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W Weinrebe, S Käbe-Frisch, I Füsgen, M Karaman, E Johannsdottir, S Rupp
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of desmopressin and placebo in independent geriatric outpatients with nocturnal polyuria (NP). METHODS: A prospective, randomized, single-center, national, double blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, parallel group comparative trial was carried out. The study included 110 geriatric outpatients, 55 patients per treatment group using desmopressin acetate nasal spray (strength: 0.1 mg/ml) once daily of 10 μg/spray blast or placebo...
March 14, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Wesley Böhmer, Tanja Knaus, Francesco G Mutti
The amination of alcohols is an important transformation in chemistry. The redox-neutral (i.e., hydrogen-borrowing) asymmetric amination of alcohols is enabled by the combination of an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) with an amine dehydrogenase (AmDH). In this work, we enhanced the efficiency of hydrogen-borrowing biocatalytic amination by co-immobilizing both dehydrogenases on controlled porosity glass FeIII ion-affinity beads. The recyclability of the dual-enzyme system was demonstrated (5 cycles) with total turnover numbers of >4000 and >1000 for ADH and AmDH, respectively...
February 2018: ChemCatChem
Kamila C Pagnoncelli, Andressa R Pereira, Graziela C Sedenho, Thiago Bertaglia, Frank N Crespilho
Integrating in situ biofuel production and energy conversion into a single system ensures the production of more robust networks as well as more renewable technologies. For this purpose, identifying and developing new biocatalysts is crucial. Herein, is reported a bioelectrochemical system consisting of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wherein both function cooperatively for ethanol production and its bioelectrochemical oxidation. Here, it is shown that it is possible to produce ethanol and use it as a biofuel in a tandem manner...
February 27, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Huanhuan Zhang, Junhua Yun, H Zabed, Miaomiao Yang, Guoyan Zhang, Yilin Qi, Qi Guo, Xianghui Qi
In the present study, recombinant strains were constructed for xylitol production by cloning and expressing the novel xylitol dehydrogenase (xdh) and alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) genes in E. coli BL21 (DE3) from Gluconobacter thailandicus CGMCC1.3748. The optimum pH, temperature, specific activity and kinetic parameters were further investigated for purified XDH. The co-culture of G. thailandicus (30 g/L), BL21-xdh (20 g/L) and BL21-adh (20 g/L) produced 34.34 g/L of xylitol after 48 h in the presence of 40 g/L d-arabitol and 2% ethanol...
March 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Sen Lin, Shiyong Sun, Ke Wang, Kexuan Shen, Biaobiao Ma, Yuquan Ren, Xiaoyu Fan
The bioinspired design and construction of enzyme@capsule microreactors with specific cell-like functionality has generated tremendous interest in recent years. Inspired by their fascinating complexity, scientists have endeavored to understand the essential aspects of a natural cell and create biomimicking microreactors so as to immobilize enzymes within the hierarchical structure of a microcapsule. In this study, simultaneous encapsulation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was achieved during the preparation of microcapsules by the Pickering emulsion method using amphiphilic modified TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs) as building blocks for assembling the photocatalytic microcapsule membrane...
February 24, 2018: Nanomaterials
Feiyan Liang, Elias Englund, Pia Lindberg, Peter Lindblad
The Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle is the main pathway to fix atmospheric CO2 and store energy in carbon bonds, forming the precursors of most primary and secondary metabolites necessary for life. Speeding up the CBB cycle theoretically has positive effects on the subsequent growth and/or the end metabolite(s) production. Four CBB cycle enzymes, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO), fructose-1,6/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (FBP/SBPase), transketolase (TK) and aldolase (FBA) were selected to be co-overexpressed with the ethanol synthesis enzymes pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803...
February 22, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Huaidong Zhang, Qin Li, Lina Wang, Yan Chen
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the reversible oxidation of alcohol using NAD+ or NADP+ as cofactor. Three ADH homologues have been identified in Komagataella phaffii GS115 (also named Pichia pastoris GS115), ADH1, ADH2 and ADH3, among which adh3 is the only gene responsible for consumption of ethanol in Komagataella phaffii GS115. However, the relationship between structure and function of mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase isozyme III from Komagataella phaffii GS115 (KpADH3) is still not clear yet...
