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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/100001003/emergency-management-of-sepsis-the-simple-stuff-saves-lives
#1
David Sweet, Julian Marsden, Kendall Ho, Christina Krause, James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: BC medical journal: BCMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941453/development-of-a-dna-aptamer-for-screening-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroup-b-by-cell-selex
#2
Kimia Mirzakhani, Seyed Latif Mousavi Gargari, Iraj Rasooli, Samaneh Rasoulinejad
Background: Artificial oligonucleotides like DNA or RNA aptamers can be used as biodiagnostic alternatives for antibodies to detect pathogens. Comparing to antibodies, artificial oligonucleotides are produced easily at lower costs and are more stable. Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningitis, is responsible for about 1% of infections in an epidemic period. Specific DNA aptamers that bind to N. meningitidis serogroup B were identified by whole-cell Systemic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential Enrichment (SELEX)...
September 24, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941416/increased-cycles-of-dc-cik-immunotherapy-decreases-frequency-of-tregs-in-patients-with-resected-nsclc
#3
Haiping Song, Shujuan Liu, Ziyun Zhao, Weihong Sun, Xiaofang Wei, Xuezhen Ma, Peng Zhao, Daiqing Gao
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress antitumor immune responses. Cycles of Dendritic cells (DC) vaccination combined with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells (DC/CIK) treatment were significantly related with good prognosis. Therefore, we investigated whether increased cycles of immunotherapy could decrease frequency of Tregs in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous study from our laboratory has determined that the optimal cutoff point of the cycle count was 3cycles. We examined the levels of Tregs and the related cytokines by flow cytometric and cytokine analysis in these patients after more than (≥) 3cycles or less than (<) 3cycles of DC/CIK cell treatment...
September 20, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941407/targeted-neurogenesis-pathway-based-gene-analysis-identifies-adora2a-associated-with-hippocampal-volume-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Emrin Horgusluoglu-Moloch, Kwangsik Nho, Shannon L Risacher, Sungeun Kim, Tatiana Foroud, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, Paul S Aisen, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Simon Lovestone, Andrew Simmons, Michael W Weiner, Andrew J Saykin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients display hippocampal atrophy, memory impairment, and cognitive decline. New neurons are generated throughout adulthood in 2 regions of the brain implicated in AD, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the olfactory bulb. Disruption of this process contributes to neurodegenerative diseases including AD, and many of the molecular players in AD are also modulators of adult neurogenesis. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis in AD have been underexplored...
August 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941398/the-mechanisms-mediating-the-antiepileptic-effects-of-the-ketogenic-diet-and-potential-opportunities-for-improvement-with-metabolism-altering-drugs
#5
REVIEW
Neil A Youngson, Margaret J Morris, Bill Ballard
The ketogenic diet (KD) is increasingly being used to treat patients with intractable epilepsy. Despite decades of research, the reason for its success, when anticonvulsants have failed, is still not completely understood. There are, however, many candidate mechanisms which can be grouped into those that alter neuronal excitability at the synapse, and those that confer neuroprotection. The molecular underpinning of these mechanisms centres on the shift from glucose- to lipid-based energy generation that accompanies a high fat/low carbohydrate diet...
September 13, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941394/ceftolozane-tazobactam-activity-against-drug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-causing-healthcare-associated-infections-in-latin-america-report-from-an-antimicrobial-surveillance-program-2013-2015
#6
Michael A Pfaller, Dee Shortridge, Helio S Sader, Ana Gales, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K Flamm
This study evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparator agents tested against Latin American isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with healthcare-associated infection (HAI). Ceftolozane-tazobactam is an antipseudomonal cephalosporin combined with a well-established β-lactamase inhibitor. A total of 2415 Gram-negative organisms (537 P. aeruginosa and 1878 Enterobacteriaceae) were consecutively collected in 12 medical centers located in four Latin American countries...
September 20, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941393/mobile-health-application-to-assist-doctors-in-antibiotic-prescription-an-approach-for-antibiotic-stewardship
#7
Felipe Francisco Tuon, Juliano Gasparetto, Luciana Cristina Wollmann, Thyago Proença de Moraes
BACKGROUND: Technologies applied to mobile devices can be an important strategy in antibiotic stewardship programs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a decision-making application on antibiotic prescription. METHODS: This was an observational, analytical and longitudinal study on the implementation of an antimicrobial guide for mobile application (app). This study analyzed the period of 12 months before and 12 months after the app implementation at a university hospital based on local epidemiology, avoiding high cost drugs and reducing the potential for drug resistance including carbapenem...
September 20, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941390/severe-forms-of-food-allergy
#8
REVIEW
Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti Sarinho, Maria das Graças Moura Lins
OBJECTIVES: To guide the diagnostic and therapeutic management of severe forms of food allergy. DATA SOURCES: Search in the Medline database using the terms "severe food allergy," "anaphylaxis and food allergy," "generalized urticaria and food allergy," and "food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome" in the last ten years, searching in the title, abstract, or keyword fields. SUMMARY OF DATA: Food allergy can be serious and life-threatening...
