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Functional MRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029362/altered-tdp-43-dependent-splicing-in-hspb8-related-distal-hereditary-motor-neuropathy-and-myofibrillar-myopathy
#1
Andrea Cortese, Matilde Laurà, Carlo Casali, Ichizo Nishino, Yukiko K Hayashi, Stefania Magri, Franco Taroni, Cristiana Stuani, Paola Saveri, Maurizio Moggio, Michela Ripolone, A Prelle, C Pisciotta, A Sagnelli, Anna Pichiecchio, Mary M Reilly, Emanuele Buratti, Davide Pareyson
INTRODUCTION: Mutations in the small heat shock protein 22 gene (HSPB8) have been associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2L, distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) type IIa and, more recently, distal myopathy/myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) with protein aggregates and TDP-43 inclusions. OBJECTIVE: To report a novel family with HSPB8 (K141E) -related dHMN/MFM and to investigate, in a patient muscle biopsy, whether the presence of protein aggregates was paralleled by altered TDP-43 function...
October 13, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028135/predicting-episodic-and-spatial-memory-performance-from-hippocampal-resting-state-functional-connectivity-evidence-for-an-anterior-posterior-division-of-function
#2
Jonas Persson, Eva Stening, Kristin Nordin, Hedvig Söderlund
fMRI studies have identified distinct resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) networks associated with the anterior and posterior hippocampus. However, the functional relevance of these two networks is still largely unknown. Hippocampal lesion studies and task-related fMRI point to a role for the anterior hippocampus in non-spatial episodic memory and the posterior hippocampus in spatial memory. We used Relevance Vector Regression (RVR), a machine-learning method that enables predictions of continuous outcome measures from multivariate patterns of brain imaging data, to test the hypothesis that patterns of whole-brain RSFC associated with the anterior hippocampus predict episodic memory performance, while patterns of whole-brain RSFC associated with the posterior hippocampus predict spatial memory performance...
October 13, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027866/magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-as-treatment-for-intractable-insular-epilepsy-in-children
#3
M Scott Perry, David J Donahue, Saleem I Malik, Cynthia G Keator, Angel Hernandez, Rohit K Reddy, Freedom F Perkins, Mark R Lee, Dave F Clarke
OBJECTIVE Seizure onset within the insula is increasingly recognized as a cause of intractable epilepsy. Surgery within the insula is difficult, with considerable risks, given the rich vascular supply and location near critical cortex. MRI-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (LiTT) provides an attractive treatment option for insular epilepsy, allowing direct ablation of abnormal tissue while sparing nearby normal cortex. Herein, the authors describe their experience using this technique in a large cohort of children undergoing treatment of intractable localization-related epilepsy of insular onset...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027853/intraoperative-test-stimulation-versus-stereotactic-accuracy-as-a-surgical-end-point-a-comparison-of-essential-tremor-outcomes-after-ventral-intermediate-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation
#4
Tsinsue Chen, Zaman Mirzadeh, Kristina M Chapple, Margaret Lambert, Virgilio G H Evidente, Guillermo Moguel-Cobos, Srivadee Oravivattanakul, Padma Mahant, Francisco A Ponce
OBJECTIVE Ventral intermediate nucleus deep brain stimulation (DBS) for essential tremor is traditionally performed with intraoperative test stimulation and conscious sedation, without general anesthesia (GA). Recently, the authors reported retrospective data on 17 patients undergoing DBS after induction of GA with standardized anatomical coordinates on T1-weighted MRI sequences used for indirect targeting. Here, they compare prospectively collected data from essential tremor patients undergoing DBS both with GA and without GA (non-GA)...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027094/multimodal-functional-neuroimaging-by-simultaneous-bold-fmri-and-fiber-optic-calcium-recordings-and-optogenetic-control
#5
REVIEW
Franziska Albers, Lydia Wachsmuth, Timo Mauritz van Alst, Cornelius Faber
Recent developments of optogenetic tools and fluorescence-based calcium recording techniques enable the manipulation and monitoring of neural circuits on a cellular level. Non-invasive imaging of brain networks, however, requires the application of methods such as blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which is commonly used for functional neuroimaging. While BOLD fMRI provides brain-wide non-invasive reading of the hemodynamic response, it is only an indirect measure of neural activity...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026896/tau-and-pet-mri-imaging-biomarkers-for-detecting-and-diagnosing-early-dementia
#6
Yongxia Zhou, Bing Bai
Specific objective of this project is to quantify the neuropathological tau depositions in brain regions and to investigate primary age-related tau pathology and associations with amyloid and glucose-metabolism, neurocognitive tests and MRI metrics. Preliminary results demonstrated higher temporal deposition especially in the hippocampus and the inferior temporal regions compared to mean cortical deposition. Quantitative Braak stage-based regional analyses found highest tau deposition in the Braak stage II in the preclinical samples...
