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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903824/societal-impact-of-synthetic-biology-responsible-research-and-innovation-rri
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Gregorowius, Anna Deplazes-Zemp
Synthetic biology is an emerging field at the interface between biology and engineering, which has generated many expectations for beneficial biomedical and biotechnological applications. At the same time, however, it has also raised concerns about risks or the aim of producing new forms of living organisms. Researchers from different disciplines as well as policymakers and the general public have expressed the need for a form of technology assessment that not only deals with technical aspects, but also includes societal and ethical issues...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900856/nanocomposite-hydrogels-and-their-applications-in-tissue-engineering
#2
Andisheh Motealleh, Nermin Seda Kehr
Nanocomposite (NC) hydrogels, organic-inorganic hybrid materials, are of great interest as artificial three-dimensional (3D) biomaterials for biomedical applications. NC hydrogels are prepared in water by chemically or physically cross-linking organic polymers with nanomaterials (NMs). The incorporation of hard inorganic NMs into the soft organic polymer matrix enhances the physical, chemical, and biological properties of NC hydrogels. Therefore, NC hydrogels are excellent candidates for artificial 3D biomaterials, particularly in tissue engineering applications, where they can mimic the chemical, mechanical, electrical, and biological properties of native tissues...
November 30, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896971/rabix-an-open-source-workflow-executor-supporting-recomputability-and-interoperability-of-workflow-descriptions
#3
Gaurav Kaushik, Sinisa Ivkovic, Janko Simonovic, Nebojsa Tijanic, Brandi Davis-Dusenbery, Deniz Kural
As biomedical data has become increasingly easy to generate in large quantities, the methods used to analyze it have proliferated rapidly. Reproducible and reusable methods are required to learn from large volumes of data reliably. To address this issue, numerous groups have developed workflow specifications or execution engines, which provide a framework with which to perform a sequence of analyses. One such specification is the Common Workflow Language, an emerging standard which provides a robust and flexible framework for describing data analysis tools and workflows...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896968/exploring-the-reproducibility-of-probabilistic-causal-molecular-network-models
#4
Ariella Cohain, Aparna A Divaraniya, Kuixi Zhu, Joseph R Scarpa, Andrew Kasarskis, Jun Zhu, Rui Chang, Joel T Dudley, Eric E Schadt
Network reconstruction algorithms are increasingly being employed in biomedical and life sciences research to integrate large-scale, high-dimensional data informing on living systems. One particular class of probabilistic causal networks being applied to model the complexity and causal structure of biological data is Bayesian networks (BNs). BNs provide an elegant mathematical framework for not only inferring causal relationships among many different molecular and higher order phenotypes, but also for incorporating highly diverse priors that provide an efficient path for incorporating existing knowledge...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891534/graphene-oxide-nanosheets-stimulate-ruffling-and-shedding-of-mammalian-cell-plasma-membranes
#5
Chao Sun, Devin L Wakefield, Yimo Han, David A Muller, David A Holowka, Barbara A Baird, William R Dichtel
Graphene oxide (GO) has attracted intense interest for use in living systems and environmental applications. GO's compatibility with mammalian cells is sometimes inferred from its low cytotoxicity, but such conclusions ignore non-lethal effects that will influence GO's utility. Here we demonstrate, with rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells, profound plasma membrane (PM) ruffling and shedding induced by GO using confocal and live cell fluorescence microscopy, as well as scanning electron microscopy. These membrane structures contain immunoglobulin E receptors, are resistant to detergents, and lack detectable fluorescence labeling of F-actin and fibronectin...
