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Jilong Wang, Suthamat Niyompanich, Yi-Shu Tai, Jingyu Wang, Wenqin Bai, Prithviraj Mahida, Tuo Gao, Kechun Zhang
: Chromosomal integration of heterologous metabolic pathways is optimal for industrially relevant fermentation, as plasmid-based fermentation causes extra metabolic burden and genetic instabilities. In this work, chromosomal integration was adapted for the production of mevalonate which can be readily converted into β-methyl-δ-valerolactone, a monomer for the production of mechanically tunable polyesters. The mevalonate pathway driven by a constitutive promoter was integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli to replace the native fermentation gene adhE or ldhA The engineered strains (CMEV-1 and CMEV-2) did not require inducer or antibiotic, and showed slightly higher maximal productivities (0...
October 7, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Marion Rauter, Jakub Kasprzak, Karin Becker, Jan Riechen, Sebastian Worch, Anja Hartmann, Martin Mascher, Uwe Scholz, Kim Baronian, Rüdiger Bode, Frieder Schauer, H Matthias Vorbrodt, Gotthard Kunze
BACKGROUND: The non-conventional yeast Arxula adeninivorans uses 1-butanol as a carbon source and has recently attracted attention as a promising organism for 1-butanol production. Alcohol dehydrogenases (adhp) are important catalysts in 1-butanol metabolism, but only Aadh1p from Arxula has been characterized. This enzyme is involved in ethanol synthesis but has a low impact on 1-butanol degradation. RESULTS: In this study, we identified and characterized a second adhp from A...
October 12, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Karolina Orywal, Wojciech Jelski, Tadeusz Werel, Maciej Szmitkowski
OBJECTIVES: Studies on alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity in the sera of patients with malignant neoplasms show that cancer cells in many organs may release ADH isoenzymes into the blood. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the activity of ADH isoenzymes and ALDH in the sera of patients with bladder cancer (BCa), and with different grades of the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 39 patients with BCa (15 patients with low-grade and 24 with high-grade BCa) and from 60 healthy subjects...
October 8, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
C Fives, C J O'Neill, R Murphy, M A Corrigan, M J O'Sullivan, L Feeley, M W Bennett, F O'Connell, T J Browne
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis and management of lobular neoplasia (LN) including lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) remains controversial. Current management options after a core needle biopsy (CNB) with lobular neoplasia (LN) incorporating both ALH and LCIS include excision biopsy or careful clinical and radiologic follow up. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the surgical database at Cork University Hospital was performed to identify all core needle biopsies from January 1st 2010 to 31st December 2013 with a diagnosis of FA who subsequently underwent surgical excision biopsy...
October 3, 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Hironaga Akita, Nobutaka Nakashima, Tamotsu Hoshino
Pyruvate plays an essential role in the central carbon metabolism of multiple organisms and is used as a raw material in the chemical, biochemical and pharmaceutical industries. To meet demand, large amounts of pyruvate are produced through fermentation processes. Here we describe a simple and efficient method for producing pyruvate in Escherichia coli. To stop carbon flux from pyruvate to fatty acids, the accBC genes, which encode the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of fatty acid biosynthesis and is essential for vegetative growth, were manipulated within the genome; its native promoter was replaced with the tetracycline (or doxycycline)-regulated promoter and the corresponding transcriptional regulator genes...
December 2016: AMB Express
Lai Peng, Stephanie Piekos, Grace L Guo, Xiao-Bo Zhong
The expression of phase-I drug metabolizing enzymes in liver changes dramatically during postnatal liver maturation. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is critical for bile acid and lipid homeostasis in liver. However, the role of FXR in regulating ontogeny of phase-I drug metabolizing genes is not clear. Hence, we applied RNA-sequencing to quantify the developmental expression of phase-I genes in both Fxr-null and control (C57BL/6) mouse livers during development. Liver samples of male C57BL/6 and Fxr-null mice at 6 different ages from prenatal to adult were used...