February 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Xiuxiu Wang, Min Liu, Chen Zhang, Shangshang Li, Qihang Yang, Jianjun Zhang, Zhiyuan Gong, Jiandong Han, Le Jia
This work was to examine the antioxidation in vitro and hepatoprotective effects of enzyme-extracted Oudemansiella radiata polysaccharides (En-OPS) on alcohol-induced liver damage in mice. The antioxidant activities were determined according to the scavenging effects of En-OPS on hydroxyl, superoxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, and the level of reducing power. En-OPS showed hepatoprotective activities on decreasing the serum levels of aspertate aminotransferase (AST), alamine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), as well as hepatic lipid levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerols (TG)...
February 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chidozie Victor Agu, Stella M Lai, Victor Ujor, Pradip K Biswas, Andy Jones, Venkat Gopalan, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka Ezeji
We report a Thermotoga hypogea (Th) alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-dependent spectrophotometric assay for quantifying the amount of butanol in growth media, an advance that will facilitate rapid high-throughput screening of hypo- and hyper-butanol-producing strains of solventogenic Clostridium species. While a colorimetric nitroblue tetrazolium chloride-based assay for quantitating butanol in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation broth has been described previously, we determined that Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) ADH used in this earlier study exhibits approximately 13-fold lower catalytic efficiency towards butanol than ethanol...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Malcolm Prentice
Diabetes Insipidus (DI) is a name given historically to two conditions, which result in 'diabetes', which is Greek for 'syphon' or polyuria. The "Insipidus" refers to urine being insipid. 'Cranial DI' is so called because it relates to a cause within the head characterised by deficiency of vasopressin [antidiuretic hormone (ADH)] secretion from the posterior pituitary. Treatment is with desmopressin, a synthetic long-acting analogue of vasopressin. In contrast 'Nephrogenic DI' is due to resistance of the renal tubules to vasopressin action...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Kento Tokuyama, Yoshihiro Toya, Takaaki Horinouchi, Chikara Furusawa, Fumio Matsuda, Hiroshi Shimizu
Gene deletion strategies using flux balance analysis (FBA) have improved the growth-coupled production of various compounds. However, the productivities were often below the expectation because the cells failed to adapt to these genetic perturbations. Here, we demonstrate the productivity of the succinate of the designed gene deletion strain was improved by adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE). Although FBA predicted deletions of adhE-pykAF-gldA-pflB lead to produce succinate from glycerol with a yield of 0...
February 19, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Schiaffino Simone, Massone Elena, Gristina Licia, Fregatti Piero, Rescinito Giuseppe, Alessandro Villa, Friedman Daniele, Calabrese Massimo
OBJECTIVE: To report the results of the conservative management with mammographic checks of patients with ADH diagnosed by vacuum assisted breast biopsy (VAB), without residual calcifications. METHODS: The authors accessed the institutional database of radiological, surgical and pathologic anatomy. Inclusion criteria were: ADH diagnosed by VAB on a single group of microcalcifications, without residual post-procedure; follow-up at least of 12 months. Exclusion criteria were the presence of personal history of breast cancer or other high risk lesions; association with other synchronous lesions, both more and less advanced proliferative lesions...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Guicheng Wu, Yanlong Liu, Yunhuan Liu, Lihua Zhang, Haiyang Zhao, Liming Liu, Cuiqing Zhao, Wenke Feng
Excess alcohol consumption can lead to alcoholic liver disease. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic regulator with multiple physiologic functions. Previous study demonstrated that FGF21 deficiency exacerbated alcohol-induced liver injury and exogenous FGF21 administration protected liver from chronic alcohol-induced injury. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of FGF21 in alcohol metabolism in mice. FGF21 knockout (KO) mice and the wild time (WT) control mice were divided into two groups and fasted for 24 h followed by a bonus of alcohol treatment at a dose of 5 g/kg body weight via gavage...
