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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929186/increased-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-differentiated-proximal-tubular-cells-surviving-a-reversible-episode-of-acute-kidney-injury
#1
Aurélien Bataille, Pierre Galichon, Nadjim Chelghoum, Badreddine Mohand Oumoussa, Marie-Julia Ziliotis, Iman Sadia, Sophie Vandermeersch, Noémie Simon-Tillaux, David Legouis, Raphaël Cohen, Yi-Chun Xu-Dubois, Morgane Commereuc, Eric Rondeau, Stéphane Le Crom, Alexandre Hertig
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fatty acid oxidation (FAO), the main source of energy produced by tubular epithelial cells in the kidney, was found to be defective in tubulo-interstitial samples dissected out in kidney biopsies from patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Experimental data indicated that this decrease was a strong determinant of renal fibrogenesis, hence a focus for therapeutic interventions. Nevertheless, whether persistently differentiated renal tubules, surviving in a pro-fibrotic environment, also suffer from a decrease in FAO, is currently unknown...
June 19, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928160/update-on-new-drugs-and-those-in-development-for-the-treatment-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#2
Runalia Bahar, Kimberly A Wong, Chung H Liu, Christopher L Bowlus
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune inflammatory liver disease of the interlobular bile ducts that can lead to cirrhosis and liver failure. Until recently, the only effective treatment was ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). However, up to 40% of PBC patients have an inadequate response to UDCA and may continue to have disease progression. Several models have been developed, including the UK-PBC and GLOBE scores, to assist in identifying patients who may benefit from second-line therapies, such as the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist obeticholic acid (OCA)...
March 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928066/ppar%C3%AE-is-critical-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-induction-of-mcl-1-and-limitation-of-human-macrophage-apoptosis
#3
Eusondia Arnett, Ashlee M Weaver, Kiersten C Woodyard, Maria J Montoya, Michael Li, Ky V Hoang, Andrew Hayhurst, Abul K Azad, Larry S Schlesinger
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ is a global transcriptional regulator associated with anti-inflammatory actions. It is highly expressed in alveolar macrophages (AMs), which are unable to clear the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Although M.tb infection induces PPARγ in human macrophages, which contributes to M.tb growth, the mechanisms underlying this are largely unknown. We undertook NanoString gene expression analysis to identify novel PPARγ effectors that condition macrophages to be more susceptible to M...
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927593/hepatotoxic-effects-of-hexafluoropropylene-oxide-trimer-acid-hfpo-ta-a-novel-perfluorooctanoic-acid-pfoa-alternative-on-mice
#4
Nan Sheng, Yitao Pan, Yong Guo, Yan Sun, Jiayin Dai
As an alternative to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), hexafluoropropylene oxide trimer acid (HFPO-TA) has been increasingly used for fluoropolymer manufacture in recent years. Its growing detection in environmental matrices and wildlife raises considerable concern about its potential health risks. Here we investigated the effects of HFPO-TA on mouse liver following 28 days of exposure to 0.02, 0.1, or 0.5 mg/kg/d of HFPO-TA via oral gavage. Results showed that HFPO-TA concentrations increased to 1.14, 4.48, and 30...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925285/in-silico-molecular-interaction-of-bisphenol-analogues-with-human-nuclear-receptors-reveals-their-stronger-affinity-vs-classical-bisphenol-a
#5
Shikha Sharma, Shahzad Ahmad, Mohemmed Faraz Khan, Suhel Parvez, Sheikh Raisuddin
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is known for endocrine disrupting activity. In order to replace BPA a number of bisphenol analogues have been designed. However, their activity profile is poorly described and little information exists about their endocrine disrupting potential and interactions with nuclear receptors. An understanding of such interaction may unravel mechanism of their molecular action and provide valuable inputs for risk assessment. BPA binds and activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) which act as transcription factors and regulate genes involved in glucose, lipid, and cholesterol metabolism and adipogenesis...
June 21, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922168/co-expression-analysis-of-sirtuins-and-related-metabolic-biomarkers-in-juveniles-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-with-differences-in-growth-performance
#6
Paula Simó-Mirabet, Erick Perera, Josep A Calduch-Giner, Juan M Afonso, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
Sirtuins (SIRTs) represent a conserved protein family of deacetylases that act as master regulators of metabolism, but little is known about their roles in fish and livestock animals in general. The present study aimed to assess the value of SIRTs for the metabolic phenotyping of fish by assessing their co-expression with a wide-representation of markers of energy and lipid metabolism and intestinal function and health in two genetically different gilthead sea bream strains with differences in growth performance...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920828/cannabinoid-receptor-types-1-and-2-and-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-distribution-in-the-skin-of-clinically-healthy-cats-and-cats-with-hypersensitivity-dermatitis
#7
Vincenzo Miragliotta, Pier Luca Ricci, Francesco Albanese, Andrea Pirone, Danika Tognotti, Francesca Abramo
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid receptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) are gaining recognition as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of skin disorders. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of cannabinoid type 1 and 2 receptors (CBR1 and CBR2) and PPAR-α in feline skin and verify whether changes occur in the course of hypersensitivity dermatitis. ANIMALS: Twelve privately owned cats...
