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Innovative Diagnostic Laboratory

Lisanne L de Boer, Jarich W Spliethoff, Henricus J C M Sterenborg, Theo J M Ruers
Innovations in optical spectroscopy have helped the technology reach a point where performance previously seen only in laboratory settings can be translated and tested in real-world applications. In the field of oncology, spectral tissue sensing (STS) by means of optical spectroscopy is considered to have major potential for improving diagnostics and optimizing treatment outcome. The concept has been investigated for more than two decades and yet spectral tissue sensing is not commonly employed in routine medical practice...
December 2, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
Gail A Bernstein, Tasoulla Hadjiyanni, Kathryn R Cullen, Julia W Robinson, Elizabeth C Harris, Austin D Young, Joshua Fasching, Nicholas Walczak, Susanne Lee, Vassilios Morellas, Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos
OBJECTIVES: The clinical presentation of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is heterogeneous, which is a stumbling block to understanding pathophysiology and to developing new treatments. A major shift in psychiatry, embodied in the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative of National Institute of Mental Health, recognizes the pitfalls of categorizing mental illnesses using diagnostic criteria. Instead, RDoC encourages researchers to use a dimensional approach, focusing on narrower domains of psychopathology to characterize brain-behavior relationships...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Arpit Bhargava, Naveen Kumar Khare, Neha Bunkar, Koel Chaudhury, Kailash Chand Pandey, Subodh Kumar Jain, Pradyumna Kumar Mishra
The burden of cardio-vascular and other age-related non-communicable diseases are rapidly increasing worldwide. Majority of these chronic ailments are curable, if diagnosed at early stages. Candidate biomarkers of early detection are therefore essential for identification of high-risk individuals, prompt and accurate disease diagnosis, and to monitor therapeutic response. The functional significance of circulating nucleic acids that recapitulate specific disease profiles is now well established. But subtle changes in DNA sequence may not solely reflect the differentiation of gene expression patterns observed in diverse set of diseases as epigenetic phenomena play a larger role in aetiology and patho-physiology...
October 27, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Spoorthi Ravi Banavar, Prashanthi Chippagiri, Rohit Pandurangappa, Saileela Annavajjula, Premalatha Bidadi Rajashekaraiah
Background. Microscopes are omnipresent throughout the field of biological research. With microscopes one can see in detail what is going on at the cellular level in tissues. Though it is a ubiquitous tool, the limitation is that with high magnification there is a small field of view. It is often advantageous to see an entire sample at high magnification. Over the years technological advancements in optics have helped to provide solutions to this limitation of microscopes by creating the so-called dedicated "slide scanners" which can provide a "whole slide digital image...
2016: Analytical Cellular Pathology (Amsterdam)
Alexey V Orlov, Sergey L Znoyko, Vladimir R Cherkasov, Maxim Petrovich Nikitin, Petr I Nikitin
We present a multiplex quantitative lateral flow (LF) assay for simultaneous on-site detection of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) types A, B and E in complex matrices, which is innovative by virtually no sacrifice in performance while transition from the single-plex assays and by characteristics on the level of laboratory quantitative methods. The novel approach to easy multiplexing is realized via joining an on-demand set of single-plex LF strips, which employ magnetic nanolabels, into a miniature cylinder cartridge that mimics LF strip during all assay stages...
October 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Philippa J Easterbrook
Testing and diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, and crucial for an effective hepatitis epidemic response. In contrast to HIV, a systematic approach to hepatitis C testing has been fragmented and limited to a few countries, and there remains a large burden of undiagnosed cases globally. Key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, include lack of simple, reliable, and low cost diagnostic tests, laboratory capacity, and testing facilities; inadequate data to guide country-specific hepatitis testing approaches and who to test; stigmatization and social marginalization of some groups with or at risk of viral hepatitis; and lack of international or national guidelines on hepatitis testing for resource-limited settings...
