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Child development, learning, cognition

Annie Bernier, Catherine A McMahon, Rachel Perrier
This study aimed to test a 5-wave sequential mediation model linking maternal mind-mindedness during infancy to children's school readiness in kindergarten through a serial mediation involving child language and effortful control in toddlerhood and the preschool years. Among a sample of 204 mother-child dyads, we assessed maternal mind-mindedness when children were aged 1 year, child expressive vocabulary at age 2, effortful control at ages 3 and 4, and finally cognitive school readiness in kindergarten. The results corroborated the model, suggesting that the prospective association between early mind-mindedness and later cognitive school readiness was entirely mediated by the proposed sequence of mediators, all of which were necessary to account for this longitudinal association...
October 6, 2016: Developmental Psychology
Christopher M Ryan, Eelco van Duinkerken, Caterina Rosano
Mild cognitive dysfunction is a well-established complication of diabetes and its management, although large numbers of psychologists and health professionals may be unaware of its existence, clinical implications, and etiology. Drawing on results from key studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, this article delineates the neurocognitive phenotypes characteristic of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D), and identifies the most plausible risk factors, both those that may be modifiable, like degree of metabolic control, and those that cannot be changed, like the age when a child or adult is diagnosed...
October 2016: American Psychologist
A Desai, J M Sequeira, E V Quadros
Folate receptor alpha (FRα) autoantibodies have been associated with fetal abnormalities and cerebral folate deficiency-related developmental disorders. Over 70% of the children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are positive for these autoantibodies and high-dose folinic acid is beneficial in treating these children. Here we show that antibodies (Abs) to the rat FRα administered during gestation produce communication, learning and cognitive deficits in a rat model that can be prevented by folinic acid and dexamethasone...
September 20, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Ewa Humeniuk, Zbigniew Tarkowski
PURPOSE: The aim of the research was to determine: (a) how parents react to their child's stuttering, (b) what stress coping strategies they utilise, as well as (c) whether stress coping style depends on parents' reaction to their child's stuttering. METHODS: The research involved 23 mothers and 23 fathers of children who stutter (CWS) at the age of three to six years old. The Reaction to Speech Disfluency Scale (RSDS), developed by the authors, was used in the research...
September 2016: Journal of Fluency Disorders
Stanka A Fitneva, Elizabeth Pile Ho, Misako Hatayama
Children do not know everything that adults know, nor do adults know everything that children know. The present research examined the universality of beliefs about child and adult knowledge and their development with 4- and 7-year-old Canadian and Japanese children (N = 96). In both countries, all children were able to identify adult-specific knowledge and only older children displayed beliefs about child-specific knowledge. However, Japanese and Canadian children differed in whether they used their own knowledge in deciding whether a person who knew an item was a child or an adult...
2016: PloS One
Yvette R Harris, Seham Almutairi
The role of family influences on preschool and school age cognitive development has received considerable empirical attention from cognitive developmental psychology researchers in the last few decades. As a result of the interest, investigators have focused their attention on developing coding/observational systems to capture the interactions occurring between mothers and their young children. This paper reviews a select body of research on parent-child cognitive learning interactions with the goal of determining how the researchers have operationalized the behaviors that occur within learning interactions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Rebecca Boehme, Robert C Lorenz, Tobias Gleich, Lydia Romund, Patricia Pelz, Sabrina Golde, Eva Flemming, Andrew Wold, Lorenz Deserno, Joachim Behr, Diana Raufelder, Andreas Heinz, Anne Beck
Adolescence is a critical maturation period for human cognitive control and executive function. In this study, a large sample of adolescents (n = 85) performed a reversal learning task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We analyzed behavioral data using a reinforcement learning model to provide individually fitted parameters and imaging data with regard to reward prediction errors (PE). Following a model-based approach, we formed two groups depending on whether individuals tended to update expectations predominantly for the chosen stimulus or also for the unchosen one...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Amy C McPherson, Gillian King, Alanna Rudzik, Shauna Kingsnorth, Jan Willem Gorter
BACKGROUND: Young people with disabilities often lag behind their typically developing peers in the achievement of adult roles, which has been attributed to a lack of opportunities to develop critical life skills. Residential Immersive Life Skills (RILS) programs provide situated learning opportunities to develop life skills alongside peers and away from home in real-world settings. Retrospective research suggests that attending RILS programs is a transformative experience that empowers youth, provides parental hope, and increases service provider expertise...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
Ina S Santos, Diego G Bassani, Alicia Matijasevich, Camila S Halal, Bianca Del-Ponte, Suélen Henriques da Cruz, Luciana Anselmi, Elaine Albernaz, Michelle Fernandes, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues, Mariangela F Silveira, Pedro C Hallal
BACKGROUND: Sleep problems in childhood have been found to be associated with memory and learning impairments, irritability, difficulties in mood modulation, attention and behavioral problems, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Short sleep duration has been found to be associated with overweight and obesity in childhood. This paper describes the protocol of a behavioral intervention planned to promote healthier sleep in infants. METHODS: The study is a 1:1 parallel group single-blinded randomized controlled trial enrolling a total of 552 infants at 3 months of age...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
(no author information available yet)
School readiness includes not only the early academic skills of children but also their physical health, language skills, social and emotional development, motivation to learn, creativity, and general knowledge. Families and communities play a critical role in ensuring children's growth in all of these areas and thus their readiness for school. Schools must be prepared to teach all children when they reach the age of school entry, regardless of their degree of readiness. Research on early brain development emphasizes the effects of early experiences, relationships, and emotions on creating and reinforcing the neural connections that are the basis for learning...