August 11, 2016: Chem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891195/reflections-on-a-giant-of-brain-science-how-lucky-we-are-having-walter-j-freeman-as-our-beacon-in-cognitive-neurodynamics-research
#6
REVIEW
Robert Kozma
Walter J. Freeman was a giant of the field of neuroscience whose visionary work contributed various experimental and theoretical breakthroughs to brain research in the past 60 years. He has pioneered a number of Electroencephalogram and Electrocorticogram tools and approaches that shaped the field, while "Freeman Neurodynamics" is a theoretical concept that is widely known, used, and respected among neuroscientists all over the world. His recent death is a profound loss to neuroscience and biomedical engineering...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885785/osteogenic-activity-and-antibacterial-effect-of-porous-titanium-modified-with-metal-organic-framework-films
#7
Junyu Chen, Xin Zhang, Chao Huang, He Cai, Shanshan Hu, Qianbing Wan, Xibo Pei, Jian Wang
As a new class of crystalline nanoporous materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently been used for biomedical applications due to their large surface area, high porosity, and theoretically infinite structures. To improve the biological performance of titanium, MOF films were applied to surface modification of titanium. Zn-based MOF films composed of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) crystals with nanoscale and microscale sizes (nanoZIF-8 and microZIF-8) were prepared on porous titanium surfaces by hydrothermal and solvothermal methods, respectively...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885190/-design-of-mechanobio-materials-for-cell-manipulation-and-its-application-for-stem-cell-manipulation
#8
Satoru Kidoaki
Recently, control of mechanobiologic response of cells has been a strong attractive issue for biomaterials sciences in relation to the requirements for optimization of cell-materials interactions. In this mini-review, we survey the typical parameters for designing the biomaterials to manipulate cell mechanobiology, i.e., mechanobio-materials. In addition, from the view of regenerative biomedical engineering, we introduce our recent approaches on the development of mechanobio-materials for stem cell manipulation that ensures the high-qualified stemness...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881093/continuous-quality-improvement-in-nephrology-a-systematic-review
#9
Julie Wright Nunes, F Jacob Seagull, Panduranga Rao, Jonathan H Segal, Nandita S Mani, Michael Heung
BACKGROUND: Continuous quality improvement (CQI) has been successfully applied in business and engineering for over 60 years. While using CQI techniques within nephrology has received increased attention, little is known about where, and with what measure of success, CQI can be attributed to improving outcomes within nephrology care. This is particularly important as payors' focus on value-based healthcare and reimbursement is tied to achieving quality improvement thresholds. We conducted a systematic review of CQI applications in nephrology...
November 24, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880892/electrospinning-versus-microfluidic-spinning-of-functional-fibers-for-biomedical-applications
#10
REVIEW
Jie Cheng, Yesl Jun, Jianhua Qin, Sang-Hoon Lee
Micro- or nanofiber-based materials have extensive applications in biomedical fields due to their capability to mimic many aspects of physiological microenvironment in vivo. Fabricating micro- or nanofibers using biocompatible and biodegradable materials is becoming of great interest in the area of biomaterials and tissue engineering. Among the various technologies, electrospinning and microfluidic spinning are the two promising approaches to produce fibers at micro- and nano-scale. Choosing an appropriate spinning method is critical important for a specific application...
January 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877244/advances-in-imaging-techniques-and-genetically-encoded-probes-for-photoacoustic-imaging
#11
REVIEW
Chengbo Liu, Xiaojing Gong, Riqiang Lin, Feng Liu, Jingqin Chen, Zhiyong Wang, Liang Song, Jun Chu
Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a rapidly emerging biomedical imaging modality that is capable of visualizing cellular and molecular functions with high detection sensitivity and spatial resolution in deep tissue. Great efforts and progress have been made on the development of various PA imaging technologies with improved resolution and sensitivity over the past two decades. Various PA probes with high contrast have also been extensively developed, with many important biomedical applications. In comparison with chemical dyes and nanoparticles, genetically encoded probes offer easier labeling of defined cells within tissues or proteins of interest within a cell, have higher stability in vivo, and eliminate the need for delivery of exogenous substances...
2016: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875124/multimodal-source-imaging-basic-methods-signal-processing-techniques-and-applications
#12
Geertjan Huiskamp, T F Oostendorp, J C De Munck
Multimodal source imaging is an emerging field in biomedical engineering. Its central goal is to combine different imaging modalities in a single model or data representation, such that the combination provides an enhanced insight into the underlying physiological organ, compared to each modality separately. It requires advanced signal acquisition and processing techniques and has applications in cognitive neuroscience, clinical neuroscience and electrocardiology. Therefore, it belongs to the heart of biomedical engineering...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874052/multifunctional-single-beam-acoustic-tweezer-for-non-invasive-cell-organism-manipulation-and-tissue-imaging
#13
Kwok Ho Lam, Ying Li, Yang Li, Hae Gyun Lim, Qifa Zhou, Koping Kirk Shung
Non-contact precise manipulation of single microparticles, cells, and organisms has attracted considerable interest in biophysics and biomedical engineering. Similar to optical tweezers, acoustic tweezers have been proposed to be capable of manipulating microparticles and even cells. Although there have been concerted efforts to develop tools for non-contact manipulation, no alternative to complex, unifunctional tweezer has yet been found. Here we report a simple, low-cost, multifunctional single beam acoustic tweezer (SBAT) that is capable of manipulating an individual micrometer scale non-spherical cell at Rayleigh regime and even a single millimeter scale organism at Mie regime, and imaging tissue as well...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872845/recent-nanotechnology-approaches-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-biofilm-associated-infections-on-medical-devices
