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Middle Cerebral Artery

Jing Qiu, Min Wang, Jun Zhang, Qing Cai, Dan Lu, Yansong Li, Yushu Dong, Tianzhi Zhao, Huisheng Chen
Neuroinflammation remains the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in stroke-induced secondary brain injury. The NOD-like receptor pyrin 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is involved in diverse inflammatory diseases, including cerebral ischemia, and is thus considered an effective therapeutic target. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotection of Sinomenine (SINO), a potent natural anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory molecule, against cerebral ischemia in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo and in an oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated astrocytes/microglia model in vitro...
October 18, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Qian Lu, Jihong Wang, Junshu Jiang, Shengnan Wang, Qilan Jia, Yue Wang, Weiping Li, Qin Zhou, Li Lv, Qingwei Li
BACKGROUND: The RGD-toxin protein Lj-RGD3 is a naturally occurring 118 amino acid peptide that can be obtained from the salivary gland of the Lampetra japonica fish. This unique peptide contains 3 RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motifs in its primary structure. Lj-RGD3 is available in recombinant form (rLj-RGD3) and can be produced in large quantities using DNA recombination techniques. The pharmacology of the three RGD motif-containing peptides has not been studied. This study investigated the protective effects of rLj-RGD3, a novel polypeptide, against ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage to the brain caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in a rat stroke model...
2016: PloS One
Xiang He, Ling Jiang, Qi-Qin Dan, Qiang Lv, Yue Hu, Jia Liu, Ting-Hua Wang, Shu-Fen Wang
Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2), an important protein involved in axonal growth and the maintenance of neuronal membrane integrity, has proved to be altered in nervous system diseases. This study was aimed to investigate the role of CRMP2 in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) treating rats with cerebral ischemia. BMSCs were isolated from shaft of the femurs, tibiae, and humeri and was intra-carotid administrated immediately after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Modified Neurological Severity Scores (mNSS) was conducted at 3, 7, 14 dpo and the electrophysiologic evaluation was evaluated at 14 dpo...
October 17, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Ivan R Da Silva, Joao A Gomes, Ari Wachsman, Gabriel Rodriguez de Freitas, Jose Javier Provencio
BACKGROUND: It is not well understood whether age impacts transcranial Doppler (TCD) mean flow velocities (MFVs) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with or without delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). The aim of our study was to analyze the behavior of TCD MFV during the first 7 days after SAH in patients of different ages and correlate them with the occurrence of DCI. METHODS: This study is a databank analysis of patients with SAH admitted between 2010 and 2012 in a single center...
October 21, 2016: European Neurology
Kostas Delaunay, Florence Le Jeune, Etienne Garin, Anne Devillers, Xavier Palard-Novello
A 75-year-old man with a history of prostate cancer was referred to our department to perform F-choline (FCH) PET/CT. FCH PET/CT showed a markedly increased uptake in the right temporoparietal junction brain. Three weeks earlier, acute ischemic stroke was diagnosed in the right temporoparietal junction brain on diffusion-weighted sequence and thrombosis in a distal branch of the right middle cerebral artery on MR angiography. Choline precursors promote repair and growth of cell membranes in neurologic diseases, so FCH PET/CT uptake could be explained by repair processes during early outcome of acute ischemic stroke...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Neila Maria R de Lima, Emerson de O Ferreira, Mara Yone S D Fernandes, Francisco Arnaldo V de Lima, Kelly Rose T Neves, Marta Regina S do Carmo, Geanne M de Andrade
Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of ischemic brain damage. Astrocyte activation promotes the production of several proinflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and iNOS. Eventually, neuronal death occurs, leading to the development of motor and memory deficits in patients. Boldine is the main alkaloid in the leaves and bark of the Peumus boldus Molina, and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of boldine on neuroinflammation and memory deficits induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in mice...
