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Epidemiology and aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908508/increment-of-ambient-exposure-to-fine-particles-and-the-reduced-human-fertility-rate-in-china-2000-2010
#1
Tao Xue, Tong Zhu
Epidemiological and toxicological studies suggest that exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2.5 ) can reduce human reproductive capacity. We previously reported, based on spatial epidemiology, that higher levels of PM2.5 exposure were associated with a lower fertility rate (FR) in China. However, that study was limited by a lack of temporal variation. Using first-difference regression, we linked temporal changes in FR and PM2.5 with adjustment for ecological covariates across 2806 counties in China during 2000-2010...
June 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908474/early-warnings-for-suicide-attempt-among-chinese-rural-population
#2
Juncheng Lyu, Yingying Wang, Hong Shi, Jie Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study was to explore the main influencing factors of attempted suicide and establish an early warning model, so as to put forward prevention strategies for attempted suicide. METHOD: Data came from a large-scale case-control epidemiological survey. A sample of 659 serious suicide attempters was randomly recruited from 13 rural counties in China. Each case was matched by a community control for gender, age, and residence location. Face to face interviews were conducted for all the cases and controls with the same structured questionnaire...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907942/distribution-of-21-gene-recurrence-scores-in-male-breast-cancer-in-the-united-states
#3
Ariella M Altman, Scott Kizy, Jianling Yuan, Jason W Denbo, Eric H Jensen, Jane Y C Hui, Todd M Tuttle, Schelomo Marmor
BACKGROUND: The 21-gene recurrence score (RS) is a RT-PCR assay estimating risk of distant recurrence in estrogen receptor positive (ER+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative (HER2) breast cancer (BC). Studies validating RS are limited to women. Our objective was to assess RS distribution and factors associated with high-risk RS in male BC. METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we identified men and women with ER+/HER2- BC from 2010 to 2013...
June 15, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907861/higher-plasma-leptin-levels-are-associated-with-reduced-left-ventricular-mass-and-left-ventricular-diastolic-stiffness-in-black-women-insights-from-the-genetic-epidemiology-network-of-arteriopathy-genoa-study
#4
Daisuke Kamimura, Takeki Suzuki, Wanmei Wang, Matthew deShazo, John E Hall, Michael D Winniford, Iftikhar J Kullo, Thomas H Mosley, Kenneth R Butler, Michael E Hall
Our previous experimental animal data suggest a beneficial effect of leptin on LV structure and function. We hypothesized that leptin levels are associated with lower LV mass and myocardial stiffness which are important risk factors for the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We evaluated 1172 blacks, in which the prevalence of HFpEF is quite high, with preserved LV ejection fraction (EF > 50%) from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy Study (mean age 62...
June 15, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907555/electronic-12-hour-dietary-recall-e-12hr-comparison-of-a-mobile-phone-app-for-dietary-intake-assessment-with-a-food-frequency-questionnaire-and-four-dietary-records
#5
Luis María Béjar, Óscar Adrián Reyes, María Dolores García-Perea
BACKGROUND: One of the greatest challenges in nutritional epidemiology is improving upon traditional self-reporting methods for the assessment of habitual dietary intake. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative validity of a new method known as the current-day dietary recall (or current-day recall), based on a smartphone app called 12-hour dietary recall, for determining the habitual intake of a series of key food and drink groups using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and four dietary records as reference methods...
June 15, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907519/testing-for-turkeys-faith-based-community-hiv-testing-initiative-an-update
#6
Mary DeGrezia, Dorcas Baker, Ingrid McDowell
Testing for Turkeys (TFT) HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing initiative is a joint effort between Older Women Embracing Life (OWEL), Inc., a nonprofit faith-based community HIV support and advocacy organization; the Johns Hopkins University Regional Partner MidAtlantic AIDS Education and Training Center (MAAETC); and the University of Maryland, Baltimore JACQUES Initiative (JI), and is now in its 11th year of providing HIV outreach, testing, and linkage to care. Since 2008, the annual TFT daylong community HIV testing and linkage to care initiative has been held 2 weeks before Thanksgiving at a faith-based center in Baltimore, Maryland, in a zip code where one in 26 adults and adolescents ages 13 years and older are living with HIV (Maryland Department of Health, Center for HIV Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Evaluation, 2017)...
