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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439569/the-obesity-paradox-in-kidney-disease-how-to-reconcile-it-with-obesity-management
#1
Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Connie M Rhee, Jason Chou, S Foad Ahmadi, Jongha Park, Joline Lt Chen, Alpesh N Amin
Obesity, a risk factor for de novo chronic kidney disease (CKD), confers survival advantages in advanced CKD. This so-called obesity paradox is the archetype of the reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risks, in addition to the lipid, blood pressure, adiponectin, homocysteine, and uric acid paradoxes. These paradoxical phenomena are in sharp contradistinction to the known epidemiology of cardiovascular risks in the general population. In addition to advanced CKD, the obesity paradox has also been observed in heart failure, chronic obstructive lung disease, liver cirrhosis, and metastatic cancer, as well as in the elderly...
March 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435069/age-related-increase-in-wnt-inhibitor-causes-a-senescence-like-phenotype-in-human-cardiac-stem-cells
#2
Tamami Nakamura, Tohru Hosoyamaa, Junichi Murakami, Makoto Samura, Koji Ueno, Hiroshi Kurazumi, Ryo Suzuki, Akihito Mikamo, Kimikazu Hamano
Aging of cardiac stem/progenitor cells (CSCs) impairs heart regeneration and leads to unsatisfactory outcomes of cell-based therapies. As the precise mechanisms underlying CSC aging remain unclear, the use of therapeutic strategies for elderly patients with heart failure is severely delayed. In this study, we used human cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs), a subtype of CSC found in the postnatal heart, to identify secreted factor(s) associated with CSC aging. Human CDCs were isolated from heart failure patients of various ages (2-83 years old)...
April 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432600/potentially-inappropriate-antihypertensive-prescriptions-to-elderly-patients-results-of-a-prospective-observational-study
#3
Paola H Ponte Márquez, Olga H Torres, Anonio San-José, Xavier Vidal, Antonia Agustí, Francesc Formiga, Alfonso López-Soto, Nieves Ramírez-Duque, Antonio Fernández-Moyano, Juana Garcia-Moreno, Juan A Arroyo, Domingo Ruiz
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies of antihypertensive treatment of older patients have focused on blood pressure control, cardiovascular risk or adherence, whereas data on inappropriate antihypertensive prescriptions to older patients are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess inappropriate antihypertensive prescriptions to older patients. METHODS: An observational, prospective multicentric study was conducted to assess potentially inappropriate prescription of antihypertensive drugs, in patients aged 75 years and older with arterial hypertension (HTN), in the month prior to hospital admission, using four instruments: Beers, Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions (STOPP), Screening Tool to Alert Doctors to the Right Treatment (START) and Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders 3 (ACOVE-3)...
April 21, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432156/epidemiology-of-valvular-heart-disease-in-a-swedish-nationwide-hospital-based-register-study
#4
Pontus Andell, Xinjun Li, Andreas Martinsson, Charlotte Andersson, Martin Stagmo, Bengt Zöller, Kristina Sundquist, J Gustav Smith
OBJECTIVE: Transitions in the spectrum of valvular heart diseases (VHDs) in developed countries over the 20th century have been reported from clinical case series, but large, contemporary population-based studies are lacking. METHODS: We used nationwide registers to identify all patients with a first diagnosis of VHD at Swedish hospitals between 2003 and 2010. Age-stratified and sex-stratified incidence of each VHD and adjusted comorbidity profiles were assessed...
April 21, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427747/percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-for-aspiration-pneumonia-a-10-year-single-center-experience
#5
Hiromi Tomioka, Shyuji Yamashita, Nobuaki Mamesaya, Masahiro Kaneko
BACKGROUND: The significance of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in patients with aspiration pneumonia is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of aspiration pneumonia patients who underwent PEG. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients hospitalized with pneumonia who underwent PEG from 2005 to 2014. RESULTS: Of 2281 cases of pneumonia, 92 patients with aspiration pneumonia underwent PEG during their hospital stay...
