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Colorectal cancer blood tests

Douglas J Robertson, Jeffrey K Lee, C Richard Boland, Jason A Dominitz, Francis M Giardiello, David A Johnson, Tonya Kaltenbach, David Lieberman, Theodore R Levin, Douglas K Rex
The use of the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is supported by randomized trials demonstrating effectiveness in cancer prevention and widely recommended by guidelines for this purpose. The fecal immunochemical test (FIT), as a direct measure of human hemoglobin in stool has a number of advantages relative to conventional FOBT and is increasingly used relative to that test. This review summarizes current evidence for FIT in colorectal neoplasia detection and the comparative effectiveness of FIT relative to other commonly used CRC screening modalities...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Mohamed Mousslim, Alessandra Pagano, Nicolas Andreotti, Françoise Garrouste, Sylvie Thuault, Vincent Peyrot, Fabrice Parat, José Luis, Marcel Culcasi, Sophie Thétiot-Laurent, Sylvia Pietri, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Hervé Kovacic
The NADPH oxidase proteins catalyse the formation of superoxide anion which act as signalling molecules in physiological and pathological processes. Nox1-dependent NADPH oxidase is expressed in heart, lung, colon, blood vessels and brain. Different strategies involving Nox1 inhibition based on diphenylene iodonium derivatives are currently tested for colorectal cancer therapy. Here, after peptides screening on Nox1-dependent NADPH oxidase assay in HT-29 cells, we identify a peptide (referred to as NF02), cell-active, that potently block Nox1-dependent reactive oxygen species generation...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Luisa Soares-Miranda, Sandra Abreu, Marco Silva, Armando Peixoto, Rosa Ramalho, Pedro Correia da Silva, Carla Costa, João Paulo Teixeira, Carla Gonçalves, Pedro Moreira, Jorge Mota, Guilherme Macedo
PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that being physically active in combination with a healthy diet contributes to diminish colorectal cancer risk. However, if this is true for colorectal cancer primary prevention, the same is not clear for its recurrence after colorectal cancer treatments. Data on cancer survival are scarce, and there is a need for greater attention on these survivors' lifestyle behavior. This manuscript describes rationale and design of the Cancer Survival Study (CASUS) on colorectal patients, a longitudinal observational study with the aim of investigating how physical activity, physical fitness, and dietary intake are related with their quality of life, disease recurrence, and survival...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Graeme P Young, Susanne K Pedersen, Scott Mansfield, David H Murray, Rohan T Baker, Philippa Rabbitt, Susan Byrne, Libby Bambacas, Paul Hollington, Erin L Symonds
Recurrence will develop in 30-50% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases despite apparent clearance following treatment. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is the only guideline-recommended blood test for monitoring cases for recurrence, but its sensitivity and specificity are suboptimal. This observational study compared a novel 2-gene (methylated BCAT1 and IKZF1 DNA) blood test with CEA for detection of recurrent CRC. We conducted a paired comparison of the BCAT1/IKZF1 test with CEA (cut-off 5 ng/mL) in blood from patients in remission after treatment for primary CRC and undergoing surveillance...
October 11, 2016: Cancer Medicine
D Brandenbarg, C Roorda, F Groenhof, G H de Bock, M Y Berger, A J Berendsen
The rising number of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors is likely to impose a burden on healthcare systems. Effective resource allocation between primary and hospital care to ensure ongoing high-quality care is under discussion. Therefore, it is important to understand the current role of GPs during follow-up care of CRC. This study explores the primary healthcare use of patients 2-6 years after CRC treatment. Annual rates of face-to-face contacts, prescribed medication and referrals were compared between CRC patients and age, gender and GP matched controls in a historical prospective study...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
Hoang Dinh Tuy, Hisanori Shiomi, Ken Ichi Mukaisho, Shigeyuki Naka, Tomoharu Shimizu, Hiromichi Sonoda, Eiji Mekata, Yoshihiro Endo, Yoshimasa Kurumi, Hiroyuki Sugihara, Masaji Tani, Tohru Tani
Irinotecan is a key drug for patients with advanced and recurrent colorectal carcinoma. However, the efficacy of irinotecan is not sufficient; partly, as there is no useful marker to predict chemosensitivity to the drug. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the expression levels of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette sub-family G (WHITE) member 2 (Junior blood group) (ABCG2) in primary colorectal tumors predict chemoresistance to irinotecan. Using the resected primary tumor specimens of 189 patients with colorectal cancer, the association between the immunohistochemical expression of ABCG2 protein and the results of the collagen gel droplet embedded culture drug sensitivity test, performed to evaluate the chemosensitivity to SN-38 (an active metabolite of irinotecan), was investigated...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Sarah E R Bailey, Obi C Ukoumunne, Elizabeth Shephard, Willie Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Although the association between raised platelet count (thrombocytosis) and cancer has been reported in primary and secondary care studies, UK GPs are unaware of it, and it is insufficiently evidenced for laboratories to identify and warn of it. This systematic review aimed to identify and collate evidence from studies that have investigated thrombocytosis as an early marker of cancer in primary care. METHODS: EMBASE (OvidSP), Medline (Ovid), Web of Science and The Cochrane Library were searched for relevant studies...