October 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Myriam Gharbi, Luke S P Moore, Enrique Castro-Sánchez, Elpiniki Spanoudaki, Charlotte Grady, Alison H Holmes, Lydia N Drumright
BACKGROUND: Appropriate antimicrobial prescribing is essential for patient care, yet up to half of antimicrobial prescriptions written in the UK are sub-optimal. Improving prescriber education has recently been promoted as a mechanism to optimise antimicrobial use, but identification of key learning objectives to facilitate this is so far lacking. Using qualitative methods we investigated junior doctor knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours around antimicrobial prescribing to identify key areas to address in future educational programmes...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
M J Tomlinson
This article suggests that diagnostic semen analysis has no more clinical value today than it had 25-30 years ago, and both the confusion surrounding its evidence base (in terms of relationship with conception) and the low level of confidence in the clinical setting is attributable to an associated high level of 'uncertainty'. Consideration of the concept of measurement uncertainty is mandatory for medical laboratories applying for the ISO15189 standard. It is evident that the entire semen analysis process is prone to error every step from specimen collection to the reporting of results and serves to compound uncertainty associated with diagnosis or prognosis...
September 2016: Andrology
L Richeldi
The recent approval of two safe and effective treatments for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) had as a direct consequence the absolute need for an accurate and early diagnosis. The standard approach to IPF diagnosis has proven to be effective and emphasized the importance of clinical and laboratory evaluations to exclude known causes of pulmonary fibrosis. At the same time, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has proven to be the crucial initial diagnostic test, by identifying those patients who should undergo surgical lung biopsy to secure a confident diagnosis and an adequate treatment...
September 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Renato Tozzoli, Danilo Villalta, Nicola Bizzaro
Standardization and harmonization are complementary tools to achieve higher testing quality in laboratory medicine. Both are of great relevance and are strongly needed in autoimmune diagnostics, due to the impressive advance in basic research and technological development observed in this diagnostic field in recent years that has led to the introduction of many new tests and new analytical methods. It is, therefore, essential that this strong innovative thrust is translated into clinical practice in a coordinated way to avoid confusion and the risk of potentially harmful errors for the patient...
August 8, 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Alash'le Abimiku, Ralph Timperi, William Blattner
Laboratory innovation significantly affects program sustainability of HIV programs in low and middle income countries (LMICs) far beyond its immediate sphere of impact. Innovation in rapid development of diagnostic technologies, improved quality management systems, strengthened laboratory management, affordable external quality assurance and accreditation schemes, and building local capacity have reduced costs, brought quality improvement to point-of-care testing, increased access to testing services, reduced treatment and prevention costs and opened the door to the real possibility of ending the AIDS epidemic...
August 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Andrew D Miller
The overall goal of my career as an academic chemist has always been the design and creation of advanced therapeutics and diagnostics that address unmet medical need in the management of chronic diseases. Realising this goal has been an immensely difficult process involving multidisciplinary problem-driven research at the chemistry-biology-medicine interfaces. With success in the laboratory, I started seriously to question the value of remaining an academic whose career is spent in the pursuit of knowledge and understanding alone without making any significant effort to translate knowledge and understanding gained into products of genuine utility for public benefit...
July 2016: Future Medicinal Chemistry
M Jana Broadhurst, Tim J G Brooks, Nira R Pollock
Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus disease plays a critical role in outbreak response efforts; however, establishing safe and expeditious testing strategies for this high-biosafety-level pathogen in resource-poor environments remains extremely challenging. Since the discovery of Ebola virus in 1976 via traditional viral culture techniques and electron microscopy, diagnostic methodologies have trended toward faster, more accurate molecular assays. Importantly, technological advances have been paired with increasing efforts to support decentralized diagnostic testing capacity that can be deployed at or near the point of patient care...
