-term (for up to 20 days) cryopreservation and subsequent cultivation with acceptable cellular activities including cell viability. We developed an innovative cell printing process supplemented with a microfluidic channel, a core/shell nozzle, and low temperature working stage to obtain a cell-laden 3D porous collagen scaffold for cryopreservation. The 3D porous biomedical scaffold consisted of core/shell struts with a cell-laden collagen-based bioink/dimethyl sulfoxide mixture in the core-region, and an alginate/poly(ethylene oxide) mixture in the shell-region...
February 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Atieh Hashemi
Genome editing mediated by clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and its associated proteins (Cas) has recently been considered to be used as efficient, rapid and site-specific tools in the modification of endogenous genes in biomedically important cell types and whole organisms. It has become a predictable and precise method of choice for genome engineering by specifying a 20-nt targeting sequence within its guide RNA. First, this review aims to describe the biology of CRISPR system...
February 20, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
Pegah Esmaeilzadeh, Alexander Köwitsch, Andrea Liedmann, Matthias Menzel, Bodo Fuhrmann, Georg Schmidt, Jessica Klehm, Thomas Groth
Control of biomaterials properties through stimuli-responsive polymeric platforms has become an essential technique in recent biomedical applications. A multilayer system of thiolated chitosan (t-Chi) and thiolated chondroitin sulfate (t-CS), consisting of 5 double layers ([t-Chi/t-CS]5) was fabricated here applying a layer-by-layer coating strategy. To represent a novel class of chemically tunable nanostructures, the ability to cross-link pendant thiol groups was tested by a rise from pH 4 during layer formation to pH 9...
February 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Marco Laurenti, Valentina Cauda
Among metal oxides, zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the most attractive materials thanks to its biocompatible and biodegradable properties along with the existence of various morphologies featuring piezoelectric, semiconducting and photocatalytic activities. All of these structures were successfully prepared and tested for numerous applications, including optoelectronics, sensors and biomedical ones. In the last case, biocompatible ZnO nanomaterials positively influenced cells growth and tissue regeneration as well, promoting wound healing and new bone formation...
February 22, 2018: Materials
Samuel D Oberdick, Ahmed Abdelgawad, Carlos Moya, Samaneh Mesbahi-Vasey, Demie Kepaptsoglou, Vlado K Lazarov, Richard F L Evans, Daniel Meilak, Elizabeth Skoropata, Johan van Lierop, Ian Hunt-Isaak, Hillary Pan, Yumi Ijiri, Kathryn L Krycka, Julie A Borchers, Sara A Majetich
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have become increasingly important in biomedical applications like magnetic imaging and hyperthermia based cancer treatment. Understanding their magnetic spin configurations is important for optimizing these applications. The measured magnetization of MNPs can be significantly lower than bulk counterparts, often due to canted spins. This has previously been presumed to be a surface effect, where reduced exchange allows spins closest to the nanoparticle surface to deviate locally from collinear structures...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaohu Zhou, Tianzhen Li, Jiahui Wang, Fan Chen, Dan Zhou, Qi Liu, Baijia Li, Jingyue Cheng, Xuechang Zhou, Bo Zheng
Stimuli-responsive hydrogels that undergo programmable shape deformation are of great importance for a wide variety of applications spanning from soft robotics and biomedical devices to tissue engineering and drug delivery. To guide the shape morphing, anisotropic elements need to be encoded into the hydrogels during the fabrication yet extremely difficult to alter afterward. This study reports a simple and reliable mechano-chemical regulation strategy to post-engineer the hydrogels by encoding structures of high stiffness locally into pre-stretched tough hydrogels through ion transfer printing with a paper cut...