#14
REVIEW
Mohankandhasamy Ramasamy, Jintae Lee
Bacterial colonization in the form of biofilms on surfaces causes persistent infections and is an issue of considerable concern to healthcare providers. There is an urgent need for novel antimicrobial or antibiofilm surfaces and biomedical devices that provide protection against biofilm formation and planktonic pathogens, including antibiotic resistant strains. In this context, recent developments in the material science and engineering fields and steady progress in the nanotechnology field have created opportunities to design new biomaterials and surfaces with anti-infective, antifouling, bactericidal, and antibiofilm properties...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872840/analysis-of-uncertainty-and-variability-in-finite-element-computational-models-for-biomedical-engineering-characterization-and-propagation
#15
REVIEW
Nerea Mangado, Gemma Piella, Jérôme Noailly, Jordi Pons-Prats, Miguel Ángel González Ballester
Computational modeling has become a powerful tool in biomedical engineering thanks to its potential to simulate coupled systems. However, real parameters are usually not accurately known, and variability is inherent in living organisms. To cope with this, probabilistic tools, statistical analysis and stochastic approaches have been used. This article aims to review the analysis of uncertainty and variability in the context of finite element modeling in biomedical engineering. Characterization techniques and propagation methods are presented, as well as examples of their applications in biomedical finite element simulations...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870141/periodontal-tissue-engineering-by-nano-beta-tricalcium-phosphate-scaffold-and-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-in-one-wall-infrabony-defects-of-dogs
#16
K Ogawa, H Miyaji, A Kato, Y Kosen, T Momose, T Yoshida, E Nishida, S Miyata, S Murakami, H Takita, B Fugetsu, T Sugaya, M Kawanami
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nanoparticle bioceramics are being investigated for biomedical applications. We fabricated a regenerative scaffold comprising type I collagen and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) nanoparticles. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a bioeffective signaling molecule that stimulates cell proliferation and wound healing. This study examined the effects, on bioactivity, of a nano-β-TCP/collagen scaffold loaded with FGF-2, particularly on periodontal tissue wound healing...
December 2016: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869543/direct-bonding-of-chitosan-biomaterials-to-tissues-using-transglutaminase-for-surgical-repair-or-device-implantation
#17
Javier Fernandez, Suneil Seetharam, Christopher Ding, Edward Doherty, Donald Ingber
Natural biomaterials, such as chitosan and collagen, are useful for biomedical applications because they are biocompatible, mechanically robust and biodegradable, but it is difficult to rapidly and tightly bond them to living tissues. Here, we demonstrate that the microbial enzyme transglutaminase (mTG) can be used to rapidly (< 5 min) bond chitosan and collagen biomaterials to the surfaces of hepatic, cardiac and dermal tissues, as well as to functionalized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials that are used in medical products...
November 21, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866639/innovation-within-a-university-setting
#18
Elisabeth K Wynne, Thomas M Krummel
Elisabeth K. Wynne, MD, completed her undergraduate degree in bioengineering and is currently a surgical resident in training at the University of Washington. From 2014-2016, she served as a Biodesign Fellow at Stanford University. She plans to pursue a career of innovation as an academic surgeon. Thomas M. Krummel, MD, is the Emile Holman Professor and Chair Emeritus of the Department of Surgery at Stanford University School of Medicine. Throughout his career, Dr Krummel has been a pioneer and an innovator...
December 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865958/development-of-bone-like-zirconium-oxide-nanoceramic-modified-chitosan-based-porous-nanocomposites-for-biomedical-application
#19
Arundhati Bhowmick, Nilkamal Pramanik, Piyali Jana, Tapas Mitra, Arumugam Gnanamani, Manas Das, Patit Paban Kundu
Here, zirconium oxide nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) were incorporated for the first time in organic-inorganic hybrid composites containing chitosan, poly(ethylene glycol) and nano-hydroxypatite (CS-PEG-HA) to develop bone-like nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering application. These nanocomposites were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TEM combined with SAED. SEM images and porosity measurements revealed highly porous structure having pore size of less than 1μm to 10μm. Enhanced water absorption capacity and mechanical strengths were obtained compared to previously reported CS-PEG-HA composite after addition of 0...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864999/a-synthetic-toolbox-for-the-in-situ-formation-of-functionalized-homo-and-heteropolysaccharide-based-hydrogel-libraries
#20
Nick Dibbert, Andreas Krause, Julio-Cesar Rios-Camacho, Ina Gruh, Andreas Kirschning, Gerald Dräger
A synthetic toolbox for the introduction of aldehydo and hydrazido groups into the polysaccharides hyaluronic acid, alginate, dextran, pullulan, glycogen, and carboxymethyl cellulose and their use for hydrogel formation is reported. Upon mixing differently functionalized polysaccharides derived from the same natural precursor, hydrazone cross-linking takes place, which results in formation of a hydrogel composed of one type of polysaccharide backbone. Likewise, hydrogels based on two different polysaccharide strands can be formed after mixing the corresponding aldehydo- and hydrazido-modified polysaccharides...
November 16, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
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