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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646184/homing-of-cultured-endothelial-progenitor-cells-and-their-effect-on-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rat-model
#1
Xin-Bin Guo, Xin Deng, Ying Wei
Transplanted endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may play an important role in reestablishing the endothelial integrity of the vessels after brain injury, and contribute to neurogenesis. We, therefore, tested the homing of ex vivo cultured peripheral blood-derived EPCs and their effect on injured brain tissue after intravenous administration. To track the homing of implanted EPCs in injured brain tissues, EPCs were labeled with DAPI and BrdU in vitro before transplantation. EPCs were transplanted into the host animal through peripheral administration through the femoral vein, and homing of EPCs was evaluated...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645069/controlled-single-bubble-cavitation-collapse-results-in-jet-induced-injury-in-brain-tissue
#2
Saranya Canchi, Karen Kelly, Yu Hong, Michael A King, Ghatu Subhash, Malisa Sarntinoranont
Multiscale damage due to cavitation is considered as a potential mechanism of traumatic brain injury (TBI) associated with explosion. In this study, we employed a TBI relevant hippocampal ex vivo slice model to induce bubble cavitation. Placement of single reproducible seed bubbles allowed control of size, number, and tissue location to visualize and measure deformation parameters. Maximum strain value was measured at 45 µs after bubble collapse, presented with a distinct contour and coincided temporally and spatially with the liquid jet...
June 15, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644101/safety-and-cost-efficiency-of-a-restrictive-transfusion-protocol-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Laura B Ngwenya, Catherine G Suen, Phiroz E Tarapore, Geoffrey T Manley, Michael C Huang
OBJECTIVE Blood loss and moderate anemia are common in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, despite evidence of the ill effects and expense of the transfusion of packed red blood cells, restrictive transfusion practices have not been universally adopted for patients with TBI. At a Level I trauma center, the authors compared patients with TBI who were managed with a restrictive (target hemoglobin level > 7 g/dl) versus a liberal (target hemoglobin level > 10 g/dl) transfusion protocol. This study evaluated the safety and cost-efficiency of a hospital-wide change to a restrictive transfusion protocol...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643998/survey-in-expert-clinicians-on-validity-of-automated-calculation-of-optimal-cerebral-perfusion-pressure
#4
Romy Steijn, Roy Stewart, Marek Czosnyka, Joseph Donnelly, Ari Ercole, Antony Absalom, Jan W Elting, Christina Haubrich, Peter Smielewski, Marcel Aries
BACKGROUND: Optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPopt) targeting in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients constitutes an active and controversial area of research. It has been suggested that an autoregulation guided CPP therapy may improve TBI outcome. Prerequisites of a CPPopt intervention study would be objective criteria for the CPPopt detection.. This study compared the agreement between automated and visual CPPopt detection. METHODS: Twenty-five clinicians from 18 centres worldwide, familiar with brain monitoring and using dedicated software, reviewed ten 4-hour CPPopt screenshots at 48 hrs after ictus in selected TBI patients...
June 22, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643996/age-related-outcome-of-patients-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-single-centre-observation
#5
Rolf Erlebach, Alberto Pagnamenta, Stephanie Klinzing, Federica Stretti, Silvia Cottini, Reto Schüpbach, Peter Steiger, Giovanna Brandi
BACKGROUND: Study-purpose is to analyze clinical features of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), their age-related outcomes and determinants of long- term outcome. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in a level I University Swiss trauma center. Consecutive patients with moderate to severe TBI admitted for more than 48 hours to the Intensive Care Unit were included. Patients' and trauma characteristics, management during ICU-stay, prognostic scores and long- term outcomes were analyzed...
June 22, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643031/pediatric-emergency-care-applied-research-network-pecarn-prediction-rules-in-identifying-high-risk-children-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
B Nakhjavan-Shahraki, M Yousefifard, M J Hajighanbari, A Oraii, S Safari, M Hosseini
PURPOSE: Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) traumatic brain injury (TBI) prognostic rules is a scoring system for prediction of the need for computed tomography (CT) scanning in children with mild TBI. However, its validation has not been assessed in developing countries. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the value of PECARN rule in identification of children with clinically important TBI (ciTBI). METHOD: In this prospective cross-sectional study, 594 children (mean age: 7...