February 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Qinqin Hu, Hua Li, Lihua Wang, Hongzhou Gu, Chunhai Fan
Over the past decade, we have seen rapid advances in applying nanotechnology in biomedical areas including bioimaging, biodetection, and drug delivery. As an emerging field, DNA nanotechnology offers simple yet powerful design techniques for self-assembly of nanostructures with unique advantages and high potential in enhancing drug targeting and reducing drug toxicity. Various sequence programming and optimization approaches have been developed to design DNA nanostructures with precisely engineered, controllable size, shape, surface chemistry, and function...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Cristina Landeta, Dana Boyd, Jon Beckwith
Interest in protein disulfide bond formation has recently increased because of the prominent role of disulfide bonds in bacterial virulence and survival. The first discovered pathway that introduces disulfide bonds into cell envelope proteins consists of Escherichia coli enzymes DsbA and DsbB. Since its discovery, variations on the DsbAB pathway have been found in bacteria and archaea, probably reflecting specific requirements for survival in their ecological niches. One variation found amongst Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria is the replacement of DsbB by a homologue of human vitamin K epoxide reductase...
March 2018: Nature Microbiology
Xilin Wu, Jia Guo, Mengyue Niu, Minghui An, Li Liu, Hui Wang, Xia Jin, Qi Zhang, Ka Shing Lam, Tongjin Wu, Hua Wang, Qian Wang, Yanhua Du, Jingjing Li, Lin Cheng, Hang Ying Tang, Hong Shang, Linqi Zhang, Paul Zhou, Zhiwei Chen
The discovery of an HIV-1 cure remains a medical challenge because the virus rebounds quickly after the cessation of combination antiretroviral drug therapy (cART). Here, we investigate the potential of an engineered tandem bi-specific broadly neutralizing antibody (bs-bnAb) as an innovative product for HIV-1 prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. We discovered that by preserving two scFv binding domains of each parental bnAb, a single-gene-encoded tandem bs-bnAb, namely BiIA-SG, displayed significantly improved breadth and potency...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Wenwu Xiao, Qingtao Li, Huimin He, Wenxiu Li, Xiaodong Cao, Hua Dong
Precise manipulation of biomolecules distribution and functions via biomolecule-matrix interaction is very important and challenging for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. As a well-known biomimetic matrix, electrospun fibers often lack the unique spatial complexity compared to their natural counterparts in vivo and thus cannot deliver fully the regulatory cues to biomolecules. In this paper, we report a facile and reliable method to fabricate micro- and nano-structured poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) fibrous matrices with spatial complexity by combination of advanced electrospinning and agarose hydrogel stamp based micropatterning...
February 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Satish Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Majhi, Sridhar Sanyasi, Chandan Goswami, Luna Goswami
With increased life expectancy, disorders in life style and other clinical conditions, the changes in the connective tissues such as in bone impose a diverse biomedical problems. Such problems are expensive, more serious in old ages and are fatal in certain pathophysiological settings which demands functional and/or artificial bones prepared at low cost. Cells having osteogenic properties and/or belong to osteogenic lineages are extremely specific for their surface requirements. Therefore, suitable surfaces are the critical bottle neck for successful bone tissue engineering...
February 20, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Mi Zhou, Nan-Xin Liu, Si-Rong Shi, Yong Li, Qi Zhang, Quan-Quan Ma, Tao-Ran Tian, Wen-Juan Ma, Xiao-Xiao Cai, Yun-Feng Lin
Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) derived from the human dental pulp tissue have multiple differentiation capabilities, such as osteo/odontogenic differentiation. Therefore, DPSCs are deemed as ideal stem cell sources for tissue regeneration. As new nanomaterials based on DNA, tetrahedral DNA nanostructures (TDNs) have tremendous potential for biomedical applications. Here, the authors aimed to explore the part played by TDNs in proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs, and attempted to investigate if these cellular responses could be driven by activating the canonical Notch signaling pathway...