October 19, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Rachel Wong, Rhenan Nealon, Daniel Raederstorff, Peter Howe
OBJECTIVE: Having shown that resveratrol consumption can improve flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery, we tested its effects on CVR to hypercapnia in adults with T2DM, a risk population for cerebrovascular disease and cognitive impairments. DESIGN AND METHOD: In a double-blind crossover trial, 34 adults with T2DM consumed 0, 75, 150 and 300 mg of synthetic trans-resveratrol (one dose per week in random order). Before and 1-2 hr after dosing, transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to assess CVR to a hypercapnic stimulus (breathing Carbogen gas for 3 min) in the middle (MCA) and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yu Hasegawa, Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
OBJECTIVE: Although hypertensive patients show significant elevation of blood pressure (BP) in acute phase after cerebral infarction, it is still unknown how it should be managed to carry the best prognosis. To address this issue, we investigated the effect of acute control of elevated BP by bilateral renal denervation (RD) against ischemic stroke in SHRSP rats with 90 minutes transient middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAO). DESIGN AND METHOD: Seventy-five male SHRSP rats of 15 weeks of age were assigned to sham-operated (control, n = 15) and MCAO + sham (sham, n = 30), and MCAO + RD (RD, n = 30)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Colin Sumners, Jacob Isenberg, Allison Harmel, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil, Ulrike Steckelings, Douglas Bennion
OBJECTIVE: The renin angiotensin system is a promising target for stroke neuroprotection and therapy through activation of angiotensin type II receptors (AT2R). The selective non-peptide AT2R agonist, Compound 21 (C21), has been shown to exhibit neuroprotection and improve stroke outcomes in preclinical studies, effects that likely involve neurotropic actions. However, these beneficial actions of C21 have not been demonstrated to occur beyond 1 week post stroke. The objective of this study was to determine if systemic administration of C21 would exert sustained neuroprotective effects in aged rats...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Tatiana Ripp, Victor Mordobin, Evgeny Ripp, Galina Semke, Alla Falkovskaya, Ludmila Fedorova, Sergey Popov
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to develop the new technology and to classify changes of arterial reactivity (AR) after metabolic stress tests in patients with hypertension. DESIGN AND METHOD: All participants of research have given the informed agreement. We used new special portative apparatus with metering rate during hypercapnia (inhalation 2 min 4% mixture of carbonic gas with air (gipercapnia) or hyperoxia - 100% oxygen (giperoxia) and in periods of recovery (rec) (air-inhalation 2 min) of 264 patients (age 52...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Karima Ait-Aissa, Joseph Hockenberry, David Gutterman, Aron Geurts, Andreas Beyer
OBJECTIVE: Flow mediated dilation (FMD) is the most physiological relevant form of endothelial-mediated vasodilation. Our laboratory has previously shown that telomerase, a ribo-nucleoprotein that counteracts telomere shortening, has a protective effect on endothelial function under conditions of oxidative stress in the human microcirculation. In the presence of coronary artery disease, decreased telomerase activity contributes to a shift in the mediator of FMD from atheroprotective nitric oxide (NO) to pro-inflammatory and atherogenic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Taerim Kim, Shin Ahn, Chang Hwan Sohn, Dong Woo Seo, Won Young Kim
OBJECTIVE: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is an underestimated cause of thunderclap headache that shares many characteristics with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This fact makes the two easily confused by emergency physicians. This study evaluated the clinical manifestations, radiological features, and outcomes of patients with RCVS. METHODS: The electronic medical records of 18 patients meeting the diagnostic criteria of RCVS at our emergency department between January 2013 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed...
December 2015: Clin Exp Emerg Med
David Roshal
This case report describes a 41-year-old previously healthy male who presented with stuttering transient ischemic symptoms and radiographic evidence of a left common carotid artery thrombus as well as acute and subacute ischemic infarcts in the left middle cerebral artery territory. An exhaustive stroke work-up did not provide a plausible etiology for his symptoms. His complete blood count and iron studies, however, revealed evidence of severe iron-deficiency anemia without reactive thrombocytosis. His stool guaiac test was positive...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Ching-Chung Liang, Tsong-Hai Lee, Shuenn-Dhy Chang
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the effect of human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells on bladder dysfunction induced by cerebral ischemia in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female rats were subjected to either 60 minute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or a sham operation. Rats were divided into four groups: sham operation, MCAO without treatment, infusion with 1×10(6) CD34(+) cells 30 minutes before MCAO, and infusion with 1×10(6) CD34(+) cells 3 hours after MCAO...
