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Breast anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320428/a-topology-based-method-to-mitigate-the-dosimetric-uncertainty-caused-by-the-positional-variation-of-the-boost-volume-in-breast-conservative-radiotherapy
#1
Peng-Yi Lee, Chih-Yuan Lin, Shang-Wen Chen, Chun-Ru Chien, Chun-Nan Chu, Hsiu-Ting Hsu, Ji-An Liang, Ying-Jun Lin, An-Cheng Shiau
BACKGROUND: To improve local control rate in patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conservative surgery, additional boost dose to the tumor bed could be delivered simultaneously via the simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) modulated technique. However, the position of tumor bed kept changing during the treatment course as the treatment position was aligned to bony anatomy. This study aimed to analyze the positional uncertainties between bony anatomy and tumor bed, and a topology-based approach was derived to stratify patients with high variation in tumor bed localization...
March 20, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302367/lateral-thigh-perforator-flap-for-breast-reconstruction-computed-tomographic-angiography-analysis-and-clinical-series
#2
Marco A Maricevich, Michael R Bykowski, M Asher Schusterman, Evan B Katzel, Michael L Gimbel
PURPOSE: Although abdominal-based flaps remain the first choice for autologous breast reconstruction, alternative donor sites are necessary when the abdomen is unavailable. Abdominal donor site suitability is determined, at times, according to deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP)-protocol computed tomographic angiography (CTA) results. CTA provides information about the pelvis/upper thigh that can be used to evaluate the suitability of other donor sites. This study aimed to examine the utility of DIEP-protocol CTA in the assessment of a lateral thigh perforator (LTP) flap...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297275/how-dose-sparing-of-cardiac-structures-correlates-with-in-field-heart-volume-and-sternal-displacement
#3
Taeho Kim, Kelli Reardon, Daniel M Trifiletti, Constance Geesey, Kaitlyn Sukovich, Edwin Crandley, Paul W Read, Krishni Wijesooriya
Cardiac irradiation increases the risk of coronary artery disease in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Techniques exist to reduce cardiac irradiation, but the optimum technique depends on individual patient anatomy and physiology. We investigated the correlation of delta heart volume in field (dHVIF) and sternal excursion with dose sparing in heart and left anterior descending artery (LAD) to develop quantitative predictive models for expected dose to heart and LAD. A treatment planning study was performed on 97 left-breast cancer patients who underwent whole breast radiotherapy (prescription dose = 50 Gy) under deep inspiratory breath hold (DIBH)...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295413/using-a-handheld-stereo-depth-camera-to-overcome-limited-field-of-view-in-simulation-imaging-for-radiation-therapy-treatment-planning
#4
Cesare Jenkins, Lei Xing, Amy Yu
PURPOSE: A correct body contour is essential for reliable treatment planning in radiation therapy. While modern medical imaging technologies provide highly accurate patient modeling, there are times when a patient's anatomy cannot be fully captured or there is a lack of easy access to computed tomography (CT) simulation. Here we provide a practical solution to the surface contour truncation problem by using a handheld stereo depth camera (HSDC) to obtain the missing surface anatomy and a surface-surface image registration to stich the surface data into the CT dataset for treatment planning...
March 11, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291738/design-and-validation-of-realistic-breast-models-for-use-in-multiple-alternative-forced-choice-virtual-clinical-trials
#5
Premkumar Elangovan, Alistair Mackenzie, David R Dance, Kenneth C Young, Victoria Cooke, Louise Wilkinson, Rosalind M Given-Wilson, Matthew G Wallis, Kevin Wells
A novel method has been developed for generating quasi-realistic voxel phantoms which simulate the compressed breast in mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The models are suitable for use in virtual clinical trials requiring realistic anatomy which use the multiple alternative forced choice (AFC) paradigm and patches from the complete breast image. The breast models are produced by extracting features of breast tissue components from DBT clinical images including skin, adipose and fibro-glandular tissue, blood vessels and Cooper's ligaments...
April 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291404/outcomes-and-effectiveness-of-posterior-occipitocervical-fusion-for-suboccipital-spinal-metastases
#6
Panya Luksanapruksa, Jacob M Buchowski, Neill M Wright, Frank H Valone, Colleen Peters, David B Bumpass
OBJECTIVE The incidence of suboccipital spinal metastases is rare but has increased given cancer patients' longer life expectancies. Operative treatment in this region is often challenging because of limited fixation points due to tumor lysis, as well as adjacent neural and vascular anatomy. Few studies have reported on this population of cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes and complications of patients with suboccipital spinal metastases who had undergone posterior occipitocervical fixation...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283212/-identification-of-perforating-vessels-by-augmented-reality-application-for-the-deep-inferior-epigastric-perforator-flap
#7
R Bosc, A Fitoussi, F Pigneur, V Tacher, B Hersant, J-P Meningaud
The augmented reality on smart glasses allows the surgeon to visualize three-dimensional virtual objects during surgery, superimposed in real time to the anatomy of the patient. This makes it possible to preserve the vision of the surgical field and to dispose of added computerized information without the need to use a physical surgical guide or a deported screen. TECHNIQUE: The three-dimensional objects that we used and visualized in augmented reality came from the reconstructions made from the CT-scans of the patients...
