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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940110/are-dxa-abmd-and-qct-fea-stiffness-and-strength-estimates-sensitive-to-sex-and-age
#1
Asghar Rezaei, Hugo Giambini, Timothy Rossman, Kent D Carlson, Michael J Yaszemski, Lichun Lu, Dan Dragomir-Daescu
Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by simplifying a complex 3D bone structure to a 2D projection and is not equally effective for explaining fracture strength in women and men. Unlike DXA, subject-specific quantitative computed tomography-based finite element analysis (QCT/FEA) estimates fracture strength using 3D bone mineral distribution and geometry. By using experimentally-measured femoral stiffness and strength from a one hundred sample cadaveric cohort that included variations in sex and age, we wanted to determine if QCT/FEA estimates were able to better predict the experimental variations than DXA/aBMD...
September 22, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891294/low-power-consumption-gas-sensor-created-from-silicon-nanowires-tio2-core-shell-heterojunctions
#2
Dong Liu, Leimiao Lin, Qiaofen Chen, Hongzhi Zhou, Jianmin Wu
Silicon nanowires/TiO2 (SiNWs/TiO2) array with core-shell nanostructure was created by sol-gel and drop-casting methods. The hybrid material displayed excellent sensing performance for CH4 detection at room temperature. The chemiresistor sensor has a linear response towards CH4 gas in 30 ~ 120 ppm range with a detection limit of 20 ppm, which is well below most of CH4 sensors reported before. The enhanced gas sensing performance at room temperature was attributed to the creation of heterojunctions that form a depletion layer at the interface of SiNWs and TiO2 layer...
September 11, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884420/relation-between-biophysical-properties-of-nanostructures-and-their-toxicity-on-zebrafish
#3
REVIEW
C S Martinez, D E Igartúa, M N Calienni, D A Feas, M Siri, J Montanari, N S Chiaramoni, S Del V Alonso, M J Prieto
In recent years, the use of commercial nanoparticles in different industry and health fields has increased exponentially. However, the uncontrolled application of nanoparticles might present a potential risk to the environment and health. Toxicity of these nanoparticles is usually evaluated by a fast screening assay in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The use of this vertebrate animal model has grown due to its small size, great adaptability, high fertilization rate and fast external development of transparent embryos...
September 7, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875081/the-jaw-is-a-second-class-lever-in-pedetes-capensis-rodentia-pedetidae
#4
Philip G Cox
The mammalian jaw is often modelled as a third-class lever for the purposes of biomechanical analyses, owing to the position of the resultant muscle force between the jaw joint and the teeth. However, it has been proposed that in some rodents the jaws operate as a second-class lever during distal molar bites, owing to the rostral position of the masticatory musculature. In particular, the infraorbital portion of the zygomatico-mandibularis (IOZM) has been suggested to be of major importance in converting the masticatory system from a third-class to a second-class lever...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866149/three-dimensional-finite-element-analysis-of-occlusal-splint-and-implant-connection-on-stress-distribution-in-implant-supported-fixed-dental-prosthesis-and-peri-implantal-bone
#5
Vívian Dos Santos Marsico, Roberto Brunow Lehmann, Cristiane Aparecida de Assis Claro, Marina Amaral, Rafael Pino Vitti, Ana Christina Claro Neves, Lais Regiane da Silva Concilio
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of occlusal splint therapy on the stress distribution of implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) and peri-implantal bone structures using three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA). The system consisted of two implants (positioned on region of second premolar and second molar) as retainers of fixed porcelain-fused-to-metal 3-unit FDP (first molar as pontic element). Two implant connections systems (external and internal hexagon) were tested...
November 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861289/effects-of-implant-tilting-and-the-loading-direction-on-the-displacement-and-micromotion-of-immediately-loaded-implants-an-in-vitro-experiment-and-finite-element-analysis
#6
Tsutomu Sugiura, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Satoshi Horita, Kazuhiro Murakami, Sadami Tsutsumi, Tadaaki Kirita
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of implant tilting and the loading direction on the displacement and micromotion (relative displacement between the implant and bone) of immediately loaded implants by in vitro experiments and finite element analysis (FEA). METHODS: Six artificial bone blocks were prepared. Six screw-type implants with a length of 10 mm and diameter of 4.3 mm were placed, with 3 positioned axially and 3 tilted. The tilted implants were 30° distally inclined to the axial implants...
