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Zhihui Yang, Fan Lin, Amanda S Weissman, Emily Jaalouk, Qing-Shan Xue, Kevin K W Wang
Despite the concussion/ mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) being the most frequent occurrence of traumatic brain injury, there is still a lack of knowledge on the injury and its effects. To develop a better understanding of concussions, animals are often used because they provide a controlled, rigorous, and efficient model. Studies have adapted traditional animal models to perform mTBI to stimulate mild injury severity by changing the injury parameters. These models have been used because they can produce morphologically similar brain injuries to the clinical condition and provide a spectrum of injury severities...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mingxiong Huang, Deborah L Harrington, Ashley Robb, Annemarie Angeles, Sharon Nichols, Angela I Drake, Tao Song, Mithun Diwakar, Charles W Huang, Victoria Risbrough, Anders M Dale, Hauke Bartsch, Scott Matthews, Jeffrey W Huang, Roland R Lee, Dewleen G Baker
Blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military service members and Veterans. However, the mechanism of persistent disability is not fully understood. The present study investigated disturbances in brain functioning in mTBI participants using a source-imaging-based approach to analyze functional connectivity (FC) from resting-state magnetoencephalography (rs-MEG). Study participants included 26 active-duty service members or Veterans who had blast mTBI with persistent post-concussive symptoms and 22 healthy control active-duty service members or Veterans...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
James Q Truong, Kenneth J Ciuffreda
OBJECTIVE: No objective vision biomarker for photosensitivity currently exists. The present study sought to uncover potential biomarkers for photosensitivity within the pupillary light reflex. METHODS: The pupillary light reflex was evaluated in those with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and in normal individuals, with and without photosensitivity, under a range of test conditions. The Neuroptics DP-2000, infrared, binocular pupillometer was used for both binocular stimulation and recording...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Vigneswaran Veeramuthu, Vairavan Narayanan, Norlisah Ramli, Aditya Hernowo, Vicknes Waran, Mark W Bondi, Lisa Delano-Wood, Dharmendra Ganesan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent of persistent neuropsychological impairment in patients with complicated versus uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHODS: 61 patients with mTBI (GCS 13 to 15) were prospectively recruited, categorized according to baseline CT findings, and underwent neuropsychological assessment at initial admission (n=61) as well as at 6 month follow-up (n=30). A paired t-test, Cohen's d effect size calculation, and repeated measure ANOVA were used to establish the differences between the groups in terms of their neuropsychological performance...
October 14, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Jessica Lynn Temple, Margaret A Struchen, Monique R Pappadis
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the contribution of pre-injury family functioning and resources on self-reported post-concussive symptoms and functional outcomes in persons with mild TBI (mTBI). DESIGN: Participants with uncomplicated or complicated mTBIs were recruited from consecutive admissions to the emergency department of a level 1 trauma centre. Patients completed baseline assessments within 2 weeks of injury and an outcomes assessment at 3 months post-injury...
October 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Isabelle Cossette, Marie-Ève Gagné, Marie-Christine Ouellet, Philippe Fait, Isabelle Gagnon, Katia Sirois, Sophie Blanchet, Natalie Le Sage, Bradford J McFadyen
OBJECTIVE: To compare gait parameters between children in early adolescence (EA) with and without a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) during dual-task walking (DTW). METHODS: Children in EA with mTBI (n = 14; six girls) were compared to those without (n = 13; five girls) while walking in different combinations of obstacle avoidance and cognitive dual-tasks. Gait speed and fluidity and their related dual-task costs (DTC) were analysed along with foot clearance and proximity to the obstacle...
October 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Emily White, Cristina Pinar, Crystal Bostrom, Alicia Meconi, Brian Ross Christie
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is becoming recognized as a significant concern in modern society. In particular, juveniles are being increasingly seen as a vulnerable time period for mTBI, as this is the final developmental period for the brain and typically involves robust synaptic reorganization and axonal myelination. Another issue that is being hotly debated is whether mTBI differentially impacts the male and female brain. To examine the impact of mTBI in the juvenile brain, we measured hippocampal synaptic plasticity using a closed-head mTBI model in male and female Long-Evans rats (25-28 days of age) at either one hour, one day, seven days, or 28 days post-injury...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
W Geoffrey Wright, Jane McDevitt, Ryan Tierney, F Jay Haran, Kwadwo Osei Appiah-Kubi, Alex Dumont
PURPOSE: Balance impairment is a common sensorimotor symptom in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We designed an affordable, portable virtual reality (VR)-based balance screening device (Virtual Environment TBI Screen [VETS]), which will be validated relative to the Neurocom Sensory Organization Test (SOT) to determine if it can replace commonly used postural assessments. METHODS: This preliminary study examines healthy adults (n = 56) and adults with mTBI (n = 11)...
October 10, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
James Q Truong, Kenneth J Ciuffreda
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about human inter-ocular pupillary asymmetry (IOPA). Thus, the purpose of the present investigation was to assess objectively static and dynamic IOPA in normals and in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHODS: The pupillary light reflex (PLR) was assessed in an adult population of normals and in those with mTBI using the Neuroptics DP-2000 binocular pupillometer. Four stimulus conditions were used to optimize the assessment...
