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Functional MRI

Yuko Hakamata, Shinya Mizukami, Shotaro Komi, Eisuke Sato, Yoshiya Moriguchi, Yuki Motomura, Kazushi Maruo, Shuhei Izawa, Yoshiharu Kim, Takashi Hanakawa, Yusuke Inoue, Hirokuni Tagaya
INTRODUCTION: Attentional bias modification (ABM) alleviates anxiety by moderating biased attentional processing toward threat; however, its neural mechanisms remain unclear. We examined how ABM changes functional connectivity (FC) and functional network measures, leading to anxiety reduction. METHODS: Fifty-four healthy anxious individuals received either ABM or sham training for 1 month in a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Anxious traits, attentional control, and attentional bias were assessed...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
K A Smitha, K M Arun, P G Rajesh, Suresh E Joel, Ramesh Venkatesan, Bejoy Thomas, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ensuring patient comfort and compliance by emphasizing reduced time frame for image acquisition, without compromising image quality is the key aspect with functional MRI examination. Multiband resting state fMRI (MB-rsfMRI) is a fairly new technique that potentially shortens MR image acquisition time by providing increased number of time points. The study aims to compare signal characteristics as well as the functional connectivity using conventional resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) with that of MB-rsfMRI technique...
June 18, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Sirio Cocozza, Teresa Costabile, Enrico Tedeschi, Filomena Abate, Camilla Russo, Agnese Liguori, Walter Del Vecchio, Francesca Paciello, Mario Quarantelli, Alessandro Filla, Arturo Brunetti, Francesco Saccà
Objective: The aim of this study was to perform the first resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) analysis in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) patients to assess possible brain functional connectivity (FC) differences in these patients, and test their correlations with neuropsychological performances. Methods: In total, 24 FRDA patients (M/F: 15/9, mean age 31.3 ± 15.0) and 24 healthy controls (HC; M/F: 15/9, mean age 30.7 ± 15.5) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study...
June 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Thomas Ruytenberg, Berit M Verbist, Jordi Vonk-Van Oosten, Eleftheria Astreinidou, Elisabeth V Sjögren, Andrew G Webb
As the benefits, limitations, and contraindications of transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) in glottic carcinoma treatments become better defined, pretreatment imaging has become more important to assess the case-specific suitability of TLM and to predict functional outcomes both for treatment consideration and patient counseling. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the preferred modality to image such laryngeal tumors, even though imaging the larynx using MRI can be difficult. The first challenge is that there are no commercial radiofrequency (RF) coils that are specifically designed for imaging the larynx, and performance in terms of coverage and signal-to-noise ratio is compromised using general-purpose RF coils...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Brian J Nieman, Matthijs C van Eede, Shoshana Spring, Jun Dazai, R Mark Henkelman, Jason P Lerch
This article describes a detailed set of protocols for mouse brain imaging using MRI. We focus primarily on measuring changes in neuroanatomy, and provide both instructions for mouse preparation and details on image acquisition, image processing, and statistics. Practical details as well as theoretical considerations are provided. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
June 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Stavros I Dimitriadis, Dimitris Liparas
Neuroinformatics is a fascinating research field that applies computational models and analytical tools to high dimensional experimental neuroscience data for a better understanding of how the brain functions or dysfunctions in brain diseases. Neuroinformaticians work in the intersection of neuroscience and informatics supporting the integration of various sub-disciplines (behavioural neuroscience, genetics, cognitive psychology, etc.) working on brain research. Neuroinformaticians are the pathway of information exchange between informaticians and clinicians for a better understanding of the outcome of computational models and the clinical interpretation of the analysis...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Anna Lisowska, Islem Rekik
Diagnosis of brain dementia, particularly early mild cognitive impairment (eMCI), is critical for early intervention to prevent the onset of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), where cognitive decline is severe and irreversible. There is a large body of machine-learning based research investigating how dementia alters brain connectivity, mainly using structural (derived from diffusion MRI) and functional (derived from resting-state functional MRI) brain connectomic data. However, how early dementia affects cortical brain connections in morphology remains largely unexplored...