September 20, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941388/high-frequency-of-s-aureus-mssa-mrsa-in-children-under-1-year-old-with-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#9
Lorena Salazar, Judy Natalia Jimenez Quiceno
OBJECTIVE: Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a large number of infections in pediatric population; however, information about the behavior of such infections in this population is limited. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical, epidemiological, and molecular characteristics of infections caused by methicillin-susceptible and resistant S. aureus (MSSA-MRSA) in a pediatric population. METHOD: A cross-sectional descriptive study in patients from birth to 14 years of age from three high-complexity institutions was conducted (2008-2010)...
September 20, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941376/is-the-three-dimensional-strut-plate-an-adequate-fixation-technique-for-mandibular-symphysis-fractures
#10
Andrew T Meram, Sergio Olate, Celso F Palmieri
PURPOSE: We present a series of cases of mandibular symphysis fractures treated at our institution with a 3-dimensional strut plate. The aim of the present study was to confirm the stability of this fixation technique and discuss its advantages, disadvantages, and potential complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We designed and implemented a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent surgery by the same surgeon at our institution from July 2012 to April 2014 for a mandible fracture with a symphysis component...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941361/hepatitis-c-virus-testing-for-case-identification-in-persons-born-during-1945-1965-results-from-three-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
Anthony K Yartel, David B Rein, Kimberly Ann Brown, Katherine Krauskopf, Omar I Massoud, Cynthia Jordan, Natalie Kil, Alex D Federman, David R Nerenz, Joanne E Brady, Danielle L Kruger, Bryce D Smith
CDC and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend one-time hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing for persons born during 1945-1965 (birth cohort). However, few studies estimate the effect of birth cohort (BC) testing implementation on HCV diagnoses in primary care settings. We aimed to determine the probability of identifying HCV infections in primary care using targeted BC testing compared with usual care at three academic medical centers. From December 2012 to March 2014, each center compared one of three distinct interventions to usual care using an independently-designed randomized controlled trial...
September 23, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941359/loss-of-interaction-between-plectin-and-type-xvii-collagen-results-in-epidermolysis-bullosa-simplex
#12
Ken Natsuga, Wataru Nishie, Machiko Nishimura, Satoru Shinkuma, Mika Watanabe, Kentaro Izumi, Hideki Nakamura, Yoshiaki Hirako, Hiroshi Shimizu
Plectin is a linker protein that interacts with intermediate filaments and β4 integrin in hemidesmosomes of the epidermal basement membrane zone (BMZ). Type XVII collagen (COL17) has been suggested as another candidate plectin binding partner in hemidesmosomes. Here, we demonstrate that plectin-COL17 binding helps to maintain epidermal BMZ organization. We identified an epidermolysis bullosa (EB) simplex patient as having markedly diminished expression of plectin and COL17 in skin. The patient is compound heterozygous for sequence variants in the plectin gene ( PLEC); one is a truncation and the other is a small in-frame deletion sequence variant...
September 23, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941358/rates-of-vaccination-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-cochlear-implant-patients
#13
Anna Piotrowska, Iwona Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Henryk Skarżyński
BACKGROUND Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause life-threatening illness, with invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) like meningitis, sepsis, bacteremic pneumonia, and bacteremia being major causes of morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown that patients who have had a cochlear implant, particularly children, have an increased risk of bacterial (pneumococcal) meningitis. Vaccination in patients with cochlear implants is important and recommended universally. The World Health Organization recommends the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in all countries and considers their use to be a priority in all national immunization programs...
