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Breast anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497023/the-waterfall-effect-in-breast-augmentation
#1
REVIEW
James Frame
The 'waterfall effect' is a descriptive term to indicate a sliding ptosis of parenchymal breast tissue over a fixed or encapsulated implant. It occurs more frequently than surgeons anticipate and especially over the longer term after augmentation. Certain breast implants are more prone to contribute to this problem as are implants placed in submuscular pockets that ride high, especially in women with anatomical musculoskeletal variance or asymmetry. This article describes the aetiology of sliding ptosis in more detail, the relevant anatomy and the surgical correction...
April 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483356/evaluation-of-a-breast-software-model-for-2d-and-3d-x-ray-imaging-studies-of-the-breast
#2
Yanka Baneva, Kristina Bliznakova, Lesley Cockmartin, Stoyko Marinov, Ivan Buliev, Giovanni Mettivier, Hilde Bosmans, Paolo Russo, Nicholas Marshall, Zhivko Bliznakov
INTRODUCTION: In X-ray imaging, test objects reproducing breast anatomy characteristics are realized to optimize issues such as image processing or reconstruction, lesion detection performance, image quality and radiation induced detriment. Recently, a physical phantom with a structured background has been introduced for both 2D mammography and breast tomosynthesis. A software version of this phantom and a few related versions are now available and a comparison between these 3D software phantoms and the physical phantom will be presented...
May 5, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463164/individualized-selection-of-beam-angles-and-treatment-isocenter-in-tangential-breast-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy
#3
Joan Penninkhof, Sara Spadola, Sebastiaan Breedveld, Margreet Baaijens, Nico Lanconelli, Ben Heijmen
PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVE: Propose a novel method for individualized selection of beam angles and treatment isocenter in tangential breast intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: For each patient, beam and isocenter selection starts with the fully automatic generation of a large database of IMRT plans (up to 847 in this study); each of these plans belongs to a unique combination of isocenter position, lateral beam angle, and medial beam angle...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428928/origin-branching-and-communications-of-the-intercostobrachial-nerve-a-meta-analysis-with-implications-for-mastectomy-and-axillary-lymph-node-dissection-in-breast-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Brandon Michael Henry, Matthew J Graves, Jakub R Pękala, Beatrice Sanna, Wan Chin Hsieh, R Shane Tubbs, Jerzy A Walocha, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
The intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN), which usually originates from the lateral cutaneous branch of the second intercostal nerve, innervates areas of the axilla, lateral chest, and medial arm. It is at risk for injury during operative procedures that are often used in the management of breast cancer and such injury has been associated with postoperative sensory loss and neuropathic pain, decreasing the quality of life. PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Biosciences Information Service (BIOSIS), and Web of Science were searched comprehensively...
March 17, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377943/expert-evaluation-of-a-chicken-tissue-based-model-for-teaching-ultrasound-guided-central-venous-catheter-insertion
#5
Akiva Nachshon, John D Mitchell, Ariel Mueller, Valerie M Banner-Goodspeed, Jakob I McSparron
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization (CVC) is a commonly performed procedure which carries significant risks for complications. Current models used for simulation-based teaching are expensive and may not replicate tissue feel and ultrasound qualities of human tissues. We aimed to evaluate a tissue model composed of chicken breast and balloons and compare it to a commercially available mannequin. METHODS: Forty attending physicians from four departments with extensive CVC experience were enrolled...
January 2017: Journal of Education in Perioperative Medicine: JEPM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362409/intraductal-delivery-to-the-rabbit-mammary-gland
#6
Amelia Clark, Nora K Bird, Amy Brock
Localized intraductal treatments for breast cancer offer potential advantages, including efficient delivery to the tumor and reduced systemic toxicity and adverse effects(1)(,)(2)(,)(3)(,)(4)(,)(5)(,)(6)(,)(7). However, several challenges remain before these treatments can be applied more widely. The development and validation of intraductal therapeutics in an appropriate animal model facilitate the development of intraductal therapeutic strategies for patients. While the mouse mammary gland has been widely used as a model system of mammary development and tumorigenesis, the anatomy is distinct from the human gland...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344609/treatment-planning-for-multicatheter-interstitial-brachytherapy-of-breast-cancer-from-paris-system-to-anatomy-based-inverse-planning
#7
REVIEW
Tibor Major, Csaba Polgár
In the last decades, treatment planning for multicatheter interstitial breast brachytherapy has evolved considerably from fluoroscopy-based 2D to anatomy-based 3D planning. To plan the right positions of the catheters, ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) imaging can be used, but the treatment plan is always based on postimplant CT images. With CT imaging, the 3D target volume can be defined more precisely and delineation of the organs at risk volumes is also possible. Consequently, parameters calculated from dose-volume histogram can be used for quantitative plan evaluation...
