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Functional MRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823099/evidence-of-dysexecutive-syndrome-in-patients-with-acromegaly
#1
Shaobo Shan, Lingling Fang, Jia Huang, Raymond C K Chan, Guijun Jia, Weiqing Wan
PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore different aspects of executive function in patients with acromegaly and investigate the cause of dysexecutive syndrome in these patients. METHODS: We conducted five typical executive function tests (Stroop test, verbal fluency [VF] test, Hayling Sentence Completion Test [HSCT], N-back test, and Sustained Attention to Response Task [SART]) on 42 acromegalic patients and 42 strictly matched healthy controls. Comparative analyses were conducted for five major executive function domains...
August 19, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823023/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-and-white-matter-abnormalities-among-combat-exposed-veterans
#2
Kirstin Aschbacher, Synthia H Mellon, Owen M Wolkowitz, Clare Henn-Haase, Rachel Yehuda, Janine D Flory, Linda M Bierer, Duna Abu-Amara, Charles R Marmar, Susanne G Mueller
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with abnormalities in functional connectivity of a specific cortico-limbic network; however, less is known about white matter abnormalities providing structural connections for this network. This study investigated whether the diagnosis and symptoms of PTSD are associated with alterations in fractional anisotropy (FA), an index reflecting white matter organization, across six, a priori-defined tracts. White matter FA was quantified by diffusion tensor imaging using 3 T-MRI among 57 male, combat-exposed veterans with no history of moderate to severe head injuries or current alcohol dependence: 31 met criteria for PTSD and 26 were demographically comparable, combat-exposed controls without PTSD...
August 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822792/imaging-assessment-of-fibrodysplasia-ossificans-progressiva-qualitative-quantitative-and-questionable
#3
Mona Al Mukaddam, Chamith S Rajapakse, Robert J Pignolo, Frederick S Kaplan, Stacy E Smith
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an ultra-rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder of heterotopic ossification (HO) characterized by skeletal anomalies and episodic soft tissue swelling (flare-ups) that can transform into heterotopic bone. The progressive development of heterotopic bone and progressive arthropathy leads to significant limitation of mobility. This paper will review various imaging modalities used in evaluating episodic soft tissue swelling (flare-ups), heterotopic bone and skeletal anomalies...
August 16, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821746/neural-circuitry-governing-anxious-individuals-mis-allocation-of-working-memory-to-threat
#4
Daniel M Stout, Alexander J Shackman, Walker S Pedersen, Tara A Miskovich, Christine L Larson
Dispositional anxiety is a trait-like phenotype that confers increased risk for a range of debilitating neuropsychiatric disorders. Like many patients with anxiety disorders, individuals with elevated levels of dispositional anxiety are prone to intrusive and distressing thoughts in the absence of immediate threat. Recent electrophysiological research suggests that these symptoms are rooted in the mis-allocation of working memory (WM) resources to threat-related information. Here, functional MRI was used to identify the network of brain regions that support WM for faces and to quantify the allocation of neural resources to threat-related distracters in 81 young adults...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821687/mri-substrates-of-sustained-attention-system-and-cognitive-impairment-in-pediatric-ms-patients
#5
Ermelinda De Meo, Lucia Moiola, Angelo Ghezzi, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Ruggero Capra, Maria Pia Amato, Elisabetta Pagani, Agnese Fiorino, Lorena Pippolo, Maria C Pera, Giancarlo Comi, Andrea Falini, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
OBJECTIVE: To explore the structural and functional integrity of the sustained attention system in patients with pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) and its effect on cognitive impairment. METHODS: We enrolled 57 patients with pediatric MS and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs). Patients with >3 abnormal tests at neuropsychological evaluation were classified as cognitively impaired (CI). Sustained attention system activity was studied with fMRI during the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CCPT)...
August 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821668/sensory-biased-and-multiple-demand-processing-in-human-lateral-frontal-cortex
#6
Abigail L Noyce, Nishmar Cestero, Samantha W Michalka, Barbara G Shinn-Cunningham, David C Somers
The functionality of much of human lateral frontal cortex (LFC) has been characterized as 'multiple demand' as these regions appear to support a broad range of cognitive tasks. In contrast to this domain-general account, recent evidence indicates that portions of LFC are consistently selective for sensory modality. Michalka et al. (2015) reported two bilateral regions that are biased for visual attention, superior precentral sulcus (sPCS) and inferior precentral sulcus (iPCS), interleaved with two bilateral regions that are biased for auditory attention, transverse gyrus intersecting precentral sulcus (tgPCS) and caudal inferior frontal sulcus (cIFS)...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821235/hippocampus-and-amygdala-radiomic-biomarkers-for-the-study-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Ahmad Chaddad, Christian Desrosiers, Lama Hassan, Camel Tanougast
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests the presence of neuroanatomical abnormalities in subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Identifying anatomical correlates could thus prove useful for the automated diagnosis of ASD. Radiomic analyses based on MRI texture features have shown a great potential for characterizing differences occurring from tissue heterogeneity, and for identifying abnormalities related to these differences. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated the link between image texture and ASD...