October 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Yun Zhao, Qiongyi Pang, Meixia Liu, Jingzi Pan, Bingwu Xiang, Tingting Huang, Fengxia Tu, Chan Liu, Xiang Chen
Using a model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), we have previously demonstrated that treadmill exercise promotes angiogenesis in the ischemic penumbra through caveolin-1/VEGF signaling pathways. However, the function of caveolin-1/VEGF signaling in neurogenesis after MCAO has not been determined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of treadmill exercise to promote neurogenesis after MCAO and whether caveolin-1/VEGF signaling pathways are involved. After MCAO, rats were subjected to a program of treadmill exercise...
October 17, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Haiyan Lu, Xiaoyan Song, Feng Wang, Guodong Wang, Yuncheng Wu, Qiaoshu Wang, Yongting Wang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Zhijun Zhang
Endogenous Netrin-1 (NT-1) protein was significantly increased after cerebral ischemia, which may participate in the repair after transient cerebral ischemic injury. In this work, we explored whether NT-1 can be steadily overexpressed by adeno-associated virus (AAV) and the exogenous NT-1 can promote neural stem cells migration from the subventricular zone (SVZ) region after cerebral ischemia. Adult CD-1 mice were injected stereotacticly with AAV carrying NT-1 gene (AAV-NT-1). Mice underwent 60 min of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion 1 week after injection...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Haiyun Chen, Guolian Tan, Jie Cao, Gaoxiao Zhang, Peng Yi, Pei Yu, Yewei Sun, Zaijun Zhang, Yuqiang Wang
Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in neurological diseases, resulting in excessive production of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. In this work, we designed and synthesized a series of tetramethylpyrazine derivatives and investigated their abilities for scavenging free radicals and preventing against oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage in vitro. Among them, compound 22a, consisted of TMP, caffeic acid and a nitrone group, showed potent radical-scavenging activity. Compound 22a had broad neuroprotective effects, including rescuing iodoacetic acid-induced neuronal loss, preventing from t-BHP-induced neuronal injury...
October 14, 2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Nicole S Glaser, Sandra L Wootton-Gorges, Isaac Kim, Daniel J Tancredi, James P Marcin, Andrew Muir, Nathan Kuppermann
OBJECTIVE: To characterize regional differences in brain water distribution and content during diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children and determine whether these differences correlate with regional vascular supply. STUDY DESIGN: We compared changes in brain water distribution and water content in different brain regions during DKA by analyzing magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging data collected during DKA and after recovery in 45 children (<18 years of age)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Ady Thien, Angela An Qi See, Samantha Ya Lyn Ang, Nishal Kishinchand Primalani, Mervyn Jun Rui Lim, Yew Poh Ng, Nicolas Kon Kam King
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of asymptomatic unruptured intracranial aneurysms (AUIA) in a Southeast Asian population has not been previously studied. Knowing the disease burden and population at risk can assist us in making informed decisions when managing AUIAs. We aimed to determine if the local prevalence of AUIAs differed from other populations in the published literature. METHODS: Magnetic resonance angiography radiology reports and images for 4572 patients between January 2013 and January 2014 were reviewed for AUIAs...
October 12, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Nolan S Hartkamp, Reinoud P H Bokkers, M J P van Osch, Gert J de Borst, Jeroen Hendrikse
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess the effect of unilateral large vessel disease upon the cerebral hemodynamic autoregulatory status in the basal ganglia of patients with steno-occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five healthy volunteers and 38 patients with a unilateral symptomatic steno-occlusive ICA lesion and were investigated; 20 with a stenosis >50% and 18 with an occlusion. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) were assessed with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging before and after administration of acetazolamide...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
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