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Atypical pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096226/disseminated-adenovirus-infection-causing-severe-ards
#1
Steven J Campbell, Jessica A Kynyk, John A Davis
A previously healthy young man with a rare genetic condition presented with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to pneumonia with septic shock. He did not improve with conventional therapy for his known causal organism thus prompting further workup. He was found to be profoundly immunosuppressed raising our suspicion for atypical organisms. A bronchoalveolar lavage sample was positive via PCR for adenovirus which we suspect exacerbated a pre-existing bacterial pneumonia and led to a severe and non-responsive respiratory failure...
January 17, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062316/discovery-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serogroup-35-variants-in-australian-patients
#2
Megan Staples, Rikki M A Graham, Vicki Hicks, Janet Strachan, Anders Gonçalves da Silva, Jade Peverall, Veyatie Wicks, Amy V Jennison
OBJECTIVES: S. pneumoniae isolates from Australian invasive pneumococcal disease cases displaying an atypical 35B phenotype. Whole genome sequencing was used to analyse these strains and identify changes to the capsule gene regions. METHODS: Four atypical serogroup 35 isolates from Australian reference laboratories were unable to be assigned to one of the four known group 35 serotypes by the Quellung serotyping method. Genetic characterisation of the capsule locus was performed by bioinformatic analysis of whole genome sequencing data for all isolates RESULTS: Genetic analysis identified four independent disruptions to the wciG gene, which encodes an O-acetyltransferase responsible for the O-acetylation of the 6Galβ1 residue in the capsular polysaccharide repeat unit of serotype 35B...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059928/clozapine-usage-increases-the-incidence-of-pneumonia-compared-with-risperidone-and-the-general-population-a-retrospective-comparison-of-clozapine-risperidone-and-the-general-population-in-a-single-hospital-over-25-months
#3
Zachary R Stoecker, Wales T George, Jeffrey B O'Brien, Jon Jancik, Eduardo Colon, Joseph J Rasimas
The aim of this study was to determine whether the incidence of pneumonia in patients taking clozapine was more frequent compared with those taking risperidone or no atypical antipsychotics at all before admission to a tertiary care medical center. This was a retrospective, case-matched study of 465 general medicine patients over a 25 month period from 1 July 2010 to 31 July 2012. Detailed electronic medical records were analyzed to explore the association between the use of two atypical antipsychotics and incidence of pneumonia...
January 4, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058476/-pneumonia-in-immunosuppressed-patients
#4
O Solyanik, T Gaass, K Hellbach, J Dinkel
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Pulmonary infections are a common complication in immunosuppressed patients with a frequently fatal prognosis despite modern prophylactic therapy. An early and correct diagnosis is important for initiation of the appropriate therapy. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Chest radiography is the preferred initial imaging examination but is not accurate enough for the detection of pulmonary infections in immunosuppressed patients. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: Pneumonia is caused by a broad spectrum of pathogens in immunocompromised patients...
January 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033170/a-rare-cause-of-cavitary-lung-lesions
#5
Nika Pierre-Louis, Brian Dlugos
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is a common infection among susceptible patients with compromised immune function and can lead to life-threatening complications without prompt recognition and appropriate treatment. Clinicians should be aware that patients can develop severe infection even while receiving approved prophylactic medications for PJP. Furthermore, atypical radiographic findings, such as the cavitary lung lesions found in the patient in this case report, can make the diagnosis even more challenging...
January 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032346/mannose-binding-lectin-and-l-ficolin-polymorphisms-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-caused-by-intracellular-pathogens
#6
Gijs van Kempen, Sabine Meijvis, Hendrik Endeman, Bart Vlaminckx, Bob Meek, Ben de Jong, Ger T Rijkers, Willem Jan Bos
Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading infectious disease requiring hospitalisation in the Western World. Genetic variability affecting the host response to infection may play a role in susceptibility and outcome in CAP patients. Mannose binding lectin (MBL) and L-ficolin (L-FCN) are two important activators of the complement system and they can enhance phagocytosis by opsonisation. In a prospective cohort of 505 Dutch CAP patients and 227 controls we studied whether polymorphisms in the MBL (MBL2) and FCN (FCN2) genes influenced susceptibility and outcome...