July 11, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820625/multimodal-image-analysis-of-the-retina-in-hunter-syndrome-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii-case-report
#8
Isadora Darriba Macedo Salvucci, Simone Finzi, Maria Kiyoko Oyamada, Chong Ae Kim, Sérgio Luis Gianotti Pimentel
INTRODUCTION: We report a case of retinal and posterior ocular findings in a 33-year-old man diagnosed with Hunter syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis type II) in a multimodal imaging way. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient was complaining of blurred night vision for the past 3 years. He had not received any systemic treatment for Hunter syndrome. Vision acuity was 20/20 in both eyes and corneas were clear. Fundus examination revealed bilateral crowded and hyperemic optic nerve heads (elevated in the ocular ultrasound) and areas of subretinal hypopigmentation...
August 18, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820624/retinopathy-and-optic-atrophy-expanding-the-phenotypic-spectrum-of-pathogenic-variants-in-the-aars2-gene
#9
Jason H Peragallo, Stephanie Keller, Marjo S van der Knaap, Bruno P Soares, Suma P Shankar
BACKGROUND: Optic atrophy may be the sequela of optic nerve injury due to any insult, including isolated and syndromic genetic diseases. Alanyl-tRNA synthetase 2 (AARS2) pathogenic variants have been reported to cause leukodystrophy with ovarian failure, and cardiomyopathy (#615889) as well as combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-8 (#614096). We report a young child who presented with decreased vision due to optic atrophy and was found to harbor missense variants in the AARS2 gene expanding the phenotypic expression of the AARS2 gene...
August 18, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820547/incidence-and-clinical-impact-of-cerebral-lesions-after-the-mitraclip%C3%A3-%C3%A2-procedure
#10
Sebastian Barth, Karsten Hamm, Stefan Fodor, Wilko Reents, Sebastian Kerber, Philipp Halbfass, Martina B Hautmann, Bernhard Schieffer, Hassan Soda
BACKGROUND: Clinically silent brain injury detected with cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is well known after various cardiovascular interventions. Thus far, only one study has examined the periprocedural risk of cerebral ischemic events in patients undergoing percutaneous mitral valve reconstruction. The study aim was to examine the incidence and clinical impact of cerebral embolic events in patients undergoing percutaneous mitral valve reconstruction using the MitraClip® system...
March 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820278/does-additional-biceps-augmentation-improve-rotator-cuff-healing-and-clinical-outcomes-in-anterior-l-shaped-rotator-cuff-tears-clinical-comparisons-with-arthroscopic-partial-repair
#11
Yoon Sang Jeon, Juyeob Lee, Rag Gyu Kim, Young-Won Ko, Sang-Jin Shin
BACKGROUND: The repair of anterior L-shaped tears is usually difficult because of the lack of anterior rotator cuff tendon to cover the footprint. The biceps tendon is usually exposed from the retracted anterolateral corner of the torn tendon and can be easily used to augment rotator cuff repair. Hypothesis/Purpose: This study compared the clinical outcomes of the biceps augmentation technique with those of partial tendon repair for the arthroscopic treatment of large anterior L-shaped rotator cuff tears to evaluate the role of additional biceps augmentation in tendon healing...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820271/cam-deformities-and-limited-hip-range-of-motion-are-associated-with-early-osteoarthritic-changes-in-adolescent-athletes-a-prospective-matched-cohort-study
#12
Cody C Wyles, Germán A Norambuena, Benjamin M Howe, Dirk R Larson, Bruce A Levy, Brandon J Yuan, Robert T Trousdale, Rafael J Sierra
BACKGROUND: The natural history of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) remains incompletely understood. In particular, there is limited documentation of joint damage in adolescent patients with limited range of motion (LROM) of the hip, which is commonly associated with FAI. PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiographs, and clinical examinations over 5 years in a group of athletes from a wide variety of sports with asymptomatic LROM of the hip compared with matched controls...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819140/enhancement-of-perivascular-spaces-in-7%C3%A2-t-mr-image-using-haar-transform-of-non-local-cubes-and-block-matching-filtering
#13
Yingkun Hou, Sang Hyun Park, Qian Wang, Jun Zhang, Xiaopeng Zong, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen
Perivascular spaces (PVSs) in brain have a close relationship with typical neurological diseases. The quantitative studies of PVSs are meaningful but usually difficult, due to their thin and weak signals and also background noise in the 7 T brain magnetic resonance images (MRI). To clearly distinguish the PVSs in the 7 T MRI, we propose a novel PVS enhancement method based on the Haar transform of non-local cubes. Specifically, we extract a certain number of cubes from a small neighbor to form a cube group, and then perform Haar transform on each cube group...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818998/lower-body-negative-pressure-reduces-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-during-head-down-tilt
#14
Karina Marshall-Goebel, Robert Terlević, Darius A Gerlach, Simone Kuehn, Edwin Mulder, Jörn Rittweger
The microgravity ocular syndrome (MOS) results in significant structural and functional ophthalmic changes during 6-month spaceflight missions consistent with an increase in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure compared to the preflight upright position. A ground-based study was performed to assess two of the major hypothesized contributors to MOS, headward fluid shifting and increased ambient CO2, on intracranial and periorbital CSF. In addition, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was assessed as a countermeasure to headward fluid shifting...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818692/suppression-of-irrelevant-sounds-during-auditory-working-memory
#15
Jyrki Ahveninen, Larry J Seidman, Wei-Tang Chang, Matti Hämäläinen, Samantha Huang
Auditory working memory (WM) processing in everyday acoustic environments depends on our ability to maintain relevant information online in our minds, and to suppress interference caused by competing incoming stimuli. A challenge in communication settings is that the relevant content and irrelevant inputs may emanate from a common source, such as a talkative conversationalist. An open question is how the WM system deals with such interference. Will the distracters become inadvertently filtered before processing for meaning because the primary WM operations deplete all available processing resources? Or are they suppressed post perceptually, through an active control process? We tested these alternative hypotheses by measuring magnetoencephalography (MEG), EEG, and functional MRI (fMRI) during a phonetic auditory continuous performance task...
