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Functional MRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102508/simvastatin-promotes-hematoma-absorption-and-reduces-hydrocephalus-following-intraventricular-hemorrhage-in-part-by-upregulating-cd36
#1
Qianwei Chen, Xia Shi, Qiang Tan, Zhou Feng, Yuelong Wang, Qiaoying Yuan, Yihao Tao, Jianbo Zhang, Liang Tan, Gang Zhu, Hua Feng, Zhi Chen
We previously found that hematoma worsens hydrocephalus after intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) via increasing iron deposition and aggravating ependymal cilia injury; therefore, promoting hematoma absorption may be a promising strategy for IVH. Recently, some investigations imply that simvastatin has the ability of accelerating hematoma absorption. Thus, this study was designed to examine the efficacy of simvastatin for IVH in rats. Intracerebral hemorrhage with ventricular extension was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after autologous blood injection...
January 19, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102196/whole-brain-3d-mapping-of-human-neural-transplant-innervation
#2
Jonas Doerr, Martin Karl Schwarz, Dirk Wiedermann, Anke Leinhaas, Alina Jakobs, Florian Schloen, Inna Schwarz, Michael Diedenhofen, Nils Christian Braun, Philipp Koch, Daniel A Peterson, Ulrich Kubitscheck, Mathias Hoehn, Oliver Brüstle
While transplantation represents a key tool for assessing in vivo functionality of neural stem cells and their suitability for neural repair, little is known about the integration of grafted neurons into the host brain circuitry. Rabies virus-based retrograde tracing has developed into a powerful approach for visualizing synaptically connected neurons. Here, we combine this technique with light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to visualize transplanted cells and connected host neurons in whole-mouse brain preparations...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101825/neurosarcoidosis-clinical-presentations-and-changing-treatment-patterns-in-an-irish-caucasian-population
#3
K O'Connell, L Williams, J Jones, D J H McCabe, D Murphy, R Killeen, N Tubridy, S O'Riordan, C McGuigan
BACKGROUND: The clinical manifestations of neurosarcoidosis are highly variable and it should be considered as a potential differential diagnosis in any neurological presentation. AIM: This study was designed to describe the clinical, diagnostic, and treatment patterns and functional outcome in a Caucasian neurosarcoidosis population. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis was performed on prospectively recorded data in patients attending our neurology clinic between 2008 and 2014 with a diagnosis of definite or probable neurosarcoidosis according to Zajiek criteria...
January 18, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101804/white-matter-hyperintensities-correlate-to-cognition-and-fiber-tract-integrity-in-older-adults-with-hiv
#4
Christa Watson, Edgar Busovaca, Jessica M Foley, I Elaine Allen, Christopher G Schwarz, Neda Jahanshad, Talia M Nir, Pardis Esmaeili-Firidouni, Benedetta Milanini, Howard Rosen, Owen T Carmichael, Paul M Thompson, Victor G Valcour
Our aim was to examine the clinical relevance of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in HIV. We used an automated approach to quantify WMH volume in HIV seropositive (HIV+; n = 65) and HIV seronegative (HIV-; n = 29) adults over age 60. We compared WMH volumes between HIV+ and HIV- groups in cross-sectional and multiple time-point analyses. We also assessed correlations between WMH volumes and cardiovascular, HIV severity, cognitive scores, and diffusion tensor imaging variables. Serostatus groups did not differ in WMH volume, but HIV+ participants had less cerebral white matter (mean: 470...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101313/a-young-adult-with-unintended-acute-intravenous-iron-intoxication-treated-with-oral-chelation-the-use-of-liver-ferriscan-for-diagnosing-and-monitoring-tissue-iron-load
#5
Mohamed Yassin, Ashraf T Soliman, Vincenzo De Sanctis, Abbas Moustafa, Sandra Abou Samaan, Abdulqadir Nashwan
Acute iron intoxication (FeI) in humans has not been adequately studied. The manifestation of FeI, defined as a serum iron concentration >300 μg/dL (55 μmol/L) within 12 hours of ingestion, include various symptoms appearing in progressive stages. Systemic toxicity is expected with an intake of 60 mg/kg. A 27-year-old female nurse presented with unintended acute intravenous iron intoxication (FeI) a week after self-injecting herself with 20 ampoules of IV iron (4,000 mg elemental iron, 60 mg/kg). She had stable vital signs and mild hepatic tenderness...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100688/the-use-of-oxytocin-to-improve-feeding-and-social-skills-in-infants-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#6
Maïthé Tauber, Kader Boulanouar, Gwenaelle Diene, Sophie Çabal-Berthoumieu, Virginie Ehlinger, Pascale Fichaux-Bourin, Catherine Molinas, Sandy Faye, Marion Valette, Jeanne Pourrinet, Catie Cessans, Sylvie Viaux-Sauvelon, Céline Bascoul, Antoine Guedeney, Patric Delhanty, Vincent Geenen, Henri Martens, Françoise Muscatelli, David Cohen, Angèle Consoli, Pierre Payoux, Catherine Arnaud, Jean-Pierre Salles
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) display poor feeding and social skills as infants and fewer hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT)-producing neurons were documented in adults. Animal data demonstrated that early treatment with OXT restores sucking after birth. Our aim is to reproduce these data in infants with PWS. METHODS: We conducted a phase 2 escalating dose study of a short course (7 days) of intranasal OXT administration. We enrolled 18 infants with PWS under 6 months old (6 infants in each step) who received 4 IU of OXT either every other day, daily, or twice daily...