September 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Melissa Murray
Percutaneous imaging-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) is a less invasive and less expensive alternative to surgical biopsy for the evaluation of breast lesions. After a CNB the radiologist determine if there is concordance between the pathology, imaging, and clinical findings. Patient management after CNB diagnosis of high-risk breast lesion varies. Surgical excision is warranted for lesions yielding a CNB diagnosis of ADH; however controversy exists regarding the need for surgical excision after CNB diagnosis of radial scar, papillary lesion, atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH), or lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS)...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Fadil M Hannan, Valerie N Babinsky, Rajesh V Thakker
The extracellular calcium (Ca(2+) o)-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a family C G protein-coupled receptor, which detects alterations in Ca(2+) o concentrations and modulates parathyroid hormone secretion and urinary calcium excretion. The central role of the CaSR in Ca(2+) o homeostasis has been highlighted by the identification of mutations affecting the CASR gene on chromosome 3q21.1. Loss-of-function CASR mutations cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH), whereas gain-of-function mutations lead to autosomal dominant hypocalcaemia (ADH)...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Sahar Aly Daoud, Wesam Maghawri Ismail, Mohamed Salah Abdelhamid, Tamer Mohamed Nabil, Sahar Aly Daoud
HER2/neu is a well-established prognostic and predictive factor for invasive breast cancer. However, the role of HER2/neu in ductal breast carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is debated and recent data have suggested that it is mainly linked to in situ local recurrence. Although molecular data suggest that atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and duct carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are related lesions, albeit with vastly different clinical implications, the role of HER2/neu expression in atypical ductal hyperplasia is not well defined either...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Michal Liber, Moshe Sonnenblick, Gabriel Munter
OBJECTIVE: Elderly patients have a high prevalence of hypernatremia. The aim of this study was to determine demographic and clinical characteristics of the elderly hypernatremic patient hospitalized in the internal medicine ward, and to enhance understanding of the role of ADH secretion in the pathogenesis of hypernatremia. METHODS: Case-control study performed in an Internal Medicine ward in a University affiliated hospital. 33 elderly hypernatremic patients (admission sodium>150 meq/l, age>70) compared to 34 normonatremic patients...
September 15, 2016: Endocrine Practice
Tehillah S Menes, Karla Kerlikowske, Jane Lange, Shabnam Jaffer, Robert Rosenberg, Diana L Miglioretti
Importance: Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) is a known risk factor for breast cancer. Published risk estimates are based on cohorts that included women whose ADH was diagnosed before widespread use of screening mammograms and did not differentiate between the methods used to diagnose ADH, which may be related to the size of the ADH focus. These risks may overestimate the risk in women with presently diagnosed ADH. Objective: To examine the risk of invasive cancer associated with ADH diagnosed using core needle biopsy vs excisional biopsy...
September 8, 2016: JAMA Oncology
Laura Iacorossi, Francesca Gambalunga, Alessandra Fabi, Diana Giannarelli, Gabriella Facchinetti, Michela Piredda, Maria Grazia De Marinis
INTRODUCTION: The majority of patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer are treated with oral endocrine therapies, which are administered in periods ranging from 5 to 10 years. Adherence, ie the degree a subject's behavior corresponds to the agreed recommendations, then becomes a significant problem, which can also affect distress levels. The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of adherence to endocrine therapy and distress in a sample of Italian women. METHOD: The study is a descriptive cross sectional survey...
April 2016: Professioni Infermieristiche
Jung Eun Yang, Je Woong Kim, Young Hoon Oh, So Young Choi, Hyuk Lee, A-Reum Park, Jihoon Shin, Si Jae Park, Sang Yup Lee
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) containing 2-hydroxyacids such as lactate (LA) and 2-hydroxybutyrate (2HB) have recently been produced by metabolically engineered microorganisms. Here, we further expanded 2-hydroxyacid monomer spectrum of PHAs by engineering Escherichia coli to produce PHAs containing 2-hydroxyisovalerate (2HIV). To generate 2HIV in vivo, a feedback resistant ilvBN(mut) genes encoding acetohydroxyacid synthase and ilvCD genes encoding ketol-acid reductoisomerase and dihydroxyacid dehydratase, respectively, and panE gene encoding (D)-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase were overexpressed...