July 2017: Jacobs Journal of Medical Diagnosis and Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026302/ultrasmall-aguix-theranostic-nanoparticles-for-vascular-targeted-interstitial-photodynamic-therapy-of-glioblastoma
#7
Eloïse Thomas, Ludovic Colombeau, Mickaël Gries, Thibaut Peterlini, Clélia Mathieu, Noémie Thomas, Cédric Boura, Céline Frochot, Régis Vanderesse, François Lux, Muriel Barberi-Heyob, Olivier Tillement
Despite combined treatments, glioblastoma outcome remains poor with frequent local recurrences, indicating that a more efficient and local therapy is needed. In this way, vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) could help tumor eradication by destroying its neovessels. In this study, we designed a polysiloxane-based nanoparticle (NP) combining a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, a photosensitizer (PS) and a new ligand peptide motif (KDKPPR) targeting neuropilin-1 (NRP-1), a receptor overexpressed by angiogenic endothelial cells of the tumor vasculature...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025878/elevated-postoperative-endogenous-glp-1-levels-mediate-effects-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-on-neural-responsivity-to-food-cues
#8
Jennifer S Ten Kulve, Dick J Veltman, Victor E A Gerdes, Liselotte van Bloemendaal, Frederik Barkhof, Carolyn F Deacon, Jens J Holst, Madeleine L Drent, Michaela Diamant, Richard G IJzerman
OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that weight reduction and improvements in satiety after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are partly mediated via postoperative neuroendocrine changes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone secreted after food ingestion and is associated with appetite and weight reduction, mediated via effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Secretion of GLP-1 is greatly enhanced after RYGB. We hypothesized that postoperative elevated GLP-1 levels contribute to the improved satiety regulation after RYGB via effects on the CNS...
October 12, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025782/olfactory-bulb-agenesis-with-normal-sexual-hormones
#9
Prayuth Tunsuriyawong, Krit Pongpirul, Tagann Chaisam, Petpring Prajuabpansri
An 18-year-old Caucasian man presented with a lack of sense of surrounding smell. The problem was first noticed when a family member discussed the smell of the food, which he had no idea what it was. The patient had normal development and sexual function, no history of trauma, surgery, chemical exposure or infection. Physical examination revealed no significant abnormalities. Smell threshold test using phenyl-ethyl-alcohol revealed bilateral anosmia. MRI showed bilateral aplastic olfactory bulbs and tracts associated with absent cortical growth of the olfactory sulci and asymmetrical gyrus rectus...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025647/glucose-functionalized-carbon-quantum-dot-containing-organic-radical-for-optical-mr-dual-modality-bioimaging
#10
Xiaodan Lu, Zhide Zhang, Qi Xia, Meirong Hou, Chenggong Yan, Zelong Chen, Yikai Xu, Ruiyuan Liu
The organic paramagnetic compounds nitroxides have great potential as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of glucose modified carbon quantum dot containing 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidinooxy (TEMPO) for targeted bimodal MR/optical imaging of tumor cells. CQD-TEMPO-Glu shows the greatest potentials for bioimaging applications in view of low cytotoxicity, good biocompatibility, green fluorescence emission and high T1 relaxivities. The in vitro MR and optical imaging results confirm enhanced cellular internalization of CQD-TEMPO-Glu in cancer cells through GLUT mediated endocytosis...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025605/comparison-between-carbon-peek-volar-locking-plates-and-titanium-volar-locking-plates-in-the-treatment-of-distal-radius-fractures
#11
Dario Perugia, Matteo Guzzini, Daniele Mazza, Carlo Iorio, Carolina Civitenga, Andrea Ferretti
INTRODUCTION: Unstable intra articular fractures of distal radius are frequently being managed with open reduction and internal fixation. Volar locking plate based on polyetheretherketon (PEEK) polymer has developed lately as an alternative to conventional metallic devices. The advantage of this kind of plates include the lack of metal allergies, radiolucency, low artefacts on MRI or imaging scans and the high resistance associated to loading forces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological results using a new Carbon-PEEK volar locking plate compared with titanium volar locking plates for the treatment of distal radius fractures...
October 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025324/the-effects-of-head-cooling-on-brain-function-during-passive-hyperthermia-an-fmri-study
#12
Yan Xue, Li Li, Shaowen Qian, Kai Liu, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, Bo Li, Qingjun Jiang, Zhuanzhuan Wu, Lexia Du, Gang Sun
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of head-cooling on resting-state spontaneous brain activity during passive hyperthermia. METHODS: An environmental heat exposure was simulated on 16 healthy men under a normal control condition (NC) at 25°C and two hot conditions at 50°C with (HHC) and without (HOT) keeping the head cool, respectively. Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data were acquired under each condition and the values of amplitude low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and z functional connectivity (zFC) were computed to examine regional activity and functional integration, respectively...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025202/clinical-manifestations-of-rathke-s-cleft-cysts-and-their-natural-progression-during-2-years-in-children-and-adolescents
#13
Jo Eun Jung, Juhyun Jin, Mo Kyung Jung, Ahreum Kwon, Hyun Wook Chae, Duk Hee Kim, Ho-Seong Kim
PURPOSE: Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) is an asymptomatic benign lesion. With increased interest in pediatric endocrinology, the prevalence of RCCs in children is also increasing. However, the clinical relevance and proper management of RCC is not well defined in children. Therefore, we investigated the clinical manifestations and radiologic features of RCC in children and adolescents, as well as the natural progression of RCC. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 91 children and adolescents with RCC diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Severance Children's Hospital from January 2006 to December 2015...