January 18, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100076/precuneus-structure-changes-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#7
Robert Haussmann, Annett Werner, Antonia Gruschwitz, Antje Osterrath, Jan Lange, Katharina L Donix, Jennifer Linn, Markus Donix
Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Due to their prominent memory impairment, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often focuses on the hippocampal region. However, recent positron-emission tomography data suggest that within a network of frontal and temporal changes, patients with aMCI show metabolic alterations in the precuneus, a key region for higher cognitive functions. Using high-resolution MRI and whole-brain cortical thickness analyses in 28 patients with aMCI and 25 healthy individuals, we wanted to investigate whether structural changes in the precuneus would be associated with cortical thickness reductions in frontal and temporal brain regions in patients with aMCI...
February 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099278/recurrent-median-nerve-injury-in-a-weight-lifter
#8
Michael A Worobel, Bobby Alexander, Mark Hirsch, Vu Nguyen
Recurrent median neuropathy is an uncommon injury that can be commonly mistaken for other pathological causes. It is important to be aware of the potential causes and symptoms of injury as delay in diagnosis can lead to permanent decrease in hand function and disability. This case is a description of a 33-year-old male patient who previously presented with radicular symptoms and had complete resolution of his pain after a C7 selective nerve root block. Several months after presentation, he developed significant thenar atrophy, localized pain, and weakness associated with weight lifting activities...
February 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099068/same-story-different-story
#9
Yaara Yeshurun, Stephen Swanson, Erez Simony, Janice Chen, Christina Lazaridi, Christopher J Honey, Uri Hasson
Differences in people's beliefs can substantially impact their interpretation of a series of events. In this functional MRI study, we manipulated subjects' beliefs, leading two groups of subjects to interpret the same narrative in different ways. We found that responses in higher-order brain areas-including the default-mode network, language areas, and subsets of the mirror neuron system-tended to be similar among people who shared the same interpretation, but different from those of people with an opposing interpretation...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098938/towards-prognostic-biomarkers-from-bold-fluctuations-to-differentiate-a-first-epileptic-seizure-from-new-onset-epilepsy
#10
Lalit Gupta, Rick Janssens, Mariëlle C G Vlooswijk, Rob P W Rouhl, Anton de Louw, Albert P Aldenkamp, Shrutin Ulman, René M H Besseling, Paul A M Hofman, Vivianne H van Kranen-Mastenbroek, Danny M Hilkman, Jacobus F A Jansen, Walter H Backes
OBJECTIVE: The diagnosis of epilepsy cannot be reliably made prior to a patient's second seizure in most cases. Therefore, adequate diagnostic tools are needed to differentiate subjects with a first seizure from those with a seizure preceding the onset of epilepsy. The objective was to explore spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fluctuations in subjects with a first-ever seizure and patients with new-onset epilepsy (NOE), and to find characteristic biomarkers for seizure recurrence after the first seizure...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096729/advanced-mri-for-pediatric-brain-tumors-with-emphasis-on-clinical-benefits
#11
REVIEW
Hyun Woo Goo, Young-Shin Ra
Conventional anatomic brain MRI is often limited in evaluating pediatric brain tumors, the most common solid tumors and a leading cause of death in children. Advanced brain MRI techniques have great potential to improve diagnostic performance in children with brain tumors and overcome diagnostic pitfalls resulting from diverse tumor pathologies as well as nonspecific or overlapped imaging findings. Advanced MRI techniques used for evaluating pediatric brain tumors include diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, perfusion imaging, spectroscopy, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096718/diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-in-the-era-of-precision-oncology-how-imaging-is-helpful
#12
REVIEW
Hina J Shah, Abhishek R Keraliya, Jyothi P Jagannathan, Sree Harsha Tirumani, Vikram R Lele, Pamela J DiPiro
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common histological subtype of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. As treatments continues to evolve, so do imaging strategies, and positron emission tomography (PET) has emerged as the most important imaging tool to guide oncologists in the diagnosis, staging, response assessment, relapse/recurrence detection,and therapeutic decision making of DLBCL. Other imaging modalities including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and conventional radiography are also used in the evaluation of lymphoma...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096130/early-life-nutrition-and-neurodevelopment-use-of-the-piglet-as-a-translational-model
#13
REVIEW
Austin T Mudd, Ryan N Dilger
Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096104/recent-developments-in-the-surgical-management-of-paediatric-epilepsy
#14
REVIEW
Vijay M Ravindra, Matthew T Sweney, Robert J Bollo