February 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Tzy Harn Chua, Matin Ly, Senthil Thillainadesan, Katie Wynne
Hyponatraemia is common following major head injury and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A 20-year-old man presented with reduced consciousness after head trauma and was found to have a fractured skull base with bilateral frontal contusions. On day 3 of his admission, he developed hyponatraemia with raised urine sodium and osmolality, despite receiving dexamethasone and intravenous fluid therapy. His hyponatraemia worsened after the treatment with fluid restriction and oral salt. He was in negative fluid balance suggesting possible renal salt wasting...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Xiaowei Chen, Xiaozhou Ying, Weiming Sun, Huijia Zhu, Xin Jiang, Bin Chen
The present study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of fraxetin against ethanol induced liver fibrosis in rats. Rats were underwent intragastric administration of ethanol (5.0-9.5 g/kg) once a day for 24 weeks. Effect of fraxetin against ethanol induced liver fibrosis was investigated by giving 20 or 50 mg/kg fraxetin. At the end of experiment, the livers were collected for histopathological analyses, protein extraction, and enzymatic activities. Our results indicated that fraxetin significantly corrected ethanol-induced hepatic fibrosis, as evidenced by the decrease in serum ALT and AST, the attenuation of histopathological changes...
February 1, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Leslie R Lamb, Manisha Bahl, Kevin S Hughes, Constance D Lehman
BACKGROUND: To compare the pathologic upgrade rates of high-risk breast lesions (HRLs) on digital 2D mammography (DM) versus digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). STUDY DESIGN: The study cohort was composed of patients with HRLs diagnosed by image-guided core needle biopsy from December 2007 to February 2011 (DM group, before DBT integration) and from January 2013 to March 2016 (DBT group, after complete DBT integration). Medical records were reviewed for surgical outcomes and follow-up imaging...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Shin Han Song, Gyeong Ah Sim, Seon Ha Baek, Jang Won Seo, Jung Weon Shim, Ja Ryong Koo
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the most common cause of euvolemic hypo-osmotic hyponatremia. There are several etiologies of SIADH including neuroendocrine tumor, pulmonary disease, infection, trauma, and medications. Here, we report a case of SIADH associated with a schwannoma involving the mediastinum in a 75-year-old woman who presented with nausea, vomiting, and general weakness. Laboratory testing showed hypo-osmolar hyponatremia, with a serum sodium level of 102mmol/L, serum osmolality of 221mOsm/kg, urine osmolality of 382mOsm/kg, urine sodium of 55 mmol/L, and plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) of 4...
December 2017: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
Tomohiro Sera, Shinichiro Kashiwagi, Koji Takada, Wataru Goto, Yuka Asano, Tamami Morisaki, Satoru Noda, Tsutomu Takashima, Naoyoshi Onoda, Kosei Hirakawa, Masaichi Ohira
We investigated the usefulness of vacuum-assisted biopsy(VAB)using the EnCor ENSPIRE®system for initial biopsy of breast tumors. We analyzed 24 cases of VAB using the EnCor ENSPIRE®system performed for breast tumors. Of 24 mammary lesions, 12 cases(50.0%)were diagnosed as malignant. Among them, 7 cases(29.2%)were invasive ductal carcinoma(IDC) and 5 cases(20.8%)were ductal carcinoma in situ(DCIS). Six cases required tumor resection for definitive diagnosis; 1 case was diagnosed with IDC, 2 cases with DCIS, 2 cases with intraductal papilloma(IDP), and 1 case with atypical ductal hyperplasia( ADH)...
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Nadine S M Offermans, Shannon M Ketcham, Piet A van den Brandt, Matty P Weijenberg, Colinda C J M Simons
The alcohol-colorectal cancer (CRC) association may differ by sex and ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes. ADH enzymes oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, both of which are human carcinogens. The Netherlands Cohort Study includes 120,852 participants, aged 55-69 years at baseline (1986), and has 20.3 years follow-up (case-cohort: nsubcohort=4,774; ncases=4,597). The baseline questionnaire included questions on alcohol intake at baseline and five years before. Using toenail DNA, available for ~75% of the cohort, we successfully genotyped 6 ADH1B and 6 ADH1C SNPs (nsubcohort=3,897; ncases=3,558)...
January 30, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Tooru Ooya, Takaya Ogawa, Toshifumi Takeuchi
Enzyme application has gained importance over the past decade in bioprocess, biomedical, and pharmaceutical fields. We found that polyglycerol dendrimers (PGDs), which are biocompatible molecules, can recover alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from aqueous solution under elevated temperature. A low concentration of PGD (5 wt.%) is sufficient for the recovery of high enzymatic activity, although a high concentration (25-75 wt.%) of glycerol is generally required to stabilize ADH. The enzymatic activity of ADH in suspension with PGDs is over 60% but it is only 10% in that with glycerol...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
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