September 7, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
Masaya Nakamura, Jong-Hwan Ra, Ju-Sung Kim
The different concentrations of ethanol (20-100%) and distilled water extract for Dendropanax morbifera LEV. leaves were evaluated to induce antioxidant and biological activity employed by variety of assays. The 20%, 80%, and 100% ethanol extract demonstrated the relatively higher activity, whereas distilled water, 40%, and 60% ethanol extracts exhibited the lower antioxidant and biological activity. Especially, 80% ethanol extract showed the remarkably higher radical scavenging activity, reducing power, total phenol and flavonoid content, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity, and alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Keziban Aslı Bala, Murat Doğan, Sultan Kaba, Sinan Akbayram, Oktay Aslan, Selami Kocaman, Gülsüm İclal Bayhan, Lokman Üstyol, Nihat Demir
BACKGROUND Our study aimed to demonstrate the frequency of the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) and associated factors during the course of brucellosis in children and adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included children and adolescents aged 0-18 years old diagnosed with brucellosis between 2012 and 2014. The data were collected from patient charts. The diagnosis of brucellosis was made based on titrations >1:160 in standard Wright tube agglutination tests and/or positive culture tests...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Yasuhiko Hayashi, Daisuke Kita, Takuya Watanabe, Issei Fukui, Yasuo Sasagawa, Masahiro Oishi, Osamu Tachibana, Fumiaki Ueda, Mitsutoshi Nakada
PURPOSE: Diabetes insipidus (DI) remains a complication of transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for sellar and parasellar tumors. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) appears as hyper intensity (HI) in the pituitary stalk and the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Its disappearance from the posterior lobe occurs with DI, indicating a lack of ADH. The appearance of HI in the pituitary stalk indicates disturbances in ADH transport. METHODS: This retrospective study included 172 patients undergoing TSS for sellar tumors at our institute from 2006 to 2014...
September 1, 2016: Pituitary
Marya Aziz, Richard St-Louis, Florence Husson, Selim Kermasha
The presence of selected dehydrogenases, including alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-YL) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-YL), in Yarrowia lipolytica JMY 861, and their potential role in flavor synthesis were investigated. The experimental findings showed that using reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) as cofactor, the ADH-YL activity in vitro was 6-fold higher than that with reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH); however, under the experimental conditions used in this study, an ALDH-YL activity was not detected...
September 1, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Bijin Thajudeen, Abdulla K Salahudeen
Hyponatremia is the most frequently observed electrolyte abnormality in clinical practice, and its frequency is almost double in hospitalized cancer patients. As a subset of cancer, hyponatremia is quite common in lung cancer patients, and it is often coupled with the diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. The presence of hyponatremia is consequential in that its presence adversely affects cancer patients' prognosis and outcomes. Limited data suggest that correcting hyponatremia in lung cancer patients can increase response to anticancer treatment, may help reduce length of hospital stay and cost, and reduce morbidity and mortality...
2016: Cancer Management and Research
Cody J Peer, Jonathan D Strope, Shaunna Beedie, Ariel M Ley, Alesia Holly, Karim Calis, Ronald Farkas, Jagan Parepally, Angela Men, Emmanuel O Fadiran, Pamela Scott, Marjorie Jenkins, William H Theodore, Tristan M Sissung
OBJECTIVES: The recommended zolpidem starting dose was lowered in females (5 mg vs. 10 mg) since side effects were more frequent and severe than those of males; the mechanism underlying sex differences in pharmacokinetics (PK) is unknown. We hypothesized that such differences were caused by known sex-related variability in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) expression. METHODS: Male, female, and castrated male rats were administered 2.6 mg/kg zolpidem, ± disulfiram (ADH/ALDH pathway inhibitor) to compare PK changes induced by sex and gonadal hormones...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Aitao Li, Adriana Ilie, Zhoutong Sun, Richard Lonsdale, Jian-He Xu, Manfred T Reetz
Biocatalytic cascade reactions using isolated stereoselective enzymes or whole cells in one-pot processes lead to value-added chiral products in a single workup. The concept has been restricted mainly to starting materials and intermediate products that are accepted by the respective wild-type enzymes. In the present study, we exploited directed evolution as a means to create E. coli whole cells for regio- and stereoselective cascade sequences that are not possible using man-made catalysts. The approach is illustrated using P450-BM3 in combination with appropriate alcohol dehydrogenases as catalysts in either two-, three-, or four-step cascade reactions starting from cyclohexane, cyclohexanol, or cyclohexanone, respectively, leading to either (R,R)-, (S,S)-, or meso-cyclohexane-1,2-diol...
September 19, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
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