Read by QxMD icon Read

Breast anatomy

C Nos, K B Clough, P Bonnier, S Lasry, G Le Bouedec, B Flipo, J-M Classe, M-C Missana, V Doridot, S Giard, H Charitansky, A Charles-Nelson, A-S Bats, C Ngo
BACKGROUND: Two thirds of node-positive breast cancer patients have limited pN1 disease and could benefit from a less extensive axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). METHODS: 172 breast cancers patients requiring an ALND were prospectively enrolled in the Sentibras Protocol of Axillary Reverse Mapping (ARM). Radioisotope was injected in the ipsilateral hand the day before surgery. ALND was standard. Removed lymph nodes were classified into non radioactive nodes and radioactive nodes (ARM nodes)...
August 26, 2016: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
John C Klock, Elaine Iuanow, Bilal Malik, Nancy A Obuchowski, James Wiskin, Mark Lenox
Objectives. This study presents correlations between cross-sectional anatomy of human female breasts and Quantitative Transmission (QT) Ultrasound, does discriminate classifier analysis to validate the speed of sound correlations, and does a visual grading analysis comparing QT Ultrasound with mammography. Materials and Methods. Human cadaver breasts were imaged using QT Ultrasound, sectioned, and photographed. Biopsies confirmed microanatomy and areas were correlated with QT Ultrasound images. Measurements were taken in live subjects from QT Ultrasound images and values of speed of sound for each identified anatomical structure were plotted...
2016: International Journal of Biomedical Imaging
Vikneswary Batumalai, Penny Phan, Callie Choong, Lois Holloway, Geoff P Delaney
INTRODUCTION: To compare the differences in setup errors measured with electronic portal image (EPI) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in patients undergoing tangential breast radiotherapy (RT). Relationship between setup errors, body mass index (BMI) and breast size was assessed. METHODS: Twenty-five patients undergoing postoperative RT to the breast were consented for this study. Weekly CBCT scans were acquired and retrospectively registered to the planning CT in three dimensions, first using bony anatomy for bony registration (CBCT-B) and again using breast tissue outline for soft tissue registration (CBCT-S)...
May 31, 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Robert J Gillies, Thomas Beyer
Over the past decades, imaging in oncology has been undergoing a "quiet" revolution to treat images as data, not as pictures. This revolution has been sparked by technological advances that enable capture of images that reflect not only anatomy, but also of tissue metabolism and physiology in situ Important advances along this path have been the increasing power of MRI, which can be used to measure spatially dependent differences in cell density, tissue organization, perfusion, and metabolism. In parallel, PET imaging allows quantitative assessment of the spatial localization of positron-emitting compounds, and it has also been constantly improving in the number of imageable tracers to measure metabolism and expression of macromolecules...
October 11, 2016: Cancer Research
V Peppa, E P Pappas, P Karaiskos, T Major, C Polgár, P Papagiannis
PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical significance of introducing model based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs) as an alternative to TG-43 in (192)Ir interstitial breast brachytherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 57 patient cohort was used in a retrospective comparison between TG-43 based dosimetry data exported from a treatment planning system and Monte Carlo (MC) dosimetry performed using MCNP v. 6.1 with plan and anatomy information in DICOM-RT format. Comparison was performed for the target, ipsilateral lung, heart, skin, breast and ribs, using dose distributions, dose-volume histograms (DVH) and plan quality indices clinically used for plan evaluation, as well as radiobiological parameters...
October 5, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Keith S Hansen, Luke G Gutwein, Brett C Hartman, Rajiv Sood, Juan Socas
Autologous breast reconstruction utilizing a perforator flap is an increasingly popular method for reducing donor site morbidity and implant-related complications. However, aberrant anatomy not readily visible on computed tomography angiography is a rare albeit real risk when undergoing perforator flap reconstruction. We present an operative case of a patient who successfully underwent a bilateral breast reconstruction sourced from a unilateral abdominal flap divided into deep superior epigastric artery and superficial circumflex iliac artery flap segments...