December 29, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960210/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-latin-america
#7
Hernán A Iannella, Carlos M Luna
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region. Poverty, socioeconomic factors, and malnutrition influence the incidence and outcome of CAP in LAC. In LAC, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent microorganism responsible for CAP, (incidence: 24-78%); the incidence of atypical microorganisms is similar to other regions of the world. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a growing problem in the LAC region, with the Caribbean being the second most affected area worldwide after Sub-Saharan Africa...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960206/role-of-atypical-pathogens-in-the-etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#8
Forest W Arnold, James T Summersgill, Julio A Ramirez
Atypical pneumonia has been described for over 100 years, but some of the pathogens attributed to it have been identified only in the past decades. The most common pathogens are Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of these three pathogens have been studied since their discovery, and are reviewed herein to provide better insight when evaluating these patients, which hopefully translates into improved care. The incidence of atypical pathogens has been shown to be approximately 22% worldwide, but this probably varies with location...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940015/atypical-chlamydia-psittaci-pneumonia-four-related-cases
#9
Nuria Arenas-Valls, Silvia Chacón, Alfredo Pérez, Roberto Del Pozo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932290/the-diagnosis-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-current-and-future-approaches
#10
REVIEW
Fernando J Martinez, Alison Chisholm, Harold R Collard, Kevin R Flaherty, Jeffrey Myers, Ganesh Raghu, Simon L F Walsh, Eric S White, Luca Richeldi
With the recent development of two effective treatments for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. The traditional approach to diagnosis emphasises the importance of thorough clinical and laboratory evaluations to exclude secondary causes of disease. High-resolution CT is a critical initial diagnostic test and acts as a tool to identify patients who should undergo surgical lung biopsy to secure a definitive histological diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia pattern...
January 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928779/how-antibiotics-should-be-prescribed-to-hospitalized-elderly-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#11
Forest W Arnold
Elderly patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) should be administered antimicrobials in the emergency department prior to transfer to the ward or intensive care unit (ICU). For ward patients, a β-lactam with a macrolide or a respiratory fluoroquinolone alone should be given to cover typical and atypical pathogens. For ICU patients, a β-lactam with either a macrolide or a fluoroquinolone should be given. Other regimens are indicated if methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a concern...
December 7, 2016: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922247/a-pediatric-case-of-fascioliasis-with-eosinophilic-pneumonia
#12
Gülsüm İclal Bayhan, Abdulsamet Batur, Ayşegül Taylan-Özkan, Kaan Demirören, Yunus Emre Beyhan
Fasciolia spp. are common trematode infestations worldwide. Fasciolia spp. may lead to hepatic diseases in the acute phase and may cause biliary diseases in the chronic phase. In addition, Fasciolia spp. may rarely cause extrahepatic signs and symptoms. The clinical manifestations of fascioliasis are divided into three groups: typical, atypical, and ectopic. Eosinophilic pneumonia is an atypical presentation of acute fascioliasis and it has been reported very rarely. Herein, we report a boy with marked blood eosinophilia and eosinophilic pneumonia who was diagnosed with fascioliasis by serologic tests and abdominal USG...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909995/solithromycin-a-novel-fluoroketolide-for-the-treatment-of-community-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia
#13
REVIEW
George G Zhanel, Erika Hartel, Heather Adam, Sheryl Zelenitsky, Michael A Zhanel, Alyssa Golden, Frank Schweizer, Bala Gorityala, Philippe R S Lagacé-Wiens, Andrew J Walkty, Alfred S Gin, Daryl J Hoban, Joseph P Lynch, James A Karlowsky
Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide developed in both oral and intravenous formulations to address increasing macrolide resistance in pathogens causing community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). When compared with its macrolide and ketolide predecessors, solithromycin has several structural modifications which increase its ribosomal binding and reduce its propensity to known macrolide resistance mechanisms. Solithromycin, like telithromycin, affects 50S ribosomal subunit formation and function, as well as causing frame-shift errors during translation...
December 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909896/detection-of-shigella-sonnei-in-a-respiratory-specimen-in-a-patient-with-subacute-atypical-pneumonia
#14
Hiwa Nahid, Désirée Staub, Herbert Hächler, Werner C Albrich
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia caused by shigellosis with or without typical dysentery in immunocompetent patients is an uncommon entity. CASE REPORT: We describe a case of pneumonia in an immunocompetent, previously healthy middle-aged man from Switzerland without relevant travel history which was presumably caused by Shigella sonnei. He was originally admitted for suspected lung cancer. The clinical picture was remarkable as the patient presented with cough and purulent sputum production, but otherwise no classical signs of pneumonia...