June 19, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920417/how-lipids-may-affect-risk-for-suicidal-behavior
#8
REVIEW
Federico M Daray, J John Mann, M Elizabeth Sublette
Suicide and nonfatal suicidal behaviors are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Variability in rates of suicide and suicidal behaviors within and between countries has been attributed to population and individual risk factors, including economic status and cultural differences, both of which can have suicide risk effects mediated through a variety of factors, of which perhaps the least understood is the role of diet. We therefore review the scientific literature concerning two major dietary lipid classes, cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), that have been associated with higher risk of suicide attempts and suicide...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915286/microrna-378-is-involved-in-hedgehog-driven-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-hepatocytes-of-regenerating-liver
#9
Jieun Kim, Jeongeun Hyun, Sihyung Wang, Chanbin Lee, Youngmi Jung
Healthy livers have a remarkable regenerative capacity for reconstructing functional hepatic parenchyma after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH). Hepatocytes, usually quiescent in normal healthy livers, proliferate to compensate for hepatic loss after PH. However, the mechanism of hepatocyte involvement in liver regeneration remains unclear. Hedgehog (Hh) pathway plays an important role in tissue reconstitution by regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in liver disease. MicroRNA (miRNA) is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation during embryonic development and carcinogenesis...
June 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914522/low-fat-diet-and-medium-fat-diets-containing-coconut-oil-and-soybean-oil-exert-different-metabolic-effects-in-untrained-and-treadmill-trained-mice
#10
Mark Christian Manio, Shigenobu Matsumura, Kazuo Inoue
BACKGROUND: Diets containing fats of different proportions and types have been demonstrated to influence metabolism. These fats differ in long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) or medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) content. In our laboratory using swimming as the training modality, MCFAs increased endurance attributed to increased activities of oxidative enzymes. How it affects whole-body metabolism remains unexplored. The present study investigated the metabolic, biochemical and genetic adaptations with treadmill running as the training modality...
June 18, 2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914059/nuclear-receptor-regulation-of-aquaglyceroporins-in-metabolic-organs
#11
REVIEW
Matteo Tardelli, Thierry Claudel, Francesca Virginia Bruschi, Michael Trauner
Nuclear receptors, such as the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma and alpha (PPAR-γ, -α), are major metabolic regulators in adipose tissue and the liver, where they govern lipid, glucose, and bile acid homeostasis, as well as inflammatory cascades. Glycerol and free fatty acids are the end products of lipid droplet catabolism driven by PPARs. Aquaporins (AQPs), a family of 13 small transmembrane proteins, facilitate the shuttling of water, urea, and/or glycerol...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912977/tongxinluo-attenuates-reperfusion-injury-in-diabetic-hearts-by-angiopoietin-like-4-mediated-protection-of-endothelial-barrier-integrity-via-ppar-%C3%AE-pathway
#12
Kang Qi, Xiangdong Li, Yongjian Geng, Hehe Cui, Chen Jin, Peihe Wang, Yue Li, Yuejin Yang
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial barrier function in the onset and Tongxinluo (TXL) protection of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and TXL can induce the secretion of Angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4) in human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells during hypoxia/reoxygenation. We intend to demonstrate whether TXL can attenuate myocardial I/R injury in diabetes, characterized with microvascular endothelial barrier disruption, by induction of Angptl4-mediated protection of endothelial barrier integrity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912588/zinc-reduces-hepatic-lipid-deposition-and-activates-lipophagy-via-zn-2-mtf-1-ppar%C3%AE-and-ca-2-camkk%C3%AE-ampk-pathways
#13
Chuan-Chuan Wei, Zhi Luo, Christer Hogstrand, Yi-Huan Xu, Li-Xiang Wu, Guang-Hui Chen, Ya-Xiong Pan, Yu-Feng Song
Zinc (Zn) deficiency is the most consistently discovered nutritional manifestations of fatty liver disease. Although Zn is known to stimulate hepatic lipid oxidation, little is known about its underlying mechanism of action in lipolysis. Given the potential role of lipophagy in lipid metabolism, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Zn attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation by modulating lipophagy. The present study indicated that Zn is a potent promoter of lipophagy. Zn administration significantly alleviated hepatocellular lipid accumulation and increased the release of free fatty acids in association with enhanced fatty acid oxidation and inhibited lipogenesis, which was accompanied by activation of autophagy...