Among the 1% of children affected by epilepsy, failure of pharmacological therapy and early age of seizure onset can lead to worse long-term cognitive outcomes, mental health disorders and impaired functional status. Surgical management often improves functional and cognitive outcomes in children with medically refractory epilepsy, especially when seizure remission is achieved. However, surgery remains underused in children with drug-resistant epilepsy, creating a large treatment gap. Several recent innovations have led to considerable improvement in surgical technique, including the recent development of minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic techniques such as stereotactic EEG, transcranial magnetic stimulation, MRI-guided laser ablation, as well as novel paradigms of neurostimulation...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095924/sonolysis-in-prevention-of-brain-infarctions-during-internal-carotid-endarterectomy-sonobirdie-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Tomáš Hrbáč, David Netuka, Vladimír Beneš, Vladimír Nosáľ, Petra Kešnerová, Aleš Tomek, Táňa Fadrná, Vladimír Beneš, Jiří Fiedler, Vladimír Přibáň, Miroslav Brozman, Kateřina Langová, Roman Herzig, David Školoudík
BACKGROUND: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a beneficial procedure for selected patients with an internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. Surgical risk of CEA varies from between 2 and 15%. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of sonolysis (continual transcranial Doppler monitoring, TCD) using a 2-MHz diagnostic probe with maximal diagnostic energy on the reduction of the incidence of stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA) and brain infarction detected using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by the activation of the endogenous fibrinolytic system during CEA...
January 17, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095899/what-is-the-relationship-between-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-status-and-the-neuroradiological-correlates-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-in-adults-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#16
Clark Funnell, Mary M Doyle-Waters, Samuel Yip, Thalia Field
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is a common cause of stroke, dementia, and functional decline. In recent years, neuroradiologic correlates of CSVD have been identified. These imaging findings, best characterized on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), include some combination of white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, enlarged perivascular spaces, and cerebral atrophy. Though some cohorts have reported that participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), an important risk factor for CSVD, may have a distinct neuroradiologic phenotype, this relationship is not well-characterized...
January 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094824/structural-neuroimaging-in-polysubstance-users
#17
COMMENT
Dieter J Meyerhoff
The simultaneous and/or concurrent use of licit and illicit substances (polysubstance use, PSU) is most common today. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been applied extensively to study individuals ostensibly using a single substance. These studies have produced a picture of regional gray matter and white matter alterations with each substance or class of substances. Very few studies measured regional brain morphometry in today's polysubstance users. This limited data suggest morphometric alterations with PSU that are not simply additive but often different from those of monosubstance users...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093636/non-surgical-treatment-of-pubic-overload-and-groin-pain-in-amateur-football-players-a-prospective-double-blinded-randomised-controlled-study
#18
M Schöberl, L Prantl, O Loose, J Zellner, P Angele, F Zeman, M Spreitzer, M Nerlich, W Krutsch
PURPOSE: The incidence of groin pain in athletes is steadily increasing. Symptomatic pubic overload with groin pain and aseptic osteitis pubis represent well-known and frequently misdiagnosed overuse injuries in athletes. This study investigated the benefits of standardised non-surgical treatment for swift return-to-football. METHODS: In a prospective double-blinded controlled study, 143 amateur football players with groin pain as well as radiological signs and clinical symptoms of pubic overload were analysed for 1 year...
January 16, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093360/ultra-high-field-mri-advancing-systems-neuroscience-towards-mesoscopic-human-brain-function
#19
Serge O Dumoulin, Alessio Fracasso, Wietske van der Zwaag, Jeroen C W Siero, Natalia Petridou
Human MRI scanners at ultra-high magnetic field strengths of 7 T and higher are increasingly available to the neuroscience community. A key advantage brought by ultra-high field MRI is the possibility to increase the spatial resolution at which data is acquired, with little reduction in image quality. This opens a new set of opportunities for neuroscience, allowing investigators to map the human cortex at an unprecedented level of detail. In this review, we present recent work that capitalizes on the increased signal-to-noise ratio available at ultra-high field and discuss the theoretical advances with a focus on sensory and motor systems neuroscience...
January 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093049/efficient-variational-approach-to-multimodal-registration-of%C3%A2-anatomical%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-functional-intra-patient-tumorous-brain-data
#20
Alvar-Ginés Legaz-Aparicio, Rafael Verdú-Monedero, Jorge Larrey-Ruiz, Juan Morales-Sánchez, Fernando López-Mir, Valery Naranjo, Ángela Bernabéu
This paper addresses the functional localization of intra-patient images of the brain. Functional images of the brain (fMRI and PET) provide information about brain function and metabolism whereas anatomical images (MRI and CT) supply the localization of structures with high spatial resolution. The goal is to find the geometric correspondence between functional and anatomical images in order to complement and fuse the information provided by each imaging modality. The proposed approach is based on a variational formulation of the image registration problem in the frequency domain...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
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