March 7, 2017: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277339/clinical-dilemmas-in-the-management-of-transgender-men
#8
Michael S Irwig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the medical and surgical clinical dilemmas in the management of trans (transgender) men, a growing population receiving more attention than in the past. RECENT FINDINGS: Testosterone therapy is commonly prescribed to trans men for masculinization. Nonetheless, the optimal formulations and doses of testosterone therapy for trans men have not been well established. Testosterone therapy has been associated with increased levels of hemoglobin and triglycerides, as well as diabetes...
March 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272279/preoperative-computed-tomography-angiogram-cta-measurement-of-abdominal-muscles-is-a-valuable-risk-assessment-for-bulge-formation-after-microsurgical-abdominal-breast-reconstruction
#9
Elisabeth A Kappos, Jeff Jaskolka, Kate Butler, Anne C O'Neill, Stefan Op Hofer, Toni Zhong
BACKGROUND: A major shortcoming associated with abdominal tissue breast reconstruction is the long-term abdominal wall morbidity. Although abdominal core muscle size on computed tomography angiogram (CTA) has been correlated with morbidity following many abdominal surgeries, it has not been studied for abdominal breast reconstruction. Therefore, we evaluated the association between preoperative CTA-derived measurements of abdominal core muscles and postoperative abdominal wall morbidity after abdominal tissue breast reconstruction...
March 6, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259642/determining-the-best-recipient-vessel-site-for-autologous-microsurgical-breast-reconstruction-with-diep-flaps-an-anatomical-study
#10
Martin Lhuaire, Mikael Hivelin, Moustapha Dramé, Peter Abrahams, Reza Kianmanesh, Christian Fontaine, Laurent Lantieri
INTRODUCTION: The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap is a reliable and reproducible technique for autologous microsurgical breast reconstruction. Several recipient vessels sites for microvascular anastomosis have been described such as the internal thoracic vessels, the thoracodorsal vessels, and the circumflex scapular vessels. Nonetheless, the choice of the recipient site depends mainly on individual operator's experience and preferences, and currently the best recipient vessel site is under debate...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165635/variance-of-the-pectoralis-major-in-relation-to-the-inframammary-fold-and-the-pectoralis-minor-and-its-application-to-breast-surgery
#11
Woo Yeol Baek, Il Hwan Byun, Young Seok Kim, Bok Ki Jung, In Sik Yun, Tai Suk Roh
Understanding the anatomy of the muscles and other structures of the chest is of great importance in breast surgery. We have conducted the first analysis of the overall variations and relationships among the pectoralis major (PM), inframammary fold (IMF), and pectoralis minor (Pm). We studied 30 patients and 10 cadavers, leading to a total of 50 breasts. Preoperatively, the breast width was measured, and the costal origin of the lowest IMF point was marked. Intraoperatively, we recorded the costal origins of the PM and IMF, PM width, the distance between the PM and IMF, and the relationship and distance between the PM and Pm...
April 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112399/estimating-organ-doses-from-tube-current-modulated-ct-examinations-using-a-generalized-linear-model
#12
Maryam Bostani, Kyle McMillan, Peiyun Lu, Grace Hyun J Kim, Dianna Cody, Gary Arbique, S Bruce Greenberg, John J DeMarco, Chris H Cagnon, Michael F McNitt-Gray
PURPOSE: Currently available Computed Tomography dose metrics are mostly based on fixed tube current Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and/or physical measurements such as the size specific dose estimate (SSDE). In addition to not being able to account for Tube Current Modulation (TCM), these dose metrics do not represent actual patient dose. The purpose of this study was to generate and evaluate a dose estimation model based on the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) which extends the ability to estimate organ dose from tube current modulated examinations by incorporating regional descriptors of patient size, scanner output and other scan-specific variables as needed...
January 23, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057965/ultrasound-findings-of-the-physiological-changes-and-most-common-breast-diseases-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#13
REVIEW
Antônio Arildo Reginaldo de Holanda, Ana Katherine da Silveira Gonçalves, Robinson Dias de Medeiros, António Manuel Gouveia de Oliveira, Técia Maria de Oliveira Maranhão
Because of the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy and lactation, diagnostic ultrasound of the breast during these periods is a challenge for physicians. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of imaging, anatomy, and physiology of the breast is important to effectively diagnosing diseases that can arise in women who are pregnancy or lactating. The aim of this article was to review the physiological changes that occur in the breasts during pregnancy and lactation, as well as to describe the main features of the breast diseases that occur most frequently during these periods...