December 1, 2016: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909284/-organizing-pneumonia-with-high-radiotracer-concentration-on-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-mimicking-pleural-dissemination-of-lung-cancer-report-of-a-case
#15
Takahisa Matsuoka, Tetsu Yamada, Shinjiro Nagai, Katsunari Matsuoka, Mitsuhiro Ueda, Yoshihiro Miyamoto
A 68-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of an abnormal shadow in the chest roentgenogram. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed the nodule in the right upper lobe (S3), 17 mm in size. One month later, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT scanning revealed positive reaction in the right upper lobe lesion and new lesion close to another lobe. In addition, interloblar small nodules were detected, 5 mm and 7 mm in size. A transbronchial brush cytology by bronchoscopy was performed, and the microscopic findings demonstrated the presence of atypical cells, suspected adenocarcinoma...
December 2016: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858147/evolution-and-function-of-the-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-peroxiredoxin-a-2-cys-like-enzyme-with-a-single-cys-residue
#16
Taylor Gonchoroski, Veridiana G Virginio, Claudia E Thompson, Jéssica A Paes, Cláudio X Machado, Henrique B Ferreira
The minimal genome of the mollicute Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, encodes a limited repertoire of antioxidant enzymes that include a single and atypical peroxiredoxin (MhPrx), whose evolution and function were studied here. MhPrx has only one catalytic cysteine, in contrast with some of its possible ancestors (2-Cys peroxiredoxins), which have two. Although it is more similar to 2-Cys orthologs, MhPrx can still function with a single peroxidatic cysteine (CysP), using non-thiolic electron donors to reduce it...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852233/two-unusual-cases-of-successful-treatment-of-hypermucoviscous-klebsiella-pneumoniae-invasive-syndrome
#17
Hiroki Namikawa, Koichi Yamada, Hiroki Fujimoto, Ken-Ichi Oinuma, Yoshihiro Tochino, Yasuhiko Takemoto, Yukihiro Kaneko, Taichi Shuto, Hiroshi Kakeya
BACKGROUND: A few Japanese cases of hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) invasive syndrome have recently been reported. Although extrahepatic complications from bacteremic dissemination have been observed, infected aneurysms are rare. Furthermore, the primary source of infection is generally a liver abscess, and is rarely the prostate. Therefore, we report two atypical cases of hypermucoviscous K. pneumoniae invasive syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: The first case was an 81-year-old Japanese man with no significant medical history, who was referred to our hospital for vision loss in his right eye...
November 16, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830112/mycoplasma-pneumonia-with-persistent-lymphadenopathy-and-severe-cold-agglutinin-haemolysis
#18
Mit Shah, Sajid Khan, Kenneth Chan
Mycoplasma pneumonia is an atypical pneumonia commonly affecting young patients with generally mild clinical course. We present a case of a 66-year-old female presenting with weight loss, night sweats and low-grade pyrexia. She acquired symptomatic haemolytic anaemia requiring blood transfusion, markedly raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) to 114 mm/hr and extensive peri-hilar lymphadenopathy on computed tomography (CT) scan. After excluding malignancy and granulomatous diseases, she made good recovery although a 4 week follow-up CT scan showed persistent but resolving lymphadenopathy...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821087/comparing-culture-and-molecular-methods-for-the-identification-of-microorganisms-involved-in-necrotizing-soft-tissue-infections
#19
Vibeke Børsholt Rudkjøbing, Trine Rolighed Thomsen, Yijuan Xu, Rachael Melton-Kreft, Azad Ahmed, Steffen Eickhardt, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Steen Seier Poulsen, Per Halkjær Nielsen, Joshua P Earl, Garth D Ehrlich, Claus Moser
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are a group of infections affecting all soft tissues. NSTI involves necrosis of the afflicted tissue and is potentially life threatening due to major and rapid destruction of tissue, which often leads to septic shock and organ failure. The gold standard for identification of pathogens is culture; however molecular methods for identification of microorganisms may provide a more rapid result and may be able to identify additional microorganisms that are not detected by culture...
November 8, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818546/tomography-patterns-of-lung-disease-in-systemic-sclerosis
#20
REVIEW
Andréa de Lima Bastos, Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa, Gilda Aparecida Ferreira
Currently, lung impairment is the leading factor responsible for the morbidity and mortality associated with systemic sclerosis. Therefore, the recognition of the various tomography patterns becomes decisive in the clinical management of these patients. In high-resolution computed tomography studies, the most common pattern is that of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. However, there are other forms of lung involvement that must also be recognized. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the main changes resulting from pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis and the corresponding radiological findings, considering the current classification of interstitial diseases...
September 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
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