September 28, 2016: Family Practice
Xi Tian, Samuel B Warner, Kyle T Wagner, Joseph M Caster, Tian Zhang, Patricia Ohana, Alberto A Gabizon, Andrew Z Wang
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of radiation on in vitro drug activation and release of Promitil, a pegylated liposomal formulation of a mitomycin C (MMC) lipid-based prodrug; and examine the efficacy and toxicity of Promitil with concurrent radiation in colorectal cancer models. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Promitil was obtained from Lipomedix Pharmaceuticals (Jerusalem, Israel). We tested the effects of radiation on release of active MMC from Promitil in vitro. We next examined the radiosensitization effect of Promitil in vitro...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Chyng-Wen Fwu, Paul L Kimmel, Paul W Eggers, Kevin C Abbott
BACKGROUND: Although patients treated with maintenance hemodialysis are at an increased risk of colorectal cancer compared with the general population, national practices for colorectal cancer screening have not been reported in this population. We assessed the performance of colorectal cancer screening in the US end-stage renal disease program in comparison with the US Medicare population. METHODS: We studied the United States Renal Data System for US prevalent hemodialysis patients between 2002 and 2011 who had Medicare as their primary insurer...
October 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
John K Triantafillidis, Constantine Vagianos, Aristofanis Gikas, Maria Korontzi, Apostolos Papalois
In recent years, the role of primary care physicians (PCPs) in the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal disorders, including screening for colorectal cancer (CRC), has been recognized as very important. The available data indicate that PCPs are not adequately following CRC screening guidelines because a number of factors have been identified as significant barriers to the proper application of CRC screening guidelines. These factors include lack of time, patient reluctance, and challenges related to scheduling colonoscopy...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Shirong Yan, Zijing Liu, Shuang Yu, Yixi Bao
BACKGROUND Septin9 is a member of GTP-binding protein family, and is used as a predictive diagnostic index. However, it has not been widely adopted due to inconsistent results reported in the literature. The present study was performed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of methylated Septin9 (mSEPT9) for colorectal cancer (CRC) and to evaluate its utility in CRC screening. MATERIAL AND METHODS After reviewing relevant studies, accuracy measures (pooled sensitivity and specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio [PLR/NLR], and diagnostic odds ratio [DOR]) were calculated for mSEPT9 in the diagnosis of CRC...
September 25, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Lu-Lu Wang, Shuai Huang, Hui-Hui Guo, Yan-Xing Han, Wen-Sheng Zheng, Jian-Dong Jiang
In situ administration of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) "thermosensitive" gel effectively reduced systemic side effects in treating colon rectal cancer; however, the penetration efficacy of the formulation was considerably low due to the poor lipid solubility of 5FU. The aim of this study was to develop thermosensitive gel-mediated 5FU water-in-oil microemulsion (TG-5FU-ME) for improving the infiltration of 5FU. An in vitro release test showed that TG-5FU-ME sustained the drug's release up to 10 hours. TG-5FU-ME exhibited good stability, and the microemulsion entrapped did not show any change in morphology and 5FU content during the 4-month storage...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Elizabeth Sheena John, Ann M John, David R Hansberry, Prashant J Thomas, Prateek Agarwal, Christopher Deitch, Sita Chokhavatia
PURPOSE: Patients screened for colorectal cancer (CRC) frequently turn to the Internet to improve their understanding of tests used for detection, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, fecal occult blood test (FOBT), and CT colonography. It was of interest to determine the quality and readability levels of online health information. METHODS: The screening tools were googled, and the top 20 results of each test were analyzed for readability, accessibility, usability, and reliability...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Melanie Maierthaler, Axel Benner, Michael Hoffmeister, Harald Surowy, Lina Jansen, Phillip Knebel, Jenny Chang-Claude, Hermann Brenner, Barbara Burwinkel
Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed as minimally invasive prognostic markers for various types of cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most diagnosed cancer worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the levels of circulating miRNAs that might serve as markers for CRC prognosis and survival. We included plasma samples of 543 CRC patients with stage I-IV disease from a population-based study carried out in Germany. After comprehensive evaluation of current literature, 95 miRNAs were selected and measured with Custom TaqMan® Array MicroRNA Cards...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Lea Hagoel, Efrat Neter, Nili Stein, Gad Rennert
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether asking questions about a future behavior changes this behavior (i.e., the question-behavior effect) when applied to a population-level intervention to enhance colorectal cancer screening. METHODS: In 2013, text-message reminders were sent to a national sample of 50 000 Israeli women and men aged 50 to 74 years following a fecal occult blood test invitation. Participants were randomized into 4 intervention groups (2 interrogative reminders, with or without reference to social context; 2 noninterrogative reminders, with or without social context) and a no-intervention control group...