September 2016: Pediatrics
Jenny S Radesky, Dimitri A Christakis
The authors review trends in adoption of new digital technologies (eg, mobile and interactive media) by families with young children (ages 0-8 years), continued use of television and video games, and the evidence for learning from digital versus hands-on play. The authors also discuss continued concerns about health and developmental/behavioral risks of excessive media use for child cognitive, language, literacy, and social-emotional development. This evidence is then applied to clinical care in terms of the screening questions providers can use, tools available to providers and parents, and changes in anticipatory guidance...
October 2016: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Karen L Bierman, Brenda S Heinrichs, Janet A Welsh, Robert L Nix, Scott D Gest
BACKGROUND: Growing up in poverty undermines healthy development, producing disparities in the cognitive and social-emotional skills that support early learning and mental health. Preschool and home-visiting interventions for low-income children have the potential to build early cognitive and social-emotional skills, reducing the disparities in school readiness that perpetuate the cycle of poverty. However, longitudinal research suggests that the gains low-income children make during preschool interventions often fade at school entry and disappear by early elementary school...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Estíbaliz Aragón, José Ignacio Navarro, Manuel Aguilar, Gamal Cerda, Manuel García-Sedeño
Early math skills are determined by higher cognitive processes that are particularly important for acquiring and developing skills during a child's early education. Such processes could be a critical target for identifying students at risk for math learning difficulties. Few studies have considered the use of a structural equation method to rationalize these relations. Participating in this study were 207 preschool students ages 59 to 72 months, 108 boys and 99 girls. Performance with respect to early math skills, early literacy, general intelligence, working memory, and short-term memory was assessed...
August 22, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Rochelle F Hanson, Sonja Schoenwald, Benjamin E Saunders, Jason Chapman, Lawrence A Palinkas, Angela D Moreland, Alex Dopp
BACKGROUND: High rates of youth exposure to violence, either through direct victimization or witnessing, result in significant health/mental health consequences and high associated lifetime costs. Evidence-based treatments (EBTs), such as Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT), can prevent and/or reduce these negative effects, yet these treatments are not standard practice for therapists working with children identified by child welfare or mental health systems as needing services...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
T D Tran, S Luchters, J Fisher
BACKGROUND: This study was to describe and quantify the relationships among family poverty, parents' caregiving practices, access to education and the development of children living in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Early childhood development was assessed in four domains: language-cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and approaches to learning...
August 17, 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
Yanwei Li, Adam S Grabell, Lauren S Wakschlag, Theodore J Huppert, Susan B Perlman
Preschool (age 3-5) is a phase of rapid development in both cognition and emotion, making this a period in which the neurodevelopment of each domain is particularly sensitive to that of the other. During this period, children rapidly learn how to flexibly shift their attention between competing demands and, at the same time, acquire critical emotion regulation skills to respond to negative affective challenges. The integration of cognitive flexibility and individual differences in irritability may be an important developmental process of early childhood maturation...
August 4, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Gonzalo Pin Arboledas, Víctor Soto Insuga, María José Jurado Luque, Cleofe Fernandez Gomariz, Inés Hidalgo Vicario, Amalia Lluch Rosello, Pedro José Rodríguez Hernández, Juan Antonio Madrid
Insomnia is very common during childhood (30% of children under 5), and causes a serious cognitive and emotional consequence in learning, as well as significant medical comorbidity. It also affects the quality of life, not only of the child, but also of the whole family. Paediatrician training in its diagnosis and treatment is usually poor. For this reason a consensus document is presented on the management of insomnia in children and adolescents. This has been developed by members of the Spanish Paediatrics Association, the Spanish Sleep Society, the Spanish Society of Paediatric Outpatient and Primary Care, the Spanish Adolescent Medicine Society, the Spanish Child and Adolescent Society, and the Spanish Paediatric Neurology Society...
July 27, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Mirko Uljarević, Napoleon Katsos, Kristelle Hudry, Jenny L Gibson
BACKGROUND: Language and communication skills are essential aspects of child development, which are often disrupted in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Cutting edge research in psycholinguistics suggests that multilingualism has potential to influence social, linguistic and cognitive development. Thus, multilingualism has implications for clinical assessment, diagnostic formulation, intervention and support offered to families. We present a systematic review and synthesis of the effects of multilingualism for children with neurodevelopmental disorders and discuss clinical implications...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Tiina Jaaniste, Melanie Noel, Carl L von Baeyer
Children are at times asked by clinicians or researchers to rate their pain associated with past, future or hypothetical experiences. However, little consideration is typically given to the cognitive-developmental requirements of such pain reports. Consequently, these pain assessment tasks may exceed the abilities of some children, potentially resulting in biased or random responses. This could lead to the over- or under-treatment of children's pain. This review provides an overview of factors, and specifically the cognitive-developmental pre-requisites, that may affect a child's ability to report on non-present pain states, such as past, future or hypothetical pain experiences...
July 15, 2016: Pain
Francois V Bolduc, Amanda Lau, Cory S Rosenfelt, Steven Langer, Nan Wang, Lisa Smithson, Diana Lefebvre, R Todd Alexander, Clayton T Dickson, Liang Li, Allan B Becker, Padmaja Subbarao, Stuart E Turvey, Jacqueline Pei, Malcolm R Sears, Piush J Mandhane
In-utero nutrition is an under-studied aspect of cognitive development. Fruit has been an important dietary constituent for early hominins and humans. Among 808 eligible CHILD-Edmonton sub-cohort subjects, 688 (85%) had 1-year cognitive outcome data. We found that each maternal daily serving of fruit (sum of fruit plus 100% fruit juice) consumed during pregnancy was associated with a 2.38 point increase in 1-year cognitive development (95% CI 0.39, 4.37; p<0.05). Consistent with this, we found 30% higher learning Performance index (PI) scores in Drosophila offspring from parents who consumed 30% fruit juice supplementation prenatally (PI: 85...
June 2016: EBioMedicine
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