June 21, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Bidhan Lamichhane, Mark A McDaniel, Emily R Waldum, Todd S Braver
The capability to remember and execute intentions in the future - termed prospective memory (PM) - may be of special significance for older adults to enable successful completion of important activities of daily living. Despite the importance of this cognitive function, mixed findings have been obtained regarding age-related decline in PM, and, currently, there is limited understanding of potential contributing mechanisms. In the current study, older (N=41) and younger adults (N=47) underwent task-functional MRI during performance of PM conditions that encouraged either spontaneous retrieval (Focal) or sustained attentional monitoring (Non-focal) to detect PM targets...
June 20, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Mark B Shtark, Lyudmila I Kozlova, Dmitriy D Bezmaternykh, Mikhail Ye Mel'nikov, Andrey A Savelov, Estate M Sokhadze
Neural networks interaction was studied in healthy men (20-35 years old) who underwent 20 sessions of EEG biofeedback training outside the MRI scanner, with concurrent fMRI-EEG scans at the beginning, middle, and end of the course. The study recruited 35 subjects for EEG biofeedback, but only 18 of them were considered as "successful" in self-regulation of target EEG bands during the whole course of training. Results of fMRI analysis during EEG biofeedback are reported only for these "successful" trainees...
June 2018: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Paolo Ricchi, Antonella Meloni, Laura Pistoia, Anna Spasiano, Alessandra Spiga, Massimo Allò, Maria Rita Gamberini, Roberto Lisi, Saveria Campisi, Angelo Peluso, Massimiliano Missere, Stefania Renne, Maurizio Mangione, Vincenzo Positano, Alessia Pepe
We prospectively assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the advantages of desferrioxamine (DFO) with respect to the absence of chelation therapy in non transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) patients. We considered 18 patients non-chelated and 33 patients who received DFO alone between the two MRI scans. Iron overload was assessed by the T2* technique. Biventricular function parameters were quantified by cine sequences. No patient treated with DFO had cardiac iron. At baseline, only one non-chelated patient showed a pathological heart T2* value (< 20 ms) and he recovered at the follow-up...
June 21, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Aaron M Hawkins, Lalith S B Jesuthasan, Deepak L Vardesh
We report a case of severe lupus myocarditis with rapid, acute deterioration to cardiogenic shock and multiorgan failure, highlighting the importance of early identification and treatment of acute presentations in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. A 31-year-old woman with previously diagnosed subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus initially presented with abdominal pain and frank per-rectal bleeding. She deteriorated rapidly with type 1 respiratory failure and acute kidney injury requiring dialysis secondary to acute cardiac failure with a prolonged intensive care unit admission, over a month...
June 19, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Yoon-Sang Oh, Joong-Seok Kim, Eo-Jin Hwang, Chul Hyoung Lyoo
INTRODUCTION: Olfactory dysfunction is a sensitive biomarker of neurodegeneration and a cardinal premotor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although several non-motor symptoms of PD have been correlated with decreased dopamine transporter uptake, olfactory dysfunction and reduced dopamine transporter uptake have not been widely investigated in PD. In this study, we aimed to identify the dopamine transporter status of the corpus striatum and thalamus using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided spatial normalization method in patients with PD according to olfactory function...
June 14, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Akira Toyomura, Koichi Yokosawa, Atsushi Shimojo, Tetsunoshin Fujii, Shinya Kuriki
BACKGROUND: Locomotion, which is one of the most basic motor functions, is critical for performing various daily-life activities. Despite its essential function, assessment of brain activity during lower-limb movement is still limited because of the constraints of existing brain imaging methods. NEW METHOD: Here, we describe an MR-compatible, cylindrical treadmill device that allows participants to perform stepping movements on an MRI scanner table. The device was constructed from wood and all of the parts were handmade by the authors...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Claudia Brogna, Lara Cristiano, Tommaso Tartaglione, Tommaso Verdolotti, Lavinia Fanelli, Luana Ficociello, Giorgio Tasca, Roberta Battini, Giorgia Coratti, Nicola Forcina, Roberto De Santis, Giulia Norcia, Sara Carnicella, Cesare Colosimo, Pierre Carlier, Marika Pane, Eugenio Mercuri
The aim of the study was to evaluate the spectrum of upper limb functional activities and imaging finding in a cohort of patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Thirty-one patients of age between 5 and 29 years were included in the study (17 ambulant and 14 non-ambulant). They were all assessed using the Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) test and muscle MRI of shoulder, arm and forearm in order to establish if the functional scores obtained at shoulder, mid and distal level related to specific patterns of involvement in each upper limb segment on muscle MRI...
2018: PloS One
Lori L Ploutz-Snyder, Meghan Downs, Elizabeth Goetchius, Brent Crowell, Kirk L English, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Jeffrey Ryder, E Lichar Dillon, Melinda Sheffield-Moore, Jessica M Scott
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the safety and effectiveness of a new integrated aerobic and resistance exercise training prescription (SPRINT) using two different sets of exercise equipment: a suite of large ISS-like exercise equipment similar to what is found on the International Space Station (ISS) and a single device with aerobic and resistance exercise capability in the spaceflight analog of bed rest (BR). METHODS: Subjects (n=34) completed 70 days of 6° head down tilt BR: 9 were randomized to remain sedentary (CONT), 9 to exercise training using traditional equipment (EX), 8 to exercise using traditional equipment and low dose testosterone supplementation (ExT), and 8 to exercise using a combined resistance and aerobic flywheel device (FLY)...
March 26, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Decai Tian, Xiaodong Zhu, Rong Xue, Peng Zhao, Yuanrong Yao
History In November 2012, a previously healthy 31-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a 2-month history of right-sided numbness, diplopia, and intermittent nausea and dizziness. She did not have a history of fever, weight loss, headache, photophobia, seizure, or extremity weakness. Physical examination revealed left abduction limitation and right-sided hypoesthesia. Kernig and Brudzinski signs were absent, and pathergy test results were negative. Laboratory evaluation revealed normal complete and differential blood counts, normal serum chemistry, and normal immune function...
July 2018: Radiology
Cathrin M Buetefisch, Kathleen Pirog Revill, Marc W Haut, Greg M Kowalski, Miles Wischnewski, Marissa Pifer, Samir R Belagaje, Fadi Nahab, Derin J Cobia, Xiaoping Hu, Daniel Drake, Gerald Hobbs
BACKGROUND: Stroke often involves primary motor cortex (M1) and its corticospinal projections (CST). As hand function is critically dependent on these structures, its recovery is often incomplete. The neuronal substrate supporting affected hand function is not well understood but likely involves reorganized M1 and CST of the lesioned hemisphere (M1IL and CSTIL ). OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that affected hand function in chronic stroke is related to structural and functional reorganization of M1IL and CSTIL ...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Ruofeng Yin, Pengyu Chang, Qingsan Zhu, Fei Cheng, Baolin Zhao, Rui Gu, Bo-Yin Zhang
RATIONALE: Traumatic nucleus pulposus sequestration (TNPS) usually occurs concurrently with severe destruction of bone. TNPS combined with a slight thoracolumbar flexion- distraction fracture, triggering a disastrous nerve injury, has rarely been reported. Due to the atypical radiologic manifestations, such a patient can easily be overlooked. PATIENT CONCERNS: Hereby, we present a TNPS patient as well as a slight thoracolumbar flexion-distraction fracture and serious neurologic symptoms...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jeffrey McCormick, Sergey Korchak, Salvatore Mamone, Yavuz Ertas, Zhiyu Liu, Luke Verlinsky, Shawn Wagner, Stefan Gloeggler, Louis Bouchard
Hyperpolarization techniques are key to extending the capabilities of MRI for the investigation of structural, functional and metabolic processes in vivo. Recent heterogeneous catalyst development has produced high polarization in water using parahydrogen with biologically relevant contrast agents. Here we introduce a novel heterogeneous ligand-stabilized Rh catalyst capable of achieving 15N polarization of 12.2 ± 2.7% by hydrogenation of neurine into a choline derivative. This is the highest 15N polarization of any parahydrogen method in water to date...
June 19, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Cristina Rosazza, Francesco Deleo, Ludovico D'Incerti, Luigi Antelmi, Giovanni Tringali, Giuseppe Didato, Maria G Bruzzone, Flavio Villani, Francesco Ghielmetti
Objective: Mechanisms of motor plasticity are critical to maintain motor functions after cerebral damage. This study explores the mechanisms of motor reorganization occurring before and after surgery in four patients with drug-refractory epilepsy candidate to disconnective surgery. Methods: We studied four patients with early damage, who underwent tailored hemispheric surgery in adulthood, removing the cortical motor areas and disconnecting the corticospinal tract (CST) from the affected hemisphere. Motor functions were assessed clinically, with functional MRI (fMRI) tasks of arm and leg movement and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) before and after surgery with assessments of up to 3 years...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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