November 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Takahiro Osuga, Rishu Takimoto, Michihiro Ono, Masahiro Hirakawa, Makoto Yoshida, Yutaka Okagawa, Naoki Uemura, Yohei Arihara, Yasushi Sato, Fumito Tamura, Tsutomu Sato, Satoshi Iyama, Koji Miyanishi, Kohichi Takada, Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Masayoshi Kobune, Junji Kato
BACKGROUND: Fucose is utilized for the modification of different molecules involved in blood group determination, immunological reactions, and signal transduction pathways. We have recently reported that enhanced activity of the fucosyltransferase 3 and/or 6 promoted TGF-ß-mediated epithelial mesenchymal transition and was associated with increased metastatic potential of colorectal cancer (CRC), suggesting that fucose is required by CRC cells. With this in mind, we examined requirement of L-fucose in CRC cells and developed fucose-bound nanoparticles as vehicles for delivery of anticancer drugs specific to CRC...
September 2016: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Louise Rasmussen, Michael Wilhelmsen, Ib Jarle Christensen, Jens Andersen, Lars Nannestad Jørgensen, Morten Rasmussen, Jakob W Hendel, Mogens R Madsen, Jesper Vilandt, Thore Hillig, Michael Klærke, Anna-Marie Bloch Münster, Lars M Andersen, Berit Andersen, Nete Hornung, Erland J Erlandsen, Ali Khalid, Hans Jørgen Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Programs for population screening of colorectal cancer (CRC) have been implemented in several countries with fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) as the preferred platform. However, the major obstacle for a feces-based testing method is the limited compliance that reduces the clinical sensitivity for detection of participants with non-symptomatic CRC. Therefore, research approaches have been initiated to develop screening concepts based on biomarkers in blood. Preliminary results show that protein, genetic, epigenetic, and metabolomic components may be valuable in blood-based screening concepts, particularly when combinations of the various components appear to lead to significant improvements...
2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Cecilia Högberg, Pontus Karling, Jörgen Rutegård, Mikael Lilja
OBJECTIVE: Abdominal complaints are common reasons to consult primary care but they are seldom caused by colorectal cancer (CRC), high-risk adenomas (HRAs), or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Reliable diagnostic aids would be helpful in deciding which patients to refer for bowel imaging. Our aim was to assess the value of a faecal immunochemical test (FIT) and a faecal calprotectin (FC) test in detecting CRC, HRAs and IBD in primary care, and the value of combining these tests with anaemia and iron-deficiency tests...
September 14, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Sandy Buchman, Linda Rozmovits, Richard H Glazier
OBJECTIVE: To investigate overall colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates, patterns in the use of types of CRC screening, and sociodemographic characteristics associated with CRC screening; and to gain insight into physicians' perceptions about and use of fecal occult blood testing [FOBT] and colonoscopy for patients at average risk of CRC. DESIGN: Mixed-methods study using cross-sectional administrative data on patient sociodemographic characteristics and semistructured telephone interviews with physicians...
April 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Jill Tinmouth, Emily T Vella, Nancy N Baxter, Catherine Dubé, Michael Gould, Amanda Hey, Nofisat Ismaila, Bronwen R McCurdy, Lawrence Paszat
Introduction. The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate the evidence for different CRC screening tests and to determine the most appropriate ages of initiation and cessation for CRC screening and the most appropriate screening intervals for selected CRC screening tests in people at average risk for CRC. Methods. Electronic databases were searched for studies that addressed the research objectives. Meta-analyses were conducted with clinically homogenous trials. A working group reviewed the evidence to develop conclusions...
2016: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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