October 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
E Andre, C Isaacs, D Affolabi, R Alagna, D Brockmann, B C de Jong, E Cambau, G Churchyard, T Cohen, M Delmee, J-C Delvenne, M Farhat, A Habib, P Holme, S Keshavjee, A Khan, P Lightfoot, D Moore, Y Moreno, Y Mundade, M Pai, S Patel, A U Nyaruhirira, L E C Rocha, J Takle, A Trébucq, J Creswell, C Boehme
In regard to tuberculosis (TB) and other major global epidemics, the use of new diagnostic tests is increasing dramatically, including in resource-limited countries. Although there has never been as much digital information generated, this data source has not been exploited to its full potential. In this opinion paper, we discuss lessons learned from the global scale-up of these laboratory devices and the pathway to tapping the potential of laboratory-generated information in the field of TB by using connectivity...
August 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Juliane Suchsland, Theresa Winter, Anne Greiser, Thomas Streichert, Benjamin Otto, Julia Mayerle, Sören Runge, Anders Kallner, Matthias Nauck, Astrid Petersmann
BACKGROUND: The innovative pneumatic tube system (iPTS) transports one sample at a time without the use of cartridges and allows rapid sending of samples directly into the bulk loader of a laboratory automation system (LAS). We investigated effects of the iPTS on samples and turn-around time (TAT). METHODS: During transport, a mini data logger recorded the accelerations in three dimensions and reported them in arbitrary area under the curve (AUC) units. In addition representative quantities of clinical chemistry, hematology and coagulation were measured and compared in 20 blood sample pairs transported by iPTS and courier...
June 30, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Kaifei Fu, Jun Li, Yuxiao Wang, Jianfei Liu, He Yan, Lei Shi, Lijun Zhou
Vibrio alginolyticus is one of the most common pathogenic marine Vibrio species, and has been found to cause serious seafood-poisoning or fatal extra-intestinal infections in humans, such as necrotizing soft-tissue infections, bacteremia, septic shock, and multiple organ failures. Delayed accurate diagnosis and treatment of most Vibrio infections usually result to high mortality rates. The objective of this study was to establish a rapid diagnostic method to detect and identify the presence of V. alginolyticus in different samples, so as to facilitate timely treatment...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Brendon D Parsons, Nathan Zelyas, Byron M Berenger, Linda Chui
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for gastrointestinal diseases reported in numerous outbreaks around the world. Given the public health importance of STEC, effective detection, characterization and typing is critical to any medical laboratory system. While non-O157 serotypes account for the majority of STEC infections, frontline microbiology laboratories may only screen for STEC using O157-specific agar-based methods. As a result, non-O157 STEC infections are significantly under-reported...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Angela M Caliendo, Marc R Couturier, Christine C Ginocchio, Kimberly E Hanson, Melissa B Miller, Kimberly E Walker, Gregory M Frank
In 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed to regulate laboratory-developed tests (LDTs)-diagnostics designed, manufactured, and used within a single laboratory. The Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society for Microbiology, and the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology recognize that the FDA is committed to protecting patients. However, our societies are concerned that the proposed regulations will limit access to testing and negatively impact infectious diseases (ID) LDTs...
July 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
R Verma, S Sood
Diagnosis of gonorrhoea is an ongoing challenge. The organism is fastidious requiring meticulous collection and transport for successful cultivation. Asymptomatic infections are common which go undetected by conventional methods thereby leading to continued transmission and the risk of complications. The nucleic acid amplification tests, now increasingly used in developed countries, offer improved sensitivity compared to bacterial culture. However, these continue to suffer sequence related problems leading to false positive and false negative results...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Julian Haas, Boris Mizaikoff
Infrared spectroscopy in the 3-20 μm spectral window has evolved from a routine laboratory technique into a state-of-the-art spectroscopy and sensing tool by benefitting from recent progress in increasingly sophisticated spectra acquisition techniques and advanced materials for generating, guiding, and detecting mid-infrared (MIR) radiation. Today, MIR spectroscopy provides molecular information with trace to ultratrace sensitivity, fast data acquisition rates, and high spectral resolution catering to demanding applications in bioanalytics, for example, and to improved routine analysis...
June 12, 2016: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
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