September 2016: Archives of Plastic Surgery
Qin Li, Songtao Liu, Kyle J Myers, Marios A Gavrielides, Rongping Zeng, Berkman Sahiner, Nicholas Petrick
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Different computed tomography imaging protocols and patient characteristics can impact the accuracy and precision of the calcium score and may lead to inconsistent patient treatment recommendations. The aim of this work was to determine the impact of reconstruction algorithm and gender characteristics on coronary artery calcium scoring based on a phantom study using computed tomography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four synthetic heart vessels with vessel diameters corresponding to female and male left main and left circumflex arteries containing calcification-mimicking materials (200-1000 HU) were inserted into a thorax phantom and were scanned with and without female breast plates (male and female phantoms, respectively)...
September 22, 2016: Academic Radiology
D Charisi, Z Laffranchi, S A Jiménez-Brobeil
Sexual dimorphism in humans is mainly observed as a difference in the anatomy of genitals and breasts. There are also some differences in the stature and metric or morphological traits of the skeleton. Degree of sexual dimorphism varies among populations and depends on their genetic composition and various cultural and environmental factors. In this study, two Mediaeval Muslim populations from Granada, Spain, were compared, testing whether differences in living environment (urban vs. rural) would result in distinct degrees of sexual dimorphism of long bones...
October 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
Joseph W Duncumb, Kana Miyagi, Parto Forouhi, Charles M Malata
Abdominal free flaps for microsurgical breast reconstruction are most commonly harvested based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels that supply skin and fat via perforators through the rectus muscle and sheath. Intact perforator anatomy and connections are vital for subsequent optimal flap perfusion and avoidance of necrosis, be it partial or total. The intraflap vessels are delicate and easily damaged and it is generally advised that patients should avoid heparin injection into the abdominal pannus preoperatively as this may compromise the vascular perforators through direct needle laceration, pressure from bruising, haematoma formation, or perforator thrombosis secondary to external compression...
2016: Case Reports in Surgery
Mordecai Blau, Ron Hazani, Daniel Hekmat
BACKGROUND: Gynecomastia is a very common entity in men, and several authors estimate that approximately 50% to 70% of the male population has palpable breast tissue. Much has been published with regard to the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of gynecomastia. However, the anatomy of the gynecomastia tissue remains elusive to most surgeons. PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to define the shape and consistency of the glandular tissue based on the vast experience of the senior author (MB)...
August 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Nicole Diane L Burca, Sheila M Gephart, Connie Miller, Catherine Cote
BACKGROUND: The orofacial defect of cleft lip/palate (CL/P) involves an altered physiological anatomy that affects the infant's feeding ability. Infants have cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), or both (CL/P). Dysfunction in the seal, as with cleft lip, or in the ability to coordinate muscle movement to generate negative pressure, as with cleft palate, leads to feeding issues that may compromise growth and affect bonding. PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to present (1) scientific evidence that supports clinical feeding practices for the infant with CL/P and (2) teaching strategies for staff and parents...
September 8, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Pu-Sheng Zhang, Yun-Feng Luo, Jin-Long Yu, Chi-Hua Fang, Fu-Jun Shi, Jian-Wen Deng
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical value of digital 3D technique combined with nanocarbon-aided navigation in endoscopic sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer. METHODS: Thirty-nine female patients with stage I/II breast cancer admitted in our hospital between September 2014 and September 2015 were recruited. CT lymphography data of the patients were segmented to reconstruct digital 3D models, which were imported into FreeForm Modeling Surgical System Platform for visual simulation surgery before operation...
August 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Minah Han, Subok Park, Jongduk Baek
We investigate the effect of anatomical noise on the detectability of cone beam CT (CBCT) images with different slice directions, slice thicknesses, and volume glandular fractions (VGFs). Anatomical noise is generated using a power law spectrum of breast anatomy, and spherical objects with diameters from 1mm to 11mm are used as breast masses. CBCT projection images are simulated and reconstructed using the FDK algorithm. A channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) with Laguerre-Gauss (LG) channels is used to evaluate detectability for the signal-known-exactly (SKE) binary detection task...
