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Child development, learning, cognition

D Zoenen, V Delvenne
INTRODUCTION: The processing of information coming from the elementary sensory systems conditions the development and fulfilment of a child's abilities. A dysfunction in the sensory stimuli processing may generate behavioural patterns that might affect a child's learning capacities as well as his relational sphere. The DSM-5 recognizes the sensory abnormalities as part of the symptomatology of Autism Spectrum Disorders. However, similar features are observed in other neurodevelopmental disorders...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Assal Habibi, Antonio Damasio, Beatriz Ilari, Matthew Elliott Sachs, Hanna Damasio
Evidence suggests that learning to play music enhances musical processing skills and benefits other cognitive abilities. Furthermore, studies of children and adults indicate that the brains of musicians and nonmusicians are different. It has not been determined, however, whether such differences result from pre-existing traits, musical training, or an interaction between the two. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on children's brain and cognitive development...
March 6, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Claire Philippat, Jacqueline Barkoski, Daniel J Tancredi, Bill Elms, Dana Boyd Barr, Sally Ozonoff, Deborah H Bennett, Irva Hertz-Picciotto
INTRODUCTION: Organophosphates are widely used pesticides that have been shown to affect child neurodevelopment. Previous studies that explored their potential effects on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) relied either on proxies of external exposure or on questionnaires completed by the parents to identify autism-like behaviors but did not provide a clinical diagnosis of ASD. AIMS: We studied the associations between prenatal biologic markers for exposure to organophosphate pesticides and the risk of having a child with ASD or other developmental concerns (ODC)...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Caroline Floccia, Thomas D Sambrook, Claire Delle Luche, Rosa Kwok, Jeremy Goslin, Laurence White, Allegra Cattani, Emily Sullivan, Kirsten Abbot-Smith, Andrea Krott, Debbie Mills, Caroline Rowland, Judit Gervain, Kim Plunkett
The majority of the world's children grow up learning two or more languages. The study of early bilingualism is central to current psycholinguistics, offering insights into issues such as transfer and interference in development. From an applied perspective, it poses a universal challenge to language assessment practices throughout childhood, as typically developing bilingual children usually underperform relative to monolingual norms when assessed in one language only. We measured vocabulary with Communicative Development Inventories for 372 24-month-old toddlers learning British English and one Additional Language out of a diverse set of 13 (Bengali, Cantonese, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Hindi-Urdu, Italian, Mandarin, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish, and Welsh)...
March 2018: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development
Ivete F R Caldas, Marilice F Garotti, Victor K M Shiramizu, Antonio Pereira
Humans are born completely dependent on adult care for survival. To get the necessary support, newborns rely on socio-communicative abilities which have both innate and learned components. Maternal responsiveness (MR), as a critical aspect of mother-infant interaction, is a robust predictor of the acquisition of socio-communicative abilities. However, maternal responsiveness (MR) is influenced by parity, since mothers rely on a limited capacity of cognitive control for efficient attachment with their offspring...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Kaja K Jasińska, Sosthène Guei
Portable neuroimaging approaches provide new advances to the study of brain function and brain development with previously inaccessible populations and in remote locations. This paper shows the development of field functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging to the study of child language, reading, and cognitive development in a rural village setting of Côte d'Ivoire. Innovation in methods and the development of culturally appropriate neuroimaging protocols allow a first-time look into the brain's development and children's learning outcomes in understudied environments...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jessica L Montag, Michael N Jones, Linda B Smith
The words in children's language learning environments are strongly predictive of cognitive development and school achievement. But how do we measure language environments and do so at the scale of the many words that children hear day in, day out? The quantity and quality of words in a child's input are typically measured in terms of total amount of talk and the lexical diversity in that talk. There are disagreements in the literature whether amount or diversity is the more critical measure of the input. Here we analyze the properties of a large corpus (6...
February 7, 2018: Cognitive Science
Mark Antoniou, Jessica L L Chin
A growing number of studies on the acquisition of lexical tone by adult learners have revealed that factors such as language background, musical experience, cognitive abilities, and neuroanatomy all play a role in determining tone learning success. On the basis of these findings, it has been argued that the effectiveness of tone learning in adulthood depends on individual differences in these factors. However, it is not clear whether similar individual differences play an analogous role in tone learning in childhood...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Prahbhjot Malhi, Jagadeesh Menon, Bhavneet Bharti, Manjit Sidhu
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of quality of early stimulation on cognitive functioning of toddlers living in a developing country. METHODS: The developmental functioning of 150 toddlers in the age range of 12-30 mo (53% boys; Mean = 1.76 y, SD = 0.48) was assessed by the mental developmental index of the Developmental Assessment Scale for Indian Infants (DASII). The StimQ questionnaire- toddler version was used to measure cognitive stimulation at home...
February 1, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Rafael Pérez-Escamilla, Antonio Rizzoli-Córdoba, Aranzazú Alonso-Cuevas, Hortensia Reyes-Morales
Early childhood development (ECD) is the basis of countries' economic and social development and their ability to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Gestation and the first three years of life are critical for children to have adequate physical, psychosocial, emotional and cognitive development for the rest of their lives. Nurturing care and protection of children during gestation and early childhood are necessary for the development of trillions of neurons and trillions of synapses necessary for development...