February 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320428/a-topology-based-method-to-mitigate-the-dosimetric-uncertainty-caused-by-the-positional-variation-of-the-boost-volume-in-breast-conservative-radiotherapy
#8
Peng-Yi Lee, Chih-Yuan Lin, Shang-Wen Chen, Chun-Ru Chien, Chun-Nan Chu, Hsiu-Ting Hsu, Ji-An Liang, Ying-Jun Lin, An-Cheng Shiau
BACKGROUND: To improve local control rate in patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conservative surgery, additional boost dose to the tumor bed could be delivered simultaneously via the simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) modulated technique. However, the position of tumor bed kept changing during the treatment course as the treatment position was aligned to bony anatomy. This study aimed to analyze the positional uncertainties between bony anatomy and tumor bed, and a topology-based approach was derived to stratify patients with high variation in tumor bed localization...
March 20, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302367/lateral-thigh-perforator-flap-for-breast-reconstruction-computed-tomographic-angiography-analysis-and-clinical-series
#9
Marco A Maricevich, Michael R Bykowski, M Asher Schusterman, Evan B Katzel, Michael L Gimbel
PURPOSE: Although abdominal-based flaps remain the first choice for autologous breast reconstruction, alternative donor sites are necessary when the abdomen is unavailable. Abdominal donor site suitability is determined, at times, according to deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP)-protocol computed tomographic angiography (CTA) results. CTA provides information about the pelvis/upper thigh that can be used to evaluate the suitability of other donor sites. This study aimed to examine the utility of DIEP-protocol CTA in the assessment of a lateral thigh perforator (LTP) flap...
May 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297275/how-dose-sparing-of-cardiac-structures-correlates-with-in-field-heart-volume-and-sternal-displacement
#10
Taeho Kim, Kelli Reardon, Daniel M Trifiletti, Constance Geesey, Kaitlyn Sukovich, Edwin Crandley, Paul W Read, Krishni Wijesooriya
Cardiac irradiation increases the risk of coronary artery disease in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Techniques exist to reduce cardiac irradiation, but the optimum technique depends on individual patient anatomy and physiology. We investigated the correlation of delta heart volume in field (dHVIF) and sternal excursion with dose sparing in heart and left anterior descending artery (LAD) to develop quantitative predictive models for expected dose to heart and LAD. A treatment planning study was performed on 97 left-breast cancer patients who underwent whole breast radiotherapy (prescription dose = 50 Gy) under deep inspiratory breath hold (DIBH)...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295413/using-a-handheld-stereo-depth-camera-to-overcome-limited-field-of-view-in-simulation-imaging-for-radiation-therapy-treatment-planning
#11
Cesare Jenkins, Lei Xing, Amy Yu
PURPOSE: A correct body contour is essential for reliable treatment planning in radiation therapy. While modern medical imaging technologies provide highly accurate patient modeling, there are times when a patient's anatomy cannot be fully captured or there is a lack of easy access to computed tomography (CT) simulation. Here, we provide a practical solution to the surface contour truncation problem by using a handheld stereo depth camera (HSDC) to obtain the missing surface anatomy and a surface-surface image registration to stich the surface data into the CT dataset for treatment planning...
March 11, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291738/design-and-validation-of-realistic-breast-models-for-use-in-multiple-alternative-forced-choice-virtual-clinical-trials
#12
Premkumar Elangovan, Alistair Mackenzie, David R Dance, Kenneth C Young, Victoria Cooke, Louise Wilkinson, Rosalind M Given-Wilson, Matthew G Wallis, Kevin Wells
A novel method has been developed for generating quasi-realistic voxel phantoms which simulate the compressed breast in mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The models are suitable for use in virtual clinical trials requiring realistic anatomy which use the multiple alternative forced choice (AFC) paradigm and patches from the complete breast image. The breast models are produced by extracting features of breast tissue components from DBT clinical images including skin, adipose and fibro-glandular tissue, blood vessels and Cooper's ligaments...
April 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291404/outcomes-and-effectiveness-of-posterior-occipitocervical-fusion-for-suboccipital-spinal-metastases
#13
Panya Luksanapruksa, Jacob M Buchowski, Neill M Wright, Frank H Valone, Colleen Peters, David B Bumpass
OBJECTIVE The incidence of suboccipital spinal metastases is rare but has increased given cancer patients' longer life expectancies. Operative treatment in this region is often challenging because of limited fixation points due to tumor lysis, as well as adjacent neural and vascular anatomy. Few studies have reported on this population of cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes and complications of patients with suboccipital spinal metastases who had undergone posterior occipitocervical fixation...
May 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283212/-identification-of-perforating-vessels-by-augmented-reality-application-for-the-deep-inferior-epigastric-perforator-flap
#14
R Bosc, A Fitoussi, F Pigneur, V Tacher, B Hersant, J-P Meningaud
The augmented reality on smart glasses allows the surgeon to visualize three-dimensional virtual objects during surgery, superimposed in real time to the anatomy of the patient. This makes it possible to preserve the vision of the surgical field and to dispose of added computerized information without the need to use a physical surgical guide or a deported screen. TECHNIQUE: The three-dimensional objects that we used and visualized in augmented reality came from the reconstructions made from the CT-scans of the patients...