September 23, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941351/autovalidation-and-automation-of-the-postanalytical-phase-of-routine-hematology-and-coagulation-analyses-in-a-university-hospital-laboratory
#14
Ana Mlinaric, Marija Milos, Désirée Coen Herak, Mirjana Fucek, Vladimira Rimac, Renata Zadro, Dunja Rogic
BACKGROUND: The need to satisfy high-throughput demands for laboratory tests continues to be a challenge. Therefore, we aimed to automate postanalytical phase in hematology and coagulation laboratory by autovalidation of complete blood count (CBC) and routine coagulation test results (prothrombin time [PT], international normalized ratio [PT-INR], activated partial thromboplastin time [APTT], fibrinogen, antithrombin activity [AT] and thrombin time [TT]). Work efficacy and turnaround time (TAT) before and after implementation of automated solutions will be compared...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941350/evaluation-of-analytical-performance-of-a-new-high-sensitivity-immunoassay-for-cardiac-troponin-i
#15
Silvia Masotti, Concetta Prontera, Veronica Musetti, Simona Storti, Rudina Ndreu, Gian Carlo Zucchelli, Claudio Passino, Aldo Clerico
BACKGROUND: The study aim was to evaluate and compare the analytical performance of the new chemiluminescent immunoassay for cardiac troponin I (cTnI), called Access hs-TnI using DxI platform, with those of Access AccuTnI+3 method, and high-sensitivity (hs) cTnI method for ARCHITECT platform. METHODS: The limits of blank (LoB), detection (LoD) and quantitation (LoQ) at 10% and 20% CV were evaluated according to international standardized protocols. For the evaluation of analytical performance and comparison of cTnI results, both heparinized plasma samples, collected from healthy subjects and patients with cardiac diseases, and quality control samples distributed in external quality assessment programs were used...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938795/lipid-lowering-nutraceuticals-in-clinical-practice-position-paper-from-an-international-lipid-expert-panel
#16
Arrigo F G Cicero, Alessandro Colletti, Gani Bajraktari, Olivier Descamps, Dragan M Djuric, Marat Ezhov, Zlatko Fras, Niki Katsiki, Michel Langlois, Gustavs Latkovskis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Gyorgy Paragh, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Olena Mitchenko, Bernhard Paulweber, Daniel Pella, Christos Pitsavos, Željko Reiner, Kausik K Ray, Manfredi Rizzo, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Maria-Corina Serban, Laurence S Sperling, Peter P Toth, Dragos Vinereanu, Michal Vrablík, Nathan D Wong, Maciej Banach
In recent years, there has been growing interest in the possible use of nutraceuticals to improve and optimize dyslipidemia control and therapy. Based on the data from available studies, nutraceuticals might help patients obtain theraputic lipid goals and reduce cardiovascular residual risk. Some nutraceuticals have essential lipid-lowering properties confirmed in studies; some might also have possible positive effects on nonlipid cardiovascular risk factors and have been shown to improve early markers of vascular health such as endothelial function and pulse wave velocity...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938751/new-permeable-cryoprotectant-free-vitrification-method-for-native-human-sperm
#17
J Aizpurua, L Medrano, M Enciso, J Sarasa, A Romero, M A Fernández, M J Gómez-Torres
STUDY QUESTION: Is permeable cryoprotectant-free vitrification of native sperm samples a good alternative to conventional slow freezing? SUMMARY ANSWER: The permeable cryoprotectant-free sperm vitrification protocol tested in this study renders considerably better recovery rates of good quality sperm compared to slow freezing. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Slow freezing is currently the most commonly used technique for sperm cryopreservation, though this method has been repeatedly shown to have negative effects on both structural and functional sperm features...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938748/random-start-ovarian-stimulation-for-fertility-preservation-appears-unlikely-to-delay-initiation-of-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer
#18
Joseph M Letourneau, Nikita Sinha, Kaitlyn Wald, Eve Harris, Molly Quinn, Tal Imbar, Evelyn Mok-Lin, A Jo Chien, Mitchell Rosen
STUDY QUESTION: Is random start ovarian stimulation associated with delays in initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer? SUMMARY ANSWER: Among women who complete fertility preservation (FP) consultation, random start ovarian stimulation is unlikely to delay time to initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy start. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is now a widely accepted treatment modality for operable breast cancer and random start ovarian stimulation is an increasingly-utilized modality for FP...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938745/a-closer-look-at-expanded-carrier-screening-from-a-pgd-perspective
#19
Carolina Vaz-de-Macedo, Joyce Harper
Conventionally, the search for carrier status was based on ethnicity and/or family history and targeted to a restricted number of genetic conditions and mutations. This is now being replaced by extended panels testing for hundreds of genetic disorders with a broad range of phenotypes, in what is called 'expanded carrier screening'. While the ultimate aim of these panels is to increase the reproductive autonomy of the individuals and couples by providing preconception knowledge that could lead to the broadest range of available options, including PGD, we argue that: (i) Given the number and heterogeneity of the conditions included in panels, it cannot be guaranteed that a couple who tests positive for one of those conditions will be eligible for PGD; patients should be informed of this potential limitation before undertaking screening...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938744/an-improved-ivm-method-for-cumulus-oocyte-complexes-from-small-follicles-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-patients-enhances-oocyte-competence-and-embryo-yield
#20
F Sánchez, F Lolicato, S Romero, M De Vos, H Van Ranst, G Verheyen, E Anckaert, J E J Smitz
STUDY QUESTION: Are meiotic and developmental competence of human oocytes from small (2-8 mm) antral follicles improved by applying an optimized IVM method involving a prematuration step in presence of C-Type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP) followed by a maturation step in presence of FSH and Amphiregulin (AREG)? SUMMARY ANSWER: A strategy involving prematuration culture (PMC) in the presence of CNP followed by IVM using FSH + AREG increases oocyte maturation potential leading to a higher availability of Day 3 embryos and good-quality blastocysts for single embryo transfer...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
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