May 2017: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427050/expression-of-high-mobility-group-protein-b1-in-cardiac-tissue-of-elderly-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-with-or-without-inflammatory-rheumatic-disease
#6
Mei Bruton, Ivana Hollan, Julie Xiao, Eva Lindroos, Knut Mikkelsen, Stein E Rynning, Kjell Saatvedt, Sven M Almdahl, Helena E Harris, Ingrid E Lundberg, Cecilia Wick
BACKGROUND: It is known from clinical practice and observational studies that elderly patients with a diagnosis of inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD) bear a significantly increased risk for cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure. The molecular mechanism, however, is still not known. Recently, high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), a ubiquitous, highly conserved single polypeptide expressed in all mammal eukaryotic cells, has been identified to mediate myocardial dysfunction in vitro once released from the nuclei of cardiomyocytes...
April 21, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422270/characteristics-and-incidence-of-chronic-illness-in-community-dwelling-predominantly-male-u-s-veteran-centenarians
#7
Raya Elfadel Kheirbek, Ali Fokar, Nawar Shara, Leakie K Bell-Wilson, Hans J Moore, Edwin Olsen, Marc R Blackman, Maria D Llorente
OBJECTIVES: To assess the incidence of chronic illness and its effect on veteran centenarians. DESIGN: Retrospective longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: United States Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW). PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling veterans born between 1910 and 1915 who survived to at least age 80 (N = 86,892; 31,121 octogenarians, 52,420 nonagenarians, 3,351 centenarians). MEASUREMENTS: The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate cumulative incidence of chronic conditions according to age group...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421551/macrolides-digoxin-toxicity-and-the-risk-of-sudden-death-a-population-based-study
#8
Kieran L Quinn, Erin M Macdonald, Tara Gomes, Muhammad M Mamdani, Anjie Huang, David N Juurlink
INTRODUCTION: Digoxin is commonly prescribed to elderly patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation, and macrolide antibiotics markedly increase the risk of digoxin toxicity. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine whether, in older patients receiving digoxin, macrolide antibiotics are associated with sudden death. METHODS: We used a population-based, nested, case-control design from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 2012 in a cohort of Ontario residents aged 66 years or older prescribed digoxin...
April 18, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417963/loop-diuretics-affect-skeletal-myoblast-differentiation-and-exercise-induced-muscle-hypertrophy
#9
Shintaro Mandai, Susumu Furukawa, Manami Kodaka, Yutaka Hata, Takayasu Mori, Naohiro Nomura, Fumiaki Ando, Yutaro Mori, Daiei Takahashi, Yuki Yoshizaki, Yuri Kasagi, Yohei Arai, Emi Sasaki, Sayaka Yoshida, Yasuro Furuichi, Nobuharu L Fujii, Eisei Sohara, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida
Muscle wasting or sarcopenia contributes to morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer, renal failure, or heart failure, and in elderly individuals. Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) is highly expressed in mammalian skeletal muscle, where it contributes to the generation of membrane ion currents and potential. However, the physiologic function of NKCC1 in myogenesis is unclear. We investigated this issue using the NKCC1 inhibitors bumetanide and furosemide, which are commonly used loop diuretics...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413575/the-role-of-estrogen-in-cardiac-metabolism-and-diastolic-function
#10
Shumin Li, Anisha A Gupte
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has similar prevalence and prognosis as HF with reduced EF, but there is no approved treatment for HFpEF. HFpEF is common in postmenopausal women, which suggests that the absence of estrogen (E2) plays a role in its pathophysiology. With the country's growing elderly population, the prevalence of HFpEF is rapidly increasing. This has triggered a renewed urgency in finding novel approaches to preventing and slowing the progression of HFpEF. In this review, we address the role of E2 in left ventricular diastolic function and how it impacts women with HFpEF as well as animal models...