June 22, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642178/neurological-outcome-after-decompressive-craniectomy-predictors-of-outcome-in-different-pathologies
#7
Taco Goedemans, Dagmar Verbaan, Bert A Coert, Bertjan Kerklaan, René van den Berg, Jonathan M Coutinho, Tessa van Middelaar, Paul J Nederkoorn, W Peter Vandertop, Pepijn van den Munckhof
OBJECTIVE: Decompressive craniectomy (DC) has been proposed as lifesaving treatment in patients with elevated intracranial pressure, but its effectiveness on reaching favorable neurological outcome remains unclear. We identified predictors of outcome in a large, single-center cohort of patients undergoing DC for different pathologies. METHODS: This retrospective study included all patients undergoing DC from 2006-2014. One-year outcome, assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), was dichotomized into favorable (GOS 4-5) and unfavorable (GOS 1-3) outcome...
June 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642177/protective-functions-of-pj34-a-parp-inhibitor-is-related-to-down-regulation-of-calpain-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-a-mouse-model-of-tbi
#8
Xiaogang Tao, Xuetao Chen, Zonggang Hou, Shuyu Hao, Baiyun Liu
OBJECTIVES: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), calpain, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) are reported to participate in inflammatory reactions in pathological conditions and are involved in traumatic brain injury. The objective of this study was to investigate whether PARP participated in inflammation related to calpain and NF-κB in a mouse model of controlled cortical impact (CCI). METHODS: PJ34 (10 mg/kg), a selective PARP inhibitor, was administered intraperitoneally 5 min and 8 h after experimental CCI...
June 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641392/alcohol-is-not-protective-against-mortality-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Jennifer S Albrecht, Majid Afshar, Deborah M Stein, Gordon S Smith
Alcohol exposure results in reduced mortality following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in animal models, yet clinical studies reported conflicting results and clinical trials based on proposed mechanisms have been disappointing. Methodological issues common to many of the clinical studies may have contributed to spurious results. Our objective was to evaluate the association between blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and in-hospital mortality following TBI, overcoming methodological problems of prior studies. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on individuals treated for isolated TBI at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center between 1997-2012 (n = 1,084)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641124/neural-repair-by-nt3-chitosan-via-enhancement-of-endogenous-neurogenesis-after-adult-focal-aspiration-brain-injury
#10
Peng Hao, Hongmei Duan, Fei Hao, Lan Chen, Min Sun, Kevin S Fan, Yi Eve Sun, David Williams, Zhaoyang Yang, Xiaoguang Li
The latent regenerative potential of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) in the adult mammalian brain has been postulated as a likely source for neural repair. However, the inflammatory and inhibitory microenvironment after traumatic brain injury (TBI) prohibits NSCs from generating new functional neurons to restore brain function. Here we report a biodegradable material, chitosan, which, when loaded with neurotrophin-3 (NT3) and injected into the lesion site after TBI, effectively engaged endogenous NSCs to proliferate and migrate to the injury area...
April 26, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641105/it-s-not-all-fun-and-games-sports-concussions-and-neuroscience
#11
Christopher C Giza, Mayumi L Prins, David A Hovda
Few items grab the public's attention like sports, from extremes of great victory to injury and defeat. No injury currently arouses stronger interest than concussion. Giza et al., discuss how neuroscience can provide balance between physical activity and TBI, and guide thoughtful discourse and policy.
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640776/early-fever-after-trauma-does-it-matter
#12
Holly E Hinson, Susan Rowell, Cynthia Morris, Amber L Lin, Martin A Schreiber
BACKGROUND: Fever is strongly associated with poor outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that early fever is a direct result of brain injury and thus would be more common in TBI than in patients without brain injury, and associated with inflammation. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients with major trauma with and without TBI from a busy level I trauma center ICU. Patients were assigned to one of four groups based on their presenting Head Abbreviated Injury Severity Scale scores (HAIS): Polytrauma: Head AIS score >2, one other region>2, Isolated Head: Head AIS score>2, all other regions <3, Isolated Body: One region >2, excluding Head/Face, Minor Injury: No region with AIS>2...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640076/efficacy-of-methylphenidate-for-the-treatment-of-mental-sequelae-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Wei-Tao Zhang, Ya-Fei Wang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of methylphenidate for treating mental sequelae after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Thirty-six patients with TBI were randomly divided into the intervention group and placebo group. The participants in the intervention group received methylphenidate, while subjects in the placebo group were administered a placebo. This study was conducted from January 2014 to December 2016. The outcome measurements included Mental Fatigue Scale, Choice Reaction Time, Compensatory Tracking Task, Mental Arithmetic Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638831/corrigendum-to-differences-in-brain-metabolic-impairment-between-chronic-mild-moderate-tbi-patients-with-and-without-visible-brain-lesions-based-on-mri
#14
Keiichi Ito, Yoshitaka Asano, Yuka Ikegame, Jun Shinoda
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2016/3794029.].