June 4, 2018: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907210/nonoperative-management-of-penetrating-abdominal-solid-organ-injuries-in-children
#7
Reid Sakamoto, Kazuhide Matsushima, Amory de Roulet, Kristine Beetham, Aaron Strumwasser, Damon Clark, Kenji Inaba, Demetrios Demetriades
BACKGROUND: Nonoperative management (NOM) of penetrating solid organ injuries (SOI) has not been well described in the pediatric population. The objective of this study was to characterize the epidemiology, injury patterns, and factors associated with trial and failure of NOM. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort analysis of the National Trauma Data Bank for the period of 2007-2014. The study population included patients ≤18 y with penetrating injury to the liver, spleen, or kidney...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907109/epidemiological-trends-and-risk-factors-associated-with-dengue-disease-in-pakistan-1980-2014-a-systematic-literature-search-and-analysis
#8
Jehangir Khan, Inamullah Khan, Abdul Ghaffar, Bushra Khalid
BACKGROUND: Dengue is becoming more common in Pakistan with its alarming spreading rate. A historical review needs to be carried out to find the root causes of dengue dynamics, the factors responsible for its spread and lastly to formulate future strategies for its control. METHODS: We searched (January, 2015) all the published literature between 1980 and 2014 to determine spread/burden of dengue disease in Pakistan. RESULTS: A total of 81 reports were identified, showing high numbers of dengue cases in 2010, 2011, and 2013...
June 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906479/evaluating-several-biomarkers-as-predictors-of-aortic-stiffness-in-young-and-older-africans-not-consuming-alcohol-based-on-self-report
#9
Melissa Maritz, Carla Mt Fourie, Johannes M VAN Rooyen, Aletta E Schutte
AIMS: Black populations from sub-Saharan Africa have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease, which places significant strain on public health systems. Aortic stiffness is a prominent risk factor for cardiovascular disease development. We reported earlier that excessive alcohol use predicts aortic stiffness. However, we require a better understanding of other biomarkers involved in stiffness development, beyond alcohol use. Therefore, we determined which biomarkers (metabolic, inflammatory, endothelial activation and oxidative stress) relate to aortic stiffness in young and older black South Africans, self-reporting no alcohol-use...
June 12, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906273/breast-cancer-risk-markedly-lower-with-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-%C3%A2-60-vs-20-ng-ml-150-vs-50-nmol-l-pooled-analysis-of-two-randomized-trials-and-a-prospective-cohort
#10
Sharon L McDonnell, Carole A Baggerly, Christine B French, Leo L Baggerly, Cedric F Garland, Edward D Gorham, Bruce W Hollis, Donald L Trump, Joan M Lappe
BACKGROUND: While numerous epidemiologic studies have found an association between higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and lower breast cancer risk, few have assessed this association for concentrations >40 ng/ml. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between 25(OH)D concentration and breast cancer risk across a broad range of 25(OH)D concentrations among women aged 55 years and older. METHODS: Analyses used pooled data from two randomized clinical trials (N = 1129, N = 2196) and a prospective cohort (N = 1713) to examine a broad range of 25(OH)D concentrations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906209/gnai2-polymorphic-variance-associates-with-salt-sensitivity-of-blood-pressure-in-the-genetic-epidemiology-network-of-salt-sensitivity-study
#11
Xiaoling Zhang, Alissa A Frame, Jonathan S Williams, Richard D Wainford
Salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) increases hypertension risk and associated adverse cardiovascular outcomes. At present, there are no validated rapid tests or diagnostic markers to identify salt sensitivity of BP in clinical practice. Based on our prior animal studies that report a role for brain Gαi2 proteins in the salt sensitivity of BP and evidence that GNAI2 (single-nucleotide polymorphism) SNPs associate with hypertension risk, we investigated the hypothesis that GNAI2 SNPs associate with salt sensitivity of BP in humans...
June 15, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906025/malignant-tumors-as-cause-of-disability-at-the-instituto-mexicano-del-seguro-social
#12
Edgar Jesús Zitle-García, Alma Lucila Sauceda-Valenzuela, Iván de Jesús Ascencio-Montiel, Jesús García-Paredes
Background: Cancer represents an important issue in health, with the economic impact that it takes. The aim of this paper is to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of a population with social security who was diagnosed with some type of cancer and required a disability pension. Methods: Observational study, retrolective cohort type, carried out at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) with IMSS beneficiaries ruled with a state of disability due to malignancy during the period 2006 to 2012...
March 2018: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905916/epidemiological-trends-of-traumatic-brain-and-spinal-cord-injury-in-puerto-rico-from-november-10th-2006-through-may-24th-2011
#13
Ricardo H Brau, Yaritza Acevedo-Salas, Katya Giovannetti
OBJECTIVE: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), injury to the central nervous system (CNS) continues to be a leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in the US today. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed to determine the incidence of all traumatic CNS injuries. Descriptive variables were presented as frequencies and percentages. Quantitative variables were expressed as means and averages (plus/minus standard deviation); bivariate cross-tabulation and multiple regression analyses were employed to identify risk factors and compare epidemiological patterns of injury related variables...