June 18, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911637/complex-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activator-receptors-ppars-in-nociception
#14
Rashid Giniatullin, Geneviève Bart, Pasi Tavi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909169/the-antagonistic-effect-of-selenium-on-cadmium-induced-apoptosis-via-ppar-%C3%AE-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-chicken-pancreas
#15
Xi Jin, Tiantian Jia, Ruohan Liu, Shiwen Xu
The animal experiment was preformed to investigate the roles of PPAR-γ/PI3K/Akt pathway in apoptosis triggered by cadmium (Cd) and in the antagonistic effects of selenium (Se) on Cd in the pancreas of chicken. The current study showed that Cd treatment obviously increased the accumulation of Cd and directly led to lower activities of amylase, trypsin and lipase in chicken pancreas. The expression of PPAR-γ, PI3K, and Akt was declined, whereas the level of Bax, Cyt C and caspase-3 were increased in Cd group...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908922/serum-angiopoietin-like-peptide-4-levels-in-patients-with-hepatic-steatosis
#16
Özgür Altun, Okan Dikker, Yücel Arman, Bilal Ugurlukisi, Orkide Kutlu, Eylem Ozgun Cil, Sengul Aydin Yoldemir, Murat Akarsu, Mustafa Ozcan, Semih Kalyon, Neslihan Ozsoy, Tufan Tükek
OBJECTIVES: Angiopoietin-like peptide 4 (ANGPTL-4) plays an important role in lipid metabolism by inhibiting the enzyme lipoprotein lipase. This effect of ANGPTL-4 results in suppression of the release of plasma triglyceride-derived fatty acids. Increase in fatty acid levels entering to the liver and abnormalities in their secretion is one of the main mechanisms in pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of ANGPTL-4 in pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis by determining its levels in patients with fatty liver disease...
June 13, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908243/protective-roles-of-fenofibrate-against-cisplatin-induced-ototoxicity-by-the-rescue-of-peroxisomal-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#17
Se-Jin Kim, Channy Park, Joon No Lee, Raekil Park
Cisplatin is an alkylating agent that interferes with DNA replication and kills proliferating carcinogenic cells. Several studies have been conducted to attenuate the side effects of cisplatin; one such side effect in cancer patients undergoing cisplatin chemotherapy is ototoxicity. However, owing to a lack of understanding of the precise mechanism underlying cisplatin-induced side effects, management of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity remains unsolved. We investigated the protective effects of fenofibrate, a PPAR-α activator, on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity...
June 13, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908181/ppar-gamma-pathways-attenuate-pulmonary-granuloma-formation-in-a-carbon-nanotube-induced-murine-model-of-sarcoidosis
#18
Matthew McPeek, Anagha Malur, Debra A Tokarz, Gina Murray, Barbara P Barna, Mary Jane Thomassen
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a ligand activated nuclear transcription factor, is constitutively expressed in alveolar macrophages of healthy individuals. PPARγ deficiencies have been noted in several lung diseases including the alveolar macrophages of pulmonary sarcoidosis patients. We have previously described a murine model of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) induced pulmonary granulomatous inflammation which bears striking similarities to pulmonary sarcoidosis, including the deficiency of alveolar macrophage PPARγ...
June 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904397/thymoquinone-reduces-spinal-cord-injury-by-inhibiting-inflammatory-response-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-via-ppar-%C3%AE-and-pi3k-akt-pathways
#19
Yinming Chen, Benlong Wang, Hai Zhao
The present study used a mild contusion injury in rat spinal cord to determine that thymoquinone reduces inflammatory response, oxidative stress and apoptosis in a spinal cord injury (SCI) rat model and to demonstrate its possible molecular mechanisms. The rats in the thymoquinone group received 30 mg/kg thymoquinone once daily by intragastric administration from 3 weeks after surgery. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scale and tissue water content detection were used in the present study to analyze the effect of thymoquinone on SCI...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903845/adiponectin-free-fatty-acids-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-acute-coronary-syndrome
#20
Ilse C Schrieks, Anna Nozza, Barbara E Stähli, John B Buse, Robert R Henry, Klas Malmberg, Bruce Neal, Stephen J Nicholls, Lars Rydén, Linda Mellbin, Anders Svensson, Hans Wedel, Arlette Weichert, A Michael Lincoff, Jean-Claude Tardif, Diederick E Grobbee, Gregory G Schwartz
OBJECTIVE: In observational cohorts, adiponectin is inversely associated and free fatty acids (FFAs) are directly associated with incident coronary heart disease (CHD). Adiponectin tends to be reduced and FFAs elevated in type 2 diabetes. We investigated relationships of adiponectin and FFA and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and death in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and type 2 diabetes using data from the AleCardio trial, which compared the PPAR-α/γ agonist aleglitazar with placebo...
June 14, 2018: Diabetes Care
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