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638364/impact-of-neuronal-membrane-damage-on-the-local-field-potential-in-a-large-scale-simulation-of-cerebral-cortex
#15
David L Boothe, Alfred B Yu, Pawel Kudela, William S Anderson, Jean M Vettel, Piotr J Franaszczuk
Within multiscale brain dynamics, the structure-function relationship between cellular changes at a lower scale and coordinated oscillations at a higher scale is not well understood. This relationship may be particularly relevant for understanding functional impairments after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) when current neuroimaging methods do not reveal morphological changes to the brain common in moderate to severe TBI such as diffuse axonal injury or gray matter lesions. Here, we created a physiology-based model of cerebral cortex using a publicly released modeling framework (GEneral NEural SImulation System) to explore the possibility that performance deficits characteristic of blast-induced mTBI may reflect dysfunctional, local network activity influenced by microscale neuronal damage at the cellular level...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637553/more-helmets-fewer-deaths-motorcycle-helmet-legislation-impacts-traumatic-brain-injury-related-mortality-in-young-adults
#16
Ahmed Hassan, Tahereh Orouji Jokar, Peter Rhee, Kareem Ibraheem, Narong Kulvatunyou, Kathryn Tinsley Anderson, Lynn Gries, Zachary Thomas Roward, Bellal Joseph
The aim of our study was to assess the impact of helmet legislations on the incidence and the mortality rate of motorcycle collision (MCC)-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young adult trauma patients. A 1-year (2011) retrospective analysis was performed of all patients under 21 years old with trauma-related hospitalization using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (representing 20% of all in-patient admissions). Patients with MCC were identified using E-codes. States were classified into three groups based on helmet legislations: universal age helmet legislation, <18 years helmet legislation, and <21 years helmet legislation...
June 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637381/role-of-caspase-3-mediated-apoptosis-in-chronic-caspase-3-cleaved-tau-accumulation-and-blood-brain-barrier-damage-in-the-corpus-callosum-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#17
Olena Glushakova, Andriy O Glushakov, Cesar Borlongan, Alex Valadka, Ronald L Hayes, Alexander V Glushakov
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be a significant risk factor for development of neurodegenerative disorders such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), and Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. Chronic TBI is associated with several pathological features that are also characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases, including tau pathologies, caspase-3-mediated apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and microvascular alterations. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes following TBI in cleaved-caspase-3 and caspase-3-cleaved tau truncated at Asp421 and their relationships to cellular markers potentially associated with inflammation and blood-brain (BBB) barrier damage...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637141/misconceptions-about-traumatic-brain-injury-among-probation-services
#18
Conall O'Rourke, Mark A Linden, Maria Lohan
PURPOSE: The prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among offender populations is significantly higher than among the general population. Despite this, no study has yet assessed the knowledge of members of the probation service surrounding TBI. METHOD: Knowledge was assessed among members of the Probation Board for Northern Ireland (PBNI) using a cross-sectional online version of the Common Misconceptions about TBI (CM-TBI) questionnaire. Mean total misconception scores, along with scores on four subdomains (recovery, sequelae, insight, and hidden injury) were calculated...
February 23, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635089/comparison-of-fall-related-traumatic-brain-injury-in-residential-aged-care-and-community-dwelling-older-people-a-population-based-study
#19
Lara A Harvey, Rebecca Mitchell, Henry Brodaty, Brian Draper, Jacqueline Ct Close
OBJECTIVE: To compare trends, causes, and outcomes of fall-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) between community-dwelling (CD) individuals and residential aged care facility (RACF) residents. METHODS: Hospitalisation and RACF administrative data for 6635 individuals aged ≥65 years admitted to all NSW hospitals for fall-related TBI from 2008-2009 to 2012-2013 were linked. RESULTS: Of the 6944 hospitalisations, 20.8% were for RACF residents...
June 2017: Australasian Journal on Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634501/subarachnoid-hemorrhage-and-long-term-stroke-risk-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Nicholas A Morris, Joséphine Cool, Alexander E Merkler, Hooman Kamel
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a risk factor for subsequent ischemic stroke, even years after the initial insult. The mechanisms of the association remain unclear. The presence of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) may mediate the effect of TBI on long-term stroke risk, as it has previously been linked to short-term vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Using administrative claims data, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of acute care hospitalizations...
July 2017: Neurohospitalist
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