November 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048813/mo-fg-209-04-dbt-applications-of-feature-adaptive-visual-search-model-oberver
#14
M Das
This symposium will review recent advances in the simulation methods for evaluation of novel breast imaging systems - the subject of AAPM Task Group TG234. Our focus will be on the various approaches to development and validation of software anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in the statistical assessment of novel imaging systems using such phantoms along with computational models for the x-ray image formation process. Due to the dynamic development and complex design of modern medical imaging systems, the simulation of anatomical structures, image acquisition modalities, and the image perception and analysis offers substantial benefits of reduced cost, duration, and radiation exposure, as well as the known ground-truth and wide variability in simulated anatomies...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048735/mo-fg-209-00-recent-advances-in-virtual-tools-for-validation-of-3d-4d-breast-imaging-systems-tg234
#15
Predrag Bakic, Kyle Myers
This symposium will review recent advances in the simulation methods for evaluation of novel breast imaging systems - the subject of AAPM Task Group TG234. Our focus will be on the various approaches to development and validation of software anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in the statistical assessment of novel imaging systems using such phantoms along with computational models for the x-ray image formation process. Due to the dynamic development and complex design of modern medical imaging systems, the simulation of anatomical structures, image acquisition modalities, and the image perception and analysis offers substantial benefits of reduced cost, duration, and radiation exposure, as well as the known ground-truth and wide variability in simulated anatomies...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048684/su-f-t-115-uncertainty-in-the-esophagus-dose-in-retrospective-epidemiological-study-of-breast-cancer-radiotherapy-patients
#16
E Mosher, S Kim, C Lee, C Pelletier, J Jung, E Jones, C Lee
PURPOSE: Epidemiological studies of second cancer risks in breast cancer radiotherapy patients often use generic patient anatomy to reconstruct normal tissue doses when CT images of patients are not available. To evaluate the uncertainty involved in the dosimetry approach, we evaluated the esophagus dose in five sample patients by simulating breast cancer treatments. METHODS: We obtained the diagnostic CT images of five anonymized adult female patients in different Body Mass Index (BMI) categories (16- 36kg/m2) from National Institutes of Health Clinical Center...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048553/su-c-brb-03-cross-institutional-validation-of-an-ultrafast-automatic-planning-platform-for-breast-irradiation
#17
T Li, Y Sheng, V Lockamy, P Anne, N Simone, Q J Wu, Y Yu
PURPOSE: Recently an ultrafast automatic planning system for breast irradiation using tangential beams was developed by modeling relationships between patient anatomy and achieved dose distribution. This study evaluates the performance of this system when applied to a different patient population and dose calculation algorithm. METHODS: The system and its anatomy-to-dose models was developed at institution A based on 20 cases, which were planned using manual fluence painting technique and calculated WITH heterogeneity correction...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048320/su-g-iep2-08-investigation-on-signal-detectability-in-volumetric-cone-beam-ct-images-with-anatomical-background
#18
M Han, J Baek
PURPOSE: To investigate the slice direction dependent detectability in cone beam CT images with anatomical background. METHODS: We generated 3D anatomical background images using breast anatomy model. To generate 3D breast anatomy, we filtered 3D Gaussian noise with a square root of 1/f(3) , and then assigned the attenuation coefficient of glandular (0.8cm(-1) ) and adipose (0.46 cm(-1) ) tissues based on voxel values. Projections were acquired by forward projection, and quantum noise was added to the projection data...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048161/mo-fg-209-05-towards-a-feature-based-anthropomorphic-model-observer
#19
A Avanaki
This symposium will review recent advances in the simulation methods for evaluation of novel breast imaging systems - the subject of AAPM Task Group TG234. Our focus will be on the various approaches to development and validation of software anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in the statistical assessment of novel imaging systems using such phantoms along with computational models for the x-ray image formation process. Due to the dynamic development and complex design of modern medical imaging systems, the simulation of anatomical structures, image acquisition modalities, and the image perception and analysis offers substantial benefits of reduced cost, duration, and radiation exposure, as well as the known ground-truth and wide variability in simulated anatomies...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048077/mo-fg-209-01-introduction
#20
K Myers
This symposium will review recent advances in the simulation methods for evaluation of novel breast imaging systems - the subject of AAPM Task Group TG234. Our focus will be on the various approaches to development and validation of software anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in the statistical assessment of novel imaging systems using such phantoms along with computational models for the x-ray image formation process. Due to the dynamic development and complex design of modern medical imaging systems, the simulation of anatomical structures, image acquisition modalities, and the image perception and analysis offers substantial benefits of reduced cost, duration, and radiation exposure, as well as the known ground-truth and wide variability in simulated anatomies...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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