January 2017: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405987/cardiorenal-syndrome-clinical-outcome-study
#11
H R Shah, N P Singh, N P Aggarwal, D Singhania, A Kumar
BACKGROUND: Over recent years, the field of medicine has been challenged by the twin epidemic of heart failure and renal insufficiency. The coexistence of the two problems in the same patient, referred to as cardiorenal syndrome (CRS), is defined as 'disorders of the heart and kidneys whereby acute or chronic dysfunction in one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction of the other. The mechanisms underlying this interaction are complex and multifactorial in nature. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY: Identify and classify patients admitted with cardiorenal syndrome into various subtypes and assess clinical outcome at discharge and at three months...
December 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394435/real-world-clinical-characteristics-and-treatment-patterns-of-individuals-aged-80-and-older-with-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation-results-from-the-real-life-multicenter-survey-evaluating-stroke-study
#12
Murat Biteker, Özcan Başaran, Volkan Doğan, İbrahim Altun, Fatma Özpamuk Karadeniz, Ahmet İlker Tekkesin, Yasin Çakıllı, Ceyhan Türkkan, Mehmet Hamidi, Vahit Demir, Mustafa Ozan Gürsoy, Müjgan Tek Öztürk, Gökhan Aksan, Sabri Seyis, Mehmet Ballı, Mehmet Hayri Alıcı, Serdar Bozyel
OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical characteristics of and use of oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy in individuals aged 80 and older with atrial fibrillation (AF) with those of individuals younger than 80 with AF in clinical practice. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: The ReAl-life Multicenter Survey Evaluating Stroke prevention strategies in Turkey trial (NCT02344901), a national observational registry. PARTICIPANTS: Turkish adults with nonvalvular AF (NVAF)...
April 10, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393567/prognostic-impact-of-heart-rate-in-elderly-with-systolic-heart-failure-and-concomitant-atrial-fibrillation
#13
Salim Barywani, Max Petzold
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of resting heart rate (HR) on 5-year all-cause mortality in patients ≥80 years with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF) after optimal up-titration of beta-blockers (BBs). METHODS: Patients (n = 185) aged ≥80 years with HF and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% were included between January 2000 and January 2008 from two university hospitals, Sahlgrenska and Östra and retrospectively studied from January 2 to May 30, 2013...
April 10, 2017: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392370/out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-survivors-with-cognitive-impairments-have-lower-exercise-capacity
#14
Liesbeth W Boyce, Carlien C Reinders, Gerard Volker, Esther Los, Henk J van Exel, Thea P M Vliet Vlieland, Paulien H Goossens
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic brain injury is described in up to 40% of survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Besides cognitive impairments, lack of circulation may also affect exercise capacity. It is not known if exercise capacity of patients with cognitive impairments differs from other OHCA survivors. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients ≥18 years with myocardial infarction (MI) as cause of OHCA admitted for cardiac rehabilitation between February 2011 and April 2014...