March 7, 2017: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277339/clinical-dilemmas-in-the-management-of-transgender-men
#15
Michael S Irwig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the medical and surgical clinical dilemmas in the management of trans (transgender) men, a growing population receiving more attention than in the past. RECENT FINDINGS: Testosterone therapy is commonly prescribed to trans men for masculinization. Nonetheless, the optimal formulations and doses of testosterone therapy for trans men have not been well established. Testosterone therapy has been associated with increased levels of hemoglobin and triglycerides, as well as diabetes...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272279/preoperative-computed-tomography-angiogram-cta-measurement-of-abdominal-muscles-is-a-valuable-risk-assessment-for-bulge-formation-after-microsurgical-abdominal-breast-reconstruction
#16
Elisabeth A Kappos, Jeff Jaskolka, Kate Butler, Anne C O'Neill, Stefan Op Hofer, Toni Zhong
BACKGROUND: A major shortcoming associated with abdominal tissue breast reconstruction is the long-term abdominal wall morbidity. Although abdominal core muscle size on computed tomography angiogram (CTA) has been correlated with morbidity following many abdominal surgeries, it has not been studied for abdominal breast reconstruction. Therefore, we evaluated the association between preoperative CTA-derived measurements of abdominal core muscles and postoperative abdominal wall morbidity after abdominal tissue breast reconstruction...
March 6, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259642/determining-the-best-recipient-vessel-site-for-autologous-microsurgical-breast-reconstruction-with-diep-flaps-an-anatomical-study
#17
Martin Lhuaire, Mikael Hivelin, Moustapha Dramé, Peter Abrahams, Reza Kianmanesh, Christian Fontaine, Laurent Lantieri
INTRODUCTION: The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap is a reliable and reproducible technique for autologous microsurgical breast reconstruction. Several recipient vessels sites for microvascular anastomosis have been described such as the internal thoracic vessels, the thoracodorsal vessels, and the circumflex scapular vessels. Nonetheless, the choice of the recipient site depends mainly on individual operator's experience and preferences, and currently the best recipient vessel site is under debate...
June 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165635/variance-of-the-pectoralis-major-in-relation-to-the-inframammary-fold-and-the-pectoralis-minor-and-its-application-to-breast-surgery
#18
Woo Yeol Baek, Il Hwan Byun, Young Seok Kim, Bok Ki Jung, In Sik Yun, Tai Suk Roh
Understanding the anatomy of the muscles and other structures of the chest is of great importance in breast surgery. We have conducted the first analysis of the overall variations and relationships among the pectoralis major (PM), inframammary fold (IMF), and pectoralis minor (Pm). We studied 30 patients and 10 cadavers, leading to a total of 50 breasts. Preoperatively, the breast width was measured, and the costal origin of the lowest IMF point was marked. Intraoperatively, we recorded the costal origins of the PM and IMF, PM width, the distance between the PM and IMF, and the relationship and distance between the PM and Pm...
April 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112399/estimating-organ-doses-from-tube-current-modulated-ct-examinations-using-a-generalized-linear-model
#19
Maryam Bostani, Kyle McMillan, Peiyun Lu, Grace Hyun J Kim, Dianna Cody, Gary Arbique, S Bruce Greenberg, John J DeMarco, Chris H Cagnon, Michael F McNitt-Gray
PURPOSE: Currently, available Computed Tomography dose metrics are mostly based on fixed tube current Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and/or physical measurements such as the size specific dose estimate (SSDE). In addition to not being able to account for Tube Current Modulation (TCM), these dose metrics do not represent actual patient dose. The purpose of this study was to generate and evaluate a dose estimation model based on the Generalized Linear Model (GLM), which extends the ability to estimate organ dose from tube current modulated examinations by incorporating regional descriptors of patient size, scanner output, and other scan-specific variables as needed...
April 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057965/ultrasound-findings-of-the-physiological-changes-and-most-common-breast-diseases-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#20
REVIEW
Antônio Arildo Reginaldo de Holanda, Ana Katherine da Silveira Gonçalves, Robinson Dias de Medeiros, António Manuel Gouveia de Oliveira, Técia Maria de Oliveira Maranhão
Because of the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy and lactation, diagnostic ultrasound of the breast during these periods is a challenge for physicians. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of imaging, anatomy, and physiology of the breast is important to effectively diagnosing diseases that can arise in women who are pregnancy or lactating. The aim of this article was to review the physiological changes that occur in the breasts during pregnancy and lactation, as well as to describe the main features of the breast diseases that occur most frequently during these periods...
November 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
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