August 22, 2016: Optics Express
Vikneswary Batumalai, Lois Holloway, Amy Walker, Michael Jameson, Geoff P Delaney
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to estimate the delivered dose to the target and organs at risk (OAR) for external beam accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) accounting for day-to-day setup uncertainties, using rigid and deformable image registration. METHODS AND MATERIALS: One planning computed tomography (CT) scan and 5 cone beam CT scans for each of 25 patients previously treated with tangential breast radiation therapy were used. All cone beam CT scans were registered to the planning CT scan using 3 techniques: (1) rigid registration based on bony anatomy only, (2) rigid registration based on soft-tissue only, and (3) deformable image registration...
June 23, 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
Philip M P Poortmans, Meritxell Arenas, Lorenzo Livi
Decreasing the burden of radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer includes, next to complete omission, several ways to tailor the extent of RT. Possible options for this include lowering of the total dose, such as selective omission of the boost, hypofractionated RT to shorten the duration of treatment, the selective introduction of partial breast irradiation and anatomy based target volume contouring to decrease the size of the irradiated volumes. Elective regional nodal irradiation showed in several randomised trials and meta-analyses to significantly impact on local-regional control, disease-free survival, breast cancer mortality and overall survival...
August 10, 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Marco Esposito, Benjamin Busam, Christoph Hennersperger, Julia Rackerseder, Nassir Navab, Benjamin Frisch
PURPOSE: The staging of female breast cancer requires detailed information about the level of cancer spread through the lymphatic system. Common practice to obtain this information for patients with early-stage cancer is sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy, where LNs are radioactively identified for surgical removal and subsequent histological analysis. Punch needle biopsy is a less invasive approach but suffers from the lack of combined anatomical and nuclear information. We present and evaluate a system that introduces live collaborative robotic 2D gamma imaging in addition to live 2D ultrasound to identify SLNs in the surrounding anatomy...
September 2016: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Kashyap Komarraju Tadisina, Richard L Drake, James E Zins, Raffi Gurunluoglu
Internal mammary artery perforator (IMAP)-based fasciocutaneous flaps have recently gained popularity in sternal wound reconstruction due to their decreased donor site morbidity. However, patients with significant macromastia or who are obese present a challenge when using these flaps due to their anatomy and associated comorbid conditions. Despite the prevalence of this population, there is a relative paucity of data on the use of local fasciocutaneous flaps and techniques to close sternotomy wounds in the obese population with hypertrophic or ptotic breasts...
August 2, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Julia A Cook, Sunil S Tholpady, Arash Momeni, Michael W Chu
The internal mammary vessels are the most common recipient vessels in free flap breast reconstruction. The literature on internal mammary vascular anatomy is limited by small sample sizes, cadaveric studies, or intraoperative changes. The purpose of this study is to analyze internal mammary anatomy using computed tomographic angiography. A retrospective review of 110 consecutive computed tomographic angiography studies of female patients was performed. Measurements of vessel caliber, distance of internal mammary vessels to sternum, location of internal mammary vein bifurcation, intercostal space height, and chest width were analyzed...
October 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Megan C McNamara, Henry Ng
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people have unique healthcare needs. While all LGBT people are at an increased risk for mental health and substance abuse disorders, certain health conditions vary by group. Overweight and obesity are more common in lesbian and bisexual women, whereas sexual minority men are at increased risk for infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis. Breast, cervical, and prostate cancer screening should be offered to all LGBT individuals according to national guidelines and with consideration of a transgender person's natal and surgical anatomy...
July 2016: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
Ran Ito, Jung-Ju Huang, Jerry Chih-Wei Wu, Miffy Chia-Yu Lin, Ming-Huei Cheng
BACKGROUND: The profunda feomris artery perforator (PAP) flap was recently revisited and gains popularity as an alternative method of autologous breast reconstruction. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that PAP flap can be used reliably for reconstruction of various soft tissue defects. METHODS: A total of 55 free PAP flaps and 16 pedicle PAP flaps were transferred in 63 patients. Each case was reviewed to verify a PAP flap was performed identifying defect location, flap size, flap design, and postoperative complications...
August 2016: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"