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Child development, learning, cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227840/virtual-reality-for-pediatric-neuro-rehabilitation-adaptive-visual-feedback-of-movement-to-engage-the-mirror-neuron-system
#1
Roopeswar Kommalapati, Konstantinos P Michmizos, Roopeswar Kommalapati, Konstantinos P Michmizos, Roopeswar Kommalapati, Konstantinos P Michmizos
Sensorimotor therapy gives optimal results when patients are cognitively engaged into highly repetitive tasks, a goal that most children find hard to pursue. This paper presents the key developments of our ongoing effort to design an interactive rehabilitation environment that motivates physically impaired children throughout their therapy. The continuous motivation is achieved by the system adapting fundamental therapeutic components to the performance of each child. The relevant movement is mirrored to an animated character projected in front of the child...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225843/-poverty-and-mental-disability-in-the-criminal-law-the-invisibles
#2
Ezequiel N Mercurio
In recent decades neuroscience research show the negative consequences of poverty in cognitive development. Environmental factors, such as material deprivation, exposure to stressful situations, violence, nutritional deprivation, environmental toxins may shape the developing brain. The changes of the structure and function of the brain since prenatal stages and their consequences can remain stable throughout the life cycle except early interventions are made. Research investigating have found significant link between child poverty and function and structural brain focusing on prefrontal cortex (i...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220477/parent-child-learning-interactions-a-review-of-the-literature-on-scaffolding
#3
Roni Mermelshtine
BACKGROUND: Scaffolding can be observed during learning-based interactions, when interventions by parents are adjusted according to children's observed abilities, with the main goal of enabling the child to work independently (Wood et al., 1976, Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 17, 89). Such contingent instruction behaviours occur from infancy, and are said to be relevant for children's development of executive function, language acquisition, and cognitive and academic abilities...
February 21, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152334/a-comparison-of-the-efficacy-of-weight-shift-vs-joystick-control-of-a-robotic-mobility-device-by-infants-ages-5-to-10-months
#4
Sharon Stansfield, Carole Dennis, Rachel Altman, Janelle Smith, Hélène Larin
The onset of crawling in infants contributes to cognitive, perceptual, social, and emotional development. Conversely, infants with motor impairment that delays or prevents autonomous mobility often have associated developmental delays. Evidence suggests that providing mobility may have positive developmental outcomes, however powered wheelchairs may not be recommended for very young children, due to safety concerns and the child's level of cognitive maturity. The WeeBot is a mobility device controlled by infant weight shifting while seated; infants as young as 5 months have learned to use it...
February 2, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141706/attached-to-a-diagnosis-the-quandary-of-social-deficits-and-reactive-attachment-disorder
#5
Randall Phelps, Debra Eisert, Susan Schulz, Marilyn Augustyn
Alex is a 9-year-old boy brought to you, his primary care provider, for a "fifth opinion." You have cared for Alex since he was adopted from a Romanian orphanage at 3 years of age. He has been physically healthy with normal growth parameters and no evidence of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alex has long-standing history of social difficulties, impulsivity, lying, controlling, manipulative behaviors, violent outbursts at home with subsequent lack of remorse, and excessive chatter. You referred Alex to an interdisciplinary child development clinic 2 years ago, where he was diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109771/assessment-of-learning-memory-and-attention-in-developmental-neurotoxicology-regulatory-testing-commentary-on-essentiality-of-cognitive-assessment-for-protecting-child-health
#6
Charles V Vorhees
This commentary is in response to the remarks of Drs. Christina Sobin, Mari Golub, and David Herr on the Special Issue of this Journal entitled "Assessment of Learning, Memory, and Attention in Developmental Neurotoxicology Regulatory Testing." I endorse the views expressed by Drs. Sobin, Golub, and Herr and add some discussion on a recent Organization on Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline, the Extended One Generation Reproductive Toxicology Guideline (OECD 446), in which testing for higher cognitive function (learning and memory) has been eliminated...