June 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905908/natural-history-of-barrett-s-esophagus
#14
REVIEW
Ernst J Kuipers, Manon C Spaander
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a very common condition. We have obtained fairly profound knowledge of the natural history of this condition. This results from many cross-sectional and cohort studies, many describing patients undergoing long-term surveillance. Their consent to use their clinical data has improved our knowledge to the benefit of these same and other patients. The prevalence of BE increases with age both in men and in women. This increase starts at a younger age in men than in women. The incidence of high-grade dysplasia and cancer in BE depends on segment length, gender, and age...
June 15, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905848/uraemic-symptom-burden-and-clinical-condition-in-women-and-men-of-%C3%A2-65-years-of-age-with-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease-results-from-the-equal-study
#15
Moniek W M van de Luijtgaarden, Fergus J Caskey, Christoph Wanner, Nicholas C Chesnaye, Maurizio Postorino, Cynthia J Janmaat, Anirudh Rao, Claudia Torino, Marian Klinger, Christiane Drechsler, Olof Heimburger, Maciej Szymczak, Marie Evans, Friedo W Dekker, Kitty J Jager
Background: The epidemiology and prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) differ by sex. We aimed to compare symptom prevalence and the clinical state in women and men of ≥65 years of age with advanced CKD receiving routine nephrology care. Methods: The European QUALity study on treatment in advanced chronic kidney disease (EQUAL) study follows patients from six European countries of ≥65 years of age  years whose estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) dropped to ≤20 mL/min/1...
June 13, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905578/translational-models-of-infection-prevention-and-control-lessons-from-studying-high-risk-aging-populations
#16
Lona Mody
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review describes our research experiences and efforts in advancing the field of infection prevention and control in nursing facilities including postacute and long-term care settings. RECENT FINDINGS: There are over two million infections in postacute and long-term care settings each year in the United States and $4 billion in associated costs. To define a target group most amenable to infection prevention and control interventions, we sought to quantify the relation between indwelling device use and microbial colonization in nursing facility patients...
June 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905514/epidemiology-of-central-nervous-system-infectious-diseases-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review-with-implications-for-neurosurgeons-worldwide
#17
Faith C Robertson, Jacob R Lepard, Rania A Mekary, Matthew C Davis, Ismaeel Yunusa, William B Gormley, Ronnie E Baticulon, Muhammad Raji Mahmud, Basant K Misra, Abbas Rattani, Michael C Dewan, Kee B Park
OBJECTIVE Central nervous system (CNS) infections cause significant morbidity and mortality and often require neurosurgical intervention for proper diagnosis and treatment. However, neither the international burden of CNS infection, nor the current capacity of the neurosurgical workforce to treat these diseases is well characterized. The objective of this study was to elucidate the global incidence of surgically relevant CNS infection, highlighting geographic areas for targeted improvement in neurosurgical capacity...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904886/type-1-diabetes-in-a-resource-poor-setting-malnutrition-related-malnutrition-modified-or-just-diabetes
#18
REVIEW
Shitaye Alemu Balcha, David I W Phillips, Elisabeth R Trimble
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Very little is known about the occurrence of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) in resource-poor countries and particularly in their rural hinterlands. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies of the epidemiology of T1DM in Ethiopia and similar countries in sub-Saharan Africa show that the pattern of presenting disease differs substantially from that in the West. Typically, the peak age of onset of the disease is more than a decade later with a male excess and a low prevalence of indicators of islet-cell autoimmunity...
June 14, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904742/factors-influencing-prostate-cancer-patterns-of-care-an-analysis-of-treatment-variation-using-the-seer-database
#19
Lindsay M Burt, Dennis C Shrieve, Jonathan D Tward
Purpose: The aim of this study is to describe the trends and factors that influence the initial treatment of men with localized prostate cancer (PC) in the United States between 2004 and 2014. Methods and materials: The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database was used to identify patients with primary prostate adenocarcinoma between 2004 and 2014. Patients were staged in accordance with the American Joint Committee on Cancer 7th edition criteria and stratified according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines risk group classification...
April 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904446/secondary-salivary-gland-malignancy-in-thyroid-cancer-a-united-states-population-based-study
#20
Eliza Sharma, Suyash Dahal, Pratibha Sharma, Abani Bhandari, Vishal Gupta, Sumit Dahal
Background: There is an increased risk of second primary malignancies with thyroid cancer. However, the risk and characters of secondary salivary gland malignancy (sSGM) in patients with thyroid cancer have not been evaluated before. Methods: We used the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 18 registry to identify thyroid cancer patients from 1973 to 2014. We then calculated the risk of sSGM using standardized incidence ratio and excess risk. Separately, all cases of primary salivary gland malignancy (pSGM) diagnosed between 1973 - 2014 were extracted from the SEER 18 registry, and their characteristics compared with sSGM using independent samples t -test for continuous variables and Chi-square tests for categorical variables...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
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