March 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
Noel Pabalan, Eloisa Singian, Lani Tabangay, Hamdi Jarjanazi, Michael J Boivin, Amara E Ezeamama
BACKGROUND: Evidence of an adverse influence of soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections on cognitive function and educational loss is equivocal. Prior meta-analyses have focused on randomized controlled trials only and have not sufficiently explored the potential for disparate influence of STH infection by cognitive domain. We re-examine the hypothesis that STH infection is associated with cognitive deficit and educational loss using data from all primary epidemiologic studies published between 1992 and 2016...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, John S Hutton, Kieran Phelan, Scott K Holland
The role of the parent or educator in a child's learning is a key feature in child development. Evidence supports the impact of early language exposure for future language and cognitive abilities and of home reading environment on neural circuits supporting language and reading. As shared parent-child reading is largely contingent on the reading ability of the parent, the aim of the current study was to explore association of parental reading ability on functional connectivity of brain networks involved with reading acquisition in their children...
January 6, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Frederica Perera
Fossil-fuel combustion by-products are the world's most significant threat to children's health and future and are major contributors to global inequality and environmental injustice. The emissions include a myriad of toxic air pollutants and carbon dioxide (CO₂), which is the most important human-produced climate-altering greenhouse gas. Synergies between air pollution and climate change can magnify the harm to children. Impacts include impairment of cognitive and behavioral development, respiratory illness, and other chronic diseases-all of which may be "seeded" in utero and affect health and functioning immediately and over the life course...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jennifer Harte, Pauline Frizelle, Fiona Gibbon
There is substantial evidence that a speaker's accent, specifically an unfamiliar accent, can affect the listener's comprehension. In general, this effect holds true for both adults and children as well as those with typical and impaired language. Previous studies have investigated the effect of different accents on individuals with language disorders, but children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) have received little attention. The current study aims to learn more about the ability of children with SSD to process different speaker accents...
December 26, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
N Z Khan, R Sultana, F Ahmed, A B Shilpi, N Sultana, G L Darmstadt
BACKGROUND: Child Development Centres (CDCs) have been established within government medical college tertiary hospitals across Bangladesh. Services entail a parent-professional partnership in a child and family friendly environment with a focus on assessment, diagnosis, and management of a range of neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents 0-16 years of age. Services are provided by a multidisciplinary team of professionals (child health physician, child psychologist, and developmental therapist) who emphasize quality of services over the numbers of children seen...
January 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
Itziar Familiar, Shalean M Collins, Alla Sikorskii, Horacio Ruisenor-Escudero, Barnabas Natamba, Paul Bangirana, Elizabeth M Widen, Daniel Achidri, Harriet Achola, Daniel Onen, Michael Boivin, Sera L Young
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate whether maternal characteristics and infant developmental milieu were predictive of early cognitive development in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HU) infants in Uganda. DESIGN: Longitudinal pregnancy study. METHODS: Ugandan women (n = 228) were enrolled into the Postnatal Nutrition and Psychosocial Health Outcomes study with a 2:1 HIV-uninfected: infected ratio. Maternal sociodemographic, perceived social support, and depressive symptomatology were assessed...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Teija Kujala, Miika Leminen
In specific language impairment (SLI), there is a delay in the child's oral language skills when compared with nonverbal cognitive abilities. The problems typically relate to phonological and morphological processing and word learning. This article reviews studies which have used mismatch negativity (MMN) in investigating low-level neural auditory dysfunctions in this disorder. With MMN, it is possible to tap the accuracy of neural sound discrimination and sensory memory functions. These studies have found smaller response amplitudes and longer latencies for speech and non-speech sound changes in children with SLI than in typically developing children, suggesting impaired and slow auditory discrimination in SLI...
December 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Timothy Myers, Emma Carey, Dénes Szűcs
Most mathematical cognition research has focused on understanding normal adult function and child development as well as mildly and moderately impaired mathematical skill, often labeled developmental dyscalculia and/or mathematical learning disability. In contrast, much less research is available on cognitive and neural correlates of gifted/excellent mathematical knowledge in adults and children. In order to facilitate further inquiry into this area, here we review 40 available studies, which examine the cognitive and neural basis of gifted mathematics...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
John T Berger, Michele E Villalobos, Amy E Clark, Richard Holubkov, Murray M Pollack, Robert A Berg, Joseph A Carcillo, Heidi Dalton, Rick Harrison, Kathleen L Meert, Christopher J L Newth, Thomas P Shanley, David L Wessel, Kanwaljeet J S Anand, Jerry J Zimmerman, Ronald C Sanders, Teresa Liu, Jeri S Burr, Douglas F Willson, Allan Doctor, J Michael Dean, Tammara L Jenkins, Carol E Nicholson
OBJECTIVES: Pertussis can cause life-threatening illness in infants. Data regarding neurodevelopment after pertussis remain scant. The aim of this study was to assess cognitive development of infants with critical pertussis 1 year after PICU discharge. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Eight hospitals comprising the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network and 18 additional sites across the United States...
November 7, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Maria Carbines, Annette Dickinson, Barbara McKenzie-Green
Transitioning to parenthood and establishing a family are significant life events, and although an expected and normal part of adult life, it is a time of stress, change, and learning. The family has been well-studied with regard to developmental norms and the diagnosis and treatment of physical, cognitive, and emotional problems. However, little is known about how parents of young children establish, manage, and maintain their families on a daily basis. Social constructivist grounded theory was used to examine day to day parental management in families with young children...
December 2017: Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Nursing
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