August 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817956/the-role-of-intrinsic-brain-functional-connectivity-in-vulnerability-and-resilience-to-bipolar-disorder
#16
Gaelle E Doucet, Danielle S Bassett, Nailin Yao, David C Glahn, Sophia Frangou
OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder is a heritable disorder characterized by mood dysregulation associated with brain functional dysconnectivity. Previous research has focused on the detection of risk- and disease-associated dysconnectivity in individuals with bipolar disorder and their first-degree relatives. The present study seeks to identify adaptive brain connectivity features associated with resilience, defined here as avoidance of illness or delayed illness onset in unaffected siblings of patients with bipolar disorder...
August 18, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817196/technical-note-quantitative-analysis-of-ivim-diffusion-mri-using-total-variation-and-huber-penalty-function
#17
Esha Baidya Kayal, Devasenathipathy Kandasamy, Kedar Khare, Jayendra Tiru Alampally, Sameer Bakhshi, Raju Sharma, Amit Mehndiratta
PURPOSE: Quantitative analysis in Intra-voxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) imaging commonly uses voxel-wise estimation of the bi-exponential model, which might not be reliable for clinical interpretation. Improving model fitting performance and qualitative and quantitative parametric estimation, two novel methodologies are proposed here. METHODS: Five IVIM analyses methodologies: i) Bi-Exponential (BE) model, ii) Segmented BE method with 2-parameter fitting (BEseg-2), iii) Segmented BE method with 1-parameter fitting (BEseg-1), iv) BE with adaptive Total Variation Penalty function (BE+TV) and v) BE with adaptive Huber Penalty function (BE+HPF) were evaluated...
August 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816897/surgical-correction-of-cam-deformity-in-association-with-femoroacetabular-impingement-and-its-impact-on-the-degenerative-process-within-the-hip-joint
#18
Paul E Beaulé, Andrew D Speirs, Helen Anwander, Gerd Melkus, Kawan Rakhra, Hanspeter Frei, Mario Lamontagne
BACKGROUND: Cam morphology in association with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a recognized cause of hip pain and cartilage damage and proposed as a leading cause of arthritis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the functional and biomechanical effects of the surgical correction of the cam deformity on the degenerative process associated with FAI. METHODS: Ten male patients with a mean age of 34.3 years (range, 23.1 to 46.5 years) and a mean body mass index (and standard deviation) of 26...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816895/ten-year-multicenter-clinical-and-mri-evaluation-of-isolated-supraspinatus-repairs
#19
Philippe Collin, Jean-François Kempf, Daniel Mole Combining Acute Accent, Nicolas Meyer, Charles Agout, Mo Saffarini, Arnaud Godene Combining Grave Accent Che
BACKGROUND: Early repair of isolated supraspinatus tears could prevent further deterioration of the rotator cuff; however, there is no consensus on the management of such tears because of a lack of long-term outcome studies. The purposes of this study were to report the 10-year outcomes of isolated supraspinatus repairs and to investigate the factors that favor healing and recovery. METHODS: We retrieved the records of all 511 patients who, in 2003, underwent repair of full-thickness isolated supraspinatus tears, performed by 15 surgeons at 15 centers...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816791/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-human-connectome-project-current-status-and-relevance-to-understanding-psychopathology
#20
Deanna M Barch
A key tenet of modern psychiatry is that psychiatric disorders arise from abnormalities in brain circuits that support human behavior. Our ability to examine hypotheses around circuit-level abnormalities in psychiatric disorders has been made possible by advances in human neuroimaging technologies. These advances have provided the basis for recent efforts to develop a more complex understanding of the function of brain circuits in health and of their relationship to behavior-providing, in turn, a foundation for our understanding of how disruptions in such circuits contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders...
August 16, 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
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