February 16, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Deborah Le Corre-Bordes, Kathleen Hofman, Bronwyn Hall
Tissue engineering requires the design and manufacture of biomimetic scaffolds. Collagen-derived nanofibrous scaffolds have been intensively studied because collagen, in the form of fibrils, is one of the main components of the extra cellular matrix (ECM). Several collagen materials have been used in electrospinning studies including mammalian extracted Type I collagen and gelatin formulations. Denatured whole chain collagen (DWCC) can be prepared by heat denaturing acid-soluble collagen extracted from cold-water fish skin...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Valeria De Matteis, Rosaria Rinaldi
The wide use of engineered nanomaterials in many fields, ranging from biomedical, agriculture, environment, cosmetic, urged the scientific community to understand the processes behind their potential toxicity, in order to develop new strategies for human safety. As a matter of fact, there is a big discrepancy between the increased classes of nanoparticles and the consequent applications versus their toxicity assessment. Nanotoxicology is defined as the science that studies the effects of engineered nanodevices and nanostructures in living organisms...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yejin Kim, Eun Ji Park, Dong Hee Na
Dendrimers offer well-defined nanoarchitectures with spherical shape, high degree of molecular uniformity, and multiple surface functionalities. Such unique structural properties of dendrimers have created many applications for drug and gene delivery, nanomedicine, diagnostics, and biomedical engineering. Dendrimers are not only capable of delivering drugs or diagnostic agents to desired sites by encapsulating or conjugating them to the periphery, but also have therapeutic efficacy in their own. When compared to traditional polymers for drug delivery, dendrimers have distinct advantages, such as high drug-loading capacity at the surface terminal for conjugation or interior space for encapsulation, size control with well-defined numbers of peripheries, and multivalency for conjugation to drugs, targeting moieties, molecular sensors, and biopolymers...
February 15, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Ming Gong, Qian Zhao, Liming Dai, Yingying Li, Tingshun Jiang
Graphene oxide (GO) reinforced hydroxyapatite (HA) composites with various contents of GO (HA/GO-C) were synthesized with addition of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) by a wetchemical precipitation method using diammonium hydrogen phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4) and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2 · 4H2O) as the initial reactants, and their structure, morphology, crystallization, specific surface area were studied by FT-IR, SEM, Raman spectroscopy, XRD and BET. Particularly, the influence of GO addition and appiled load on the friction coefficient of the obtained composites was investigated...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Wolfgang Tremel, Karsten Korschelt, Muhammad Nawaz Tahir
We describe elementary concepts, up-to-date developments, and per-spectives of the emerging field of nanoparticle enzyme mimics (so-called "nanozymes") at the interface of chemistry, biology, materials, and nanotechnology. The design and synthesis of functional enzyme mimics is a long-standing goal of biomimetic chemistry. Metal com-plexes, polymers and engineered biomolecules capturing the structure of natural enzymes or their active centers have been made to achieve high rates and enhanced selectivities...
February 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Qiu Li, Yiming Niu, Panfei Xing, Chunming Wang
Background: Functional polysaccharides can be derived from plants (including herbs), animals and microorganisms. They have been widely used in a broad of biomedical applications, such as immunoregulatory agents or drug delivery vehicles. In the past few years, increasing studies have started to develop natural polysaccharides-based biomaterials for various applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Main body: We discuss in this article the emerging applications of natural polysaccharides-particularly those derived from Chinese medicine-for wound healing...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Claudia G Fresta, Aishik Chakraborty, Manjula B Wijesinghe, Angela M Amorini, Giacomo Lazzarino, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Barbara Tavazzi, Susan M Lunte, Filippo Caraci, Prajnaparamita Dhar, Giuseppe Caruso
Engineered nanoparticles are finding a wide spectrum of biomedical applications, including drug delivery and capacity to trigger cytotoxic phenomena, potentially useful against tumor cells. The full understanding of their biosafety and interactions with cell processes is mandatory. Using microglial (BV-2) and alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells, in this study we determined the effects of engineered carbon nanodiamonds (ECNs) on cell viability, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as well as on energy metabolism...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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