August 2017: Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856923/gene-expression-profiling-in-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms-after-finite-element-rupture-risk-assessment
#7
Philipp Erhart, Sandra Schiele, Philip Ginsbach, Caspar Grond-Ginsbach, Maani Hakimi, Dittmar Böckler, Justo Lorenzo-Bermejo, Susanne Dihlmann
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between local biomechanical rupture risk calculations from finite element analysis (FEA) and whole-genome profiling of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) wall to determine if AAA wall regions with highest and lowest estimated rupture risk show different gene expression patterns. METHODS: Six patients (mean age 74 years; all men) scheduled for open surgery to treat asymptomatic AAAs (mean diameter 55.2±3.5 mm) were recruited for the study...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854487/the-study-of-stresses-characteristic-of-contact-mechanism-in-total-knee-replacement-using-two-dimensional-finite-element-analysis
#8
Shyh-Chour Huang
The knee joint is one of the more important parts in the human body. Its continuous involvement in the human movement makes it prone to breakage. Due to small contact area, the contact pressure is quite large in this joint. Therefore, the understanding of stresses behavior in knee joint contact is a necessity. In this study, we investigated the stresses behavior in the tibial insert by FEA. A two-dimensional FE model representing the knee joint contact mechanism was created. In the elastic simulation, the contact pressure dropped by 0...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851950/biomechanical-properties-of-predator-induced-body-armour-in-the-freshwater-crustacean-daphnia
#9
Sebastian Kruppert, Martin Horstmann, Linda C Weiss, Ulrich Witzel, Clemens F Schaber, Stanislav N Gorb, Ralph Tollrian
The freshwater crustacean Daphnia is known for its ability to develop inducible morphological defences that thwart predators. These defences are developed only in the presence of predators and are realized as morphological shape alterations e.g. 'neckteeth' in D. pulex and 'crests' in D. longicephala. Both are discussed to hamper capture, handling or consumption by interfering with the predator's prey capture devices. Additionally, D. pulex and some other daphniids were found to armour-up and develop structural alterations resulting in increased carapace stiffness...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836527/evaluation-of-polymerization-shrinkage-polymerization-shrinkage-stress-wear-resistance-and-compressive-strength-of-a-silorane-based-composite-a-finite-element-analysis-study
#10
Suresh Mitthra, Kothandaraman Rajkumar, Sekar Mahalaxmi
BACKGROUND: Understanding the mechanical properties is important in predicting the clinical behavior of composites. Finite element analysis (FEA) evaluates properties of materials replicating clinical scenario. AIM: This study evaluated polymerization shrinkage and stress, wear resistance (WR), and compressive strength (CS) of silorane in comparison with two methacrylate resins. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This study design was a numerical study using FEA...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831724/flat-epithelial-atypia-on-core-biopsy-and-upgrade-to-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Anatoliy V Rudin, Tanya L Hoskin, Aodhnait Fahy, Ann M Farrell, Aziza Nassar, Karthik Ghosh, Amy C Degnim
BACKGROUND: No consensus exists on whether flat epithelial atypia (FEA) diagnosed percutaneously should be surgically excised. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the frequency of upgrade to cancer or an atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) at surgical excision of FEA was performed. METHODS: Embase, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from January 2003 to November 2015 were searched. The inclusion criteria required a manuscript in English with original data on FEA diagnosed percutaneously, data including the presence or absence of other concurrent high-risk lesions, and data including outcome of cancer at surgical excision...
August 22, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823079/mechanobiological-model-of-arterial-growth-and-remodeling
#12
Maziyar Keshavarzian, Clark A Meyer, Heather N Hayenga
A coupled agent-based model (ABM) and finite element analysis (FEA) computational framework is developed to study the interplay of bio-chemo-mechanical factors in blood vessels and their role in maintaining homeostasis. The agent-based model implements the power of REPAST Simphony libraries and adapts its environment for biological simulations. Coupling a continuum-level model (FEA) to a cellular-level model (ABM) has enabled this computational framework to capture the response of blood vessels to increased or decreased levels of growth factors, proteases and other signaling molecules (on the micro scale) as well as altered blood pressure...