September 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024679/short-range-connections-in-the-developmental-connectome-during-typical-and-atypical-brain-maturation
#14
REVIEW
Minhui Ouyang, Huiying Kang, John A Detre, Timothy P L Roberts, Hao Huang
The human brain is remarkably complex with connectivity constituting its basic organizing principle. Although long-range connectivity has been focused on in most research, short-range connectivity is characterized by unique and spatiotemporally heterogeneous dynamics from infancy to adulthood. Alterations in the maturational dynamics of short-range connectivity has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques, especially diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI), resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG), have made quantification of short-range connectivity possible in pediatric populations...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024404/removal-of-sacral-nerve-stimulation-devices-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging-what-happens-next
#15
Jessica C Lloyd, Bradley C Gill, Javier Pizarro-Berdichevsky, Howard B Goldman
INTRODUCTION: Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) devices (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) are not approved to undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of sites other than the head. When MRIs are required, devices are often removed prior to imaging. We reviewed the prevalence of device removal for MRI at a large academic institution and the subsequent clinical course of these patients. METHODS: A retrospective review of all SNM explants from 2009-2015 was performed. Cases explanted for MRI were analyzed to collect demographics, clinical characteristics, and postremoval management...
October 11, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024300/accounting-for-the-role-of-hematocrit-in-between-subject-variations-of-mri-derived-baseline-cerebral-hemodynamic-parameters-and-functional-bold-responses
#16
Feng Xu, Wenbo Li, Peiying Liu, Jun Hua, John J Strouse, James J Pekar, Hanzhang Lu, Peter C M van Zijl, Qin Qin
Baseline hematocrit fraction (Hct) is a determinant for baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) and between-subject variation of Hct thus causes variation in task-based BOLD fMRI signal changes. We first verified in healthy volunteers (n = 12) that Hct values can be derived reliably from venous blood T1 values by comparison with the conventional lab test. Together with CBF measured using phase-contrast MRI, this noninvasive estimation of Hct, instead of using a population-averaged Hct value, enabled more individual determination of oxygen delivery (DO2 ), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2 )...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024242/lanthanide-based-t2ex-and-cest-complexes-provide-new-insights-into-the-design-of-ph-sensitive-mri-agents
#17
Lei Zhang, Andre F Martins, Piyu Zhao, Yunkou Wu, Gyula Tircso, Dean Sherry
A series of Eu3+ and Dy3+ DOTA-tetraamide complexes with four appended primary amine groups were prepared and their CEST and T1/T2 relaxation properties measured as a function of pH. The CEST signals in the Eu3+ complexes show a surprisingly strong CEST signal after the pH was reduced from 8 to 5. The opposite trend was observed for the Dy3+ complexes where the r2ex of bulk water protons increased dramatically from ~1.5 mM-1s-1 to ~13 mM-1s-1, while r1 remained unchanged. A fit of the CEST data (Eu3+ complexes) to Bloch theory and the T2 data (Dy3+ complexes) to Swift-Connick theory provided the proton exchange rates as a function of pH...
October 11, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024175/mapping-the-sequence-of-brain-events-in-response-to-disgusting-food
#18
Jesus Pujol, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Ramón Coronas, Susanna Esteba-Castillo, Mercedes Rigla, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Joan Deus, Ramón Novell, Assumpta Caixàs
Warning signals indicating that a food is potentially dangerous may evoke a response that is not limited to the feeling of disgust. We investigated the sequence of brain events in response to visual representations of disgusting food using a dynamic image analysis. Functional MRI was acquired in 30 healthy subjects while they were watching a movie showing disgusting food scenes interspersed with the scenes of appetizing food. Imaging analysis included the identification of the global brain response and the generation of frame-by-frame activation maps at the temporal resolution of 2 s...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023969/calculating-potential-error-in-sodium-mri-with-respect-to-the-analysis-of-small-objects
#19
Robert W Stobbe, Christian Beaulieu
PURPOSE: To facilitate correct interpretation of sodium MRI measurements, calculation of error with respect to rapid signal decay is introduced and combined with that of spatially correlated noise to assess volume-of-interest (VOI) (23) Na signal measurement inaccuracies, particularly for small objects. METHODS: Noise and signal decay-related error calculations were verified using twisted projection imaging and a specially designed phantom with different sized spheres of constant elevated sodium concentration...
October 11, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023463/learning-to-tie-the-knot-the-acquisition-of-functional-object-representations-by-physical-and-observational-experience
#20
Emily S Cross, Antonia F de C Hamilton, Nichola Rice Cohen, Scott T Grafton
Here we examined neural substrates for physically and observationally learning to construct novel objects, and characterized brain regions associated with each kind of learning using fMRI. Each participant was assigned a training partner, and for five consecutive days practiced tying one group of knots ("tied" condition) or watched their partner tie different knots ("watched" condition) while a third set of knots remained untrained. Functional MRI was obtained prior to and immediately following the week of training while participants performed a visual knot-matching task...
2017: PloS One
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