August 11, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Leonard A Temme, Paul St Onge, Joseph Bleiberg
INTRODUCTION: Physiological and emotional stressors increase symptoms of concussion in recently injured individuals and both forms of stress-induced symptoms in people recovering from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), but who are asymptomatic when not stressed or are at rest. METHODS: Healthy asymptomatic adults (25.0 ± 5.1 years) with a history of mTBI (n = 36) and matched healthy controls (HC) (n = 36) with no mTBI history were exposed to three levels of normobaric hypoxic stress generated with the Reduced Oxygen Breathing Device (ROBD) (Environics, Inc...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Danielle R Miller, Jasmeet P Hayes, Ginette Lafleche, David H Salat, Mieke Verfaellie
Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common injury of the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. Research has suggested that blast-related mTBI is associated with chronic white matter abnormalities, which in turn are associated with impairment in neurocognitive function. However, findings are inconsistent as to which domains of cognition are affected by TBI-related white matter disruption. Recent evidence that white matter abnormalities associated with blast-related mTBI are spatially variable raises the possibility that the associated cognitive impairment is also heterogeneous...
October 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Elham Shafiei, Esmaeil Fakharian, Abdollah Omidi, Hossein Akbari, Ali Delpisheh
BACKGROUND: It is well-known that severe brain injury can make people susceptible to psychological symptoms. However, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is still open for discussion. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare psychological symptoms of MTBI patients with those without MTBI considering demographic auxiliary variables. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 50 MTBI patients and 50 healthy subjects aged 15 - 65 years...
June 2016: Archives of Trauma Research
Fabien D'Hondt, Maryse Lassonde, Fanny Thebault-Dagher, Annie Bernier, Jocelyn Gravel, Phetsamone Vannasing, Miriam H Beauchamp
Evidence suggests that social skills are affected by childhood mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), but the neural and affective substrates of these difficulties are still underexplored. In particular, nothing is known about consequences on the perception of emotional facial expressions, despite its critical role in social interactions and the importance of the preschool period in the development of this ability. This study thus aimed to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of emotional facial expressions processing after early mTBI...
October 4, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Edrea Khong, Nicole Odenwald, Eyesha Hashim, Michael D Cusimano
OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence for the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters in the human brain as a diagnostic tool for and predictor of post-concussion syndrome (PCS) after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: All relevant studies in AMED, Embase, MEDLINE, Ovid, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science through 20 May, 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Studies that analyze traditional DTI measures [fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD)] and the severity of PCS symptoms or the development of PCS in humans after an mTBI...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Angela Maria Amorini, Giacomo Lazzarino, Valentina Di Pietro, Stefano Signoretti, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Antonio Belli, Barbara Tavazzi
In this study, concentrations of free amino acids (FAA) and amino group containing compounds (AGCC) following graded diffuse traumatic brain injury (mild TBI, mTBI; severe TBI, sTBI) were evaluated. After 6, 12, 24, 48 and 120 hr aspartate (Asp), glutamate (Glu), asparagine (Asn), serine (Ser), glutamine (Gln), histidine (His), glycine (Gly), threonine (Thr), citrulline (Cit), arginine (Arg), alanine (Ala), taurine (Tau), γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), tyrosine (Tyr), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), l-cystathionine (l-Cystat), valine (Val), methionine (Met), tryptophane (Trp), phenylalanine (Phe), isoleucine (Ile), leucine (Leu), ornithine (Orn), lysine (Lys), plus N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were determined in whole brain extracts (n = 6 rats at each time for both TBI levels)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Georgina Perez-Garcia, Miguel A Gama Sosa, Rita De Gasperi, Margaret Lashof-Sullivan, Eric Maudlin-Jeronimo, James R Stone, Fatemeh Haghighi, Stephen T Ahlers, Gregory A Elder
The postconcussion syndrome following mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) has been regarded as a mostly benign syndrome that typically resolves in the immediate months following injury. However, in some individuals, symptoms become chronic and persistent. This has been a striking feature of the mostly blast-related mTBIs that have been seen in veterans returning from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. In these veterans a chronic syndrome with features of both the postconcussion syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder has been prominent...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Sarah L Martindale, Sandra B Morissette, Jared A Rowland, Sara L Dolan
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine how sleep quality affects cognitive functioning in returning combat veterans after accounting for effects of combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history. Method: This was a cross-sectional assessment study evaluating combat exposure, PTSD, mTBI history, sleep quality, and neuropsychological functioning. One hundred and nine eligible male Iraq/Afghanistan combat veterans completed an assessment consisting of a structured clinical interview, neuropsychological battery, and self-report measures...
October 3, 2016: Neuropsychology
Jianxia Cui, Laurel J Ng, Vladislav Volman
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) often results in neurobehavioral aberrations such as impaired attention and increased reaction time. Diffusion imaging and post mortem analysis studies suggest that mTBI primarily affects myelinated axons in white matter tracts. In particular, corpus callosum, mediating inter-hemispheric information exchange, has been shown to be affected in mTBI. Yet little is known about the mechanisms linking the injury of myelinated callosal axons to the neurobehavioral sequelae of mTBI...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Maya Elin O'Neil, Megan Callahan, Kathleen F Carlson, Mai Roost, Benjamin Laman-Maharg, Elizabeth W Twamley, Grant L Iverson, Daniel Storzbach
OBJECTIVE: This study examined symptom reporting related to the 10th Edition of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) criteria for postconcussional syndrome (PCS) in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Veterans. Our aims were to: (a) examine relationships among PCS symptoms by identifying potential subscales of the British Columbia Postconcussion Symptom Inventory (BC-PSI); and (b) examine group differences in BC-PSI items and subscales in Veterans with and without blast exposure, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Nicolas Robitaille, Philip L Jackson, Luc J Hébert, Catherine Mercier, Laurent J Bouyer, Shirley Fecteau, Carol L Richards, Bradford J McFadyen
PURPOSE: This proof of concept study tested the ability of a dual task walking protocol using a recently developed avatar-based virtual reality (VR) platform to detect differences between military personnel post mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and healthy controls. METHODS: The VR platform coordinated motion capture, an interaction and rendering system, and a projection system to present first (participant-controlled) and third person avatars within the context of a specific military patrol scene...
September 28, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
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