August 19, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813547/an-experimental-and-numerical-study-of-hybrid-iii-dummy-response-to-simulated-underbody-blast-impacts
#13
Karthik Somasundaram, Anil Kalra, Don Sherman, Paul Begeman, King H Yang, John M Cavanaugh
Anthropometric test devices (ATDs) such as Hybrid III dummy have been widely used in automotive crash tests to evaluate the risks of injury at different body regions. In recent years, researchers have started using automotive ATDs to study the high-speed vertical loading response caused by underbelly blast (UBB) impacts. This study analyzed the Hybrid III dummy responses to short-duration large magnitude vertical acceleration in a laboratory setup. Two unique test conditions were investigated using a horizontal sled system to simulate the UBB loading conditions...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807525/experimental-and-computational-analysis-of-micromotions-of-an-uncemented-femoral-knee-implant-using-elastic-and-plastic-bone-material-models
#14
Sanaz Berahmani, Dennis Janssen, Nico Verdonschot
It is essential to calculate micromotions at the bone-implant interface of an uncemented femoral total knee replacement (TKR) using a reliable computational model. In the current study, experimental measurements of micromotions were compared with predicted micromotions by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) using two bone material models: linear elastic and post-yield material behavior, while an actual range of interference fit was simulated. The primary aim was to investigate whether a plasticity model is essential in order to calculate realistic micromotions...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804646/glaucoma-quality-of-life
#15
EDITORIAL
Antonio Maria Fea, Fritz Hengerer, Carlo Lavia, Leon Au
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790407/employing-high-frequency-alternating-magnetic-fields-for-the-non-invasive-treatment-of-prosthetic-joint-infections
#16
Rajiv Chopra, Sumbul Shaikh, Yonatan Chatzinoff, Imalka Munaweera, Bingbing Cheng, Seth M Daly, Yin Xi, Chenchen Bing, Dennis Burns, David E Greenberg
Treatment of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) usually requires surgical replacement of the infected joint and weeks of antibiotic therapy, due to the formation of biofilm. We introduce a non-invasive method for thermal destruction of biofilm on metallic implants using high-frequency (>100 kHz) alternating magnetic fields (AMF). In vitro investigations demonstrate a >5-log reduction in bacterial counts after 5 minutes of AMF exposure. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy confirm removal of biofilm matrix components within 1 minute of AMF exposure, and combination studies of antibiotics and AMF demonstrate a 5-log increase in the sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to ciprofloxacin...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772743/a-life-prediction-model-of-multilayered-pth-based-on-fatigue-mechanism
#17
Yaqiu Li, Weiwei Hu, Yufeng Sun, Zili Wang, Ali Mosleh
Plated through hole (PTH) plays a critical role in printed circuit board (PCB) reliability. Thermal fatigue deformation of the PTH material is regarded as the primary factor affecting the lifetime of electrical devices. Numerous research efforts have focused on the failure mechanism model of PTH. However, most of the existing models were based on the one-dimensional structure hypothesis without taking the multilayered structure and external pad into consideration. In this paper, the constitutive relation of multilayered PTH is developed to establish the stress equation, and finite element analysis (FEA) is performed to locate the maximum stress and simulate the influence of the material properties...
April 4, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772518/mesoscale-fracture-analysis-of-multiphase-cementitious-composites-using-peridynamics
#18
Amin Yaghoobi, Mi G Chorzepa, S Sonny Kim, Stephan A
Concrete is a complex heterogeneous material, and thus, it is important to develop numerical modeling methods to enhance the prediction accuracy of the fracture mechanism. In this study, a two-dimensional mesoscale model is developed using a non-ordinary state-based peridynamic (NOSBPD) method. Fracture in a concrete cube specimen subjected to pure tension is studied. The presence of heterogeneous materials consisting of coarse aggregates, interfacial transition zones, air voids and cementitious matrix is characterized as particle points in a two-dimensional mesoscale model...
February 10, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772485/optimal-electrode-selection-for-electrical-resistance-tomography-in-carbon-fiber-reinforced-polymer-composites
#19
Luis Waldo Escalona Galvis, Paulina Diaz-Montiel, Satchi Venkataraman
Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) offers a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique that takes advantage of the inherent electrical properties in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites for internal damage characterization. This paper investigates a method of optimum selection of sensing configurations for delamination detection in thick cross-ply laminates using ERT. Reduction in the number of sensing locations and measurements is necessary to minimize hardware and computational effort. The present work explores the use of an effective independence (EI) measure originally proposed for sensor location optimization in experimental vibration modal analysis...
February 4, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763042/optimization-of-a-voc-sensor-with-a-bilayered-diaphragm-using-fbar-as-strain-sensing-elements
#20
Huihui Guo, Aohui Guo, Yang Gao, Tingting Liu
Film bulk acoustic resonators (FBARs) are widely applied in mass bio-sensing and pressure sensors, owing to their extreme sensitivity and integration ability, and ability to miniaturize circuits. A volatile organic compound (VOC) sensor with a polymer-coated diaphragm, using FBARs as a strain sensing element is proposed and optimized. This vapor sensor is based on organic vapor-induced changes of mechanical deformation of the micro-diaphragm. The four FBARs are located at the edge of the bi-layer diaphragm comprising silicon nitride and silicon oxide for strain extraction...
August 1, 2017: Sensors
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