April 6, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390793/risk-of-stroke-and-heart-failure-attributable-to-atrial-fibrillation-in-middle-aged-and-elderly-people-results-from-a-five-year-prospective-cohort-study-of-japanese-community-dwellers
#15
Masaki Ohsawa, Tomonori Okamura, Kozo Tanno, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Kazuyoshi Itai, Yuki Yonekura, Kazuki Konishi, Shinichi Omama, Naomi Miyamatsu, Tanvir Chowdhury Turin, Yoshihiro Morino, Tomonori Itoh, Toshiyuki Onoda, Kiyomi Sakata, Yasuhiro Ishibashi, Shinji Makita, Motoyuki Nakamura, Fumitaka Tanaka, Toru Kuribayashi, Mutsuko Ohta, Akira Okayama
BACKGROUND: The relative and absolute risks of stroke and heart failure attributable to atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been sufficiently examined. METHODS: A prospective study of 23,731 community-dwelling Japanese individuals was conducted. Participants were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of prevalent AF (n = 338 and n = 23,393, respectively). Excess events (EE) due to AF and relative risks (RRs) determined using the non-AF group as the reference for incident stroke and heart failure were estimated using Poisson regression stratified by age groups (middle-aged: 40-69 years old; elderly: 70 years of age or older) after adjustment for sex and age...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387665/left-ventricular-hypertrophy-and-cognitive-decline-in-old-age
#16
Simin Mahinrad, Annelotte E Vriend, J Wouter Jukema, Diana van Heemst, Naveed Sattar, Gerard Jan Blauw, Peter W Macfarlane, Elaine N Clark, Anton J M de Craen, Behnam Sabayan
BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced heart failure run a greater risk of dementia. Whether early cardiac structural changes also associate with cognitive decline is yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE: We tested whether left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) derived from electrocardiogram associates with cognitive decline in older subjects at risk of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We included 4,233 participants (mean age 75.2 years, 47.8% male) from PROSPER (PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk)...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385080/blood-pressure-control-in-anticoagulated-patients-with-hypertension-and-atrial-fibrillation
#17
Vivencio Barrios, Carlos Escobar, Luis Prieto Valiente, Jose María Lobos, Diego Vargas-Ortega, Jose Polo, Nuria Marin Montañés
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical profile and blood pressure (BP) control rates of anticoagulated patients with hypertension and atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: The PAULA study was a multicenter cross-sectional/retrospective observational study conducted throughout Spain. The study included patients with nonvalvular AF who were receiving vitamin K antagonist therapy during the past year and were attended at primary care setting. Adequate BP control was defined according to 2013 ESC/ESH guidelines...
April 7, 2017: Blood Pressure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379023/-cardiovascular-complications-of-cancers-and-anti-cancer-therapy
#18
Jiří Vyskočil, Katarína Petráková, Petr Jelínek, Michal Furdek
In our aging population the incidence of cancer is increasing in the elderly. We are thus facing a new challenge especially considering incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in this patients population. Overall survival of cancer patients has significantly improved therefore cancer has become in many cases a chronic disease. We are about to be treating patients who either may develop a new CVD or their current CVD may deteriorate. Cancer can cause various cardiovascular conditions locally (pressure in mediastinum, effusions) or systemically (increased risk of pulmonary embolism, arrhythmias, carcinoid heart disease)...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376417/successful-endovascular-coil-embolization-in-an-elder-and-asymptomatic-case-of-anomalous-systemic-arterial-supply-to-the-normal-basal-segment
#19
Yuichiro Machida, Nozomu Motono, Takuma Matsui, Katsuo Usuda, Hidetaka Uramoto
INTRODUCTION: An anomalous systemic arterial supply to the normal basal segment without sequestration is a rare congenital vascular malformation. The discovery age is relatively young, and the most common clinical symptom is hemoptysis due to pulmonary hypertension or heart failure. We herein describe a case of endovascular embolization of in an elderly and asymptomatic patient with an anomalous systemic arterial supply to the normal basal segment. PRESENTAITION OF CASE: An 80-year-old male was referred to our hospital due to an abnormal chest shadow...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375036/new-developments-in-the-pharmacotherapeutic-management-of-heart-failure-in-elderly-patients-concerns-and-considerations
#20
Elles M Screever, Wouter C Meijers, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Rudolf A de Boer
Heart failure (HF) remains a major public health problem worldwide, affecting approximately 23 million patients, and is predominantly a disease of the elderly population. Elderly patients mostly suffer from HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), which often presents with multiple co-morbidities and they require multiple medical treatments. This, together with the heterogeneous phenotype of HFpEF, makes it a difficult syndrome to diagnose and treat. Areas covered: Although HF is most abundant in the elderly, this group is still underrepresented in clinical trials, which results in the lack of evidence-based medical regimens...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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