January 18, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077259/the-growth-of-language-universal-grammar-experience-and-principles-of-computation
#7
REVIEW
Charles Yang, Stephen Crain, Robert C Berwick, Noam Chomsky, Johan J Bolhuis
Human infants develop language remarkably rapidly and without overt instruction. We argue that the distinctive ontogenesis of child language arises from the interplay of three factors: domain-specific principles of language (Universal Grammar), external experience, and properties of non-linguistic domains of cognition including general learning mechanisms and principles of efficient computation. We review developmental evidence that children make use of hierarchically composed structures ('Merge') from the earliest stages and at all levels of linguistic organization...
January 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044261/cognitive-development-in-a-young-child-with-mucolipidosis-type-iv-a-case-report
#8
Evelyn L Fisher, Rose A Sevcik, MaryAnn Romski
Mucolipidosis Type IV (ML IV) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by severe psychomotor impairments and ophthalmologic abnormalities. Reports on the cognitive development of people with ML IV are limited, but suggest that achievement of language and cognitive milestones varies between a 3- and 18-month level. There is also variability in reports of whether people with ML IV make developmental progress, regress, or remain static after infancy. This study examines the longitudinal development of a young child with ML IV who participated in an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention...
January 3, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032479/the-role-of-nutrition-in-integrated-early-child-development-in-the-21st-century-contribution-from-the-maternal-and-child-nutrition-journal
#9
EDITORIAL
Rafael Pérez-Escamilla, Victoria Hall Moran
Even though it is widely recognized that early childhood development (ECD) is one of the most important predictors of future social capital and national productivity, the recently published ECD Lancet Series reports that about 250 million children under 5 years are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential, mainly as a result of poverty and social injustice. So why is this and what will it take to reverse this situation? The purpose of this special issue is to highlight important contributions from previously published articles in Maternal & Child Nutrition to the field of nutrition and ECD...
January 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997031/predictors-of-infant-and-toddler-black-boys-early-learning-seizing-opportunities-and-minimizing-risks
#10
Iheoma U Iruka
Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) data set (U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, 2001), this study examined child, family, and community factors in the early years (infant and toddler years) to predict the cognitive and language outcomes for preschool-age Black boys in relation to Black girls and White boys. Findings indicate that Black children face many challenges, with Black boys experiencing less sensitive parenting as compared to their peers...
January 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995832/importance-of-mental-performance-in-parental-choice-of-food-for-children-aged-4-10-years-a-study-in-four-european-countries
#11
Heather Gage, Bernadette Egan, Peter Williams, Brigitte Brands, Eszter Györei, Juan-Carlos López-Robles, Cristina Campoy, Tamas Decsi, Berthold Koletzko, Monique Raats
OBJECTIVE: Typically, attention focuses on how nutrition affects physical health. The present study investigated the importance that parents attach to the impact of diet on mental performance when choosing food for their child. DESIGN: Questionnaire. SETTING: Four European countries. SUBJECTS: Parents of children aged 4-10 years (n 1574): England (n 397), Germany (n 389), Hungary (n 398) and Spain (n 390). RESULTS: Most parents (80-85 %) considered the effect of food on four elements of mental performance (child's ability to learn, attention, behaviour, mood) to be moderately, very, extremely (v...
December 20, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940685/prenatal-iron-deficiency-neonatal-ferritin-and-infant-cognitive-function
#12
Michael O Mireku, Leslie L Davidson, Michael J Boivin, Romeo Zoumenou, Achille Massougbodji, Michel Cot, Florence Bodeau-Livinec
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of prenatal maternal iron deficiency (ID) on cord blood serum ferritin (CBSF) concentration and infant cognitive and motor development. METHODS: Our prospective cohort study included 636 mother-singleton child pairs from 828 eligible pregnant women who were enrolled during their first antenatal care (ANC) visit in Allada, Benin, into a clinical trial comparing the efficacy of mefloquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Venous blood samples of women were assessed for ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations at the first and second ANC visits (occurring at least 1-month apart) and at delivery...
December 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899903/reading-touch-screen-storybooks-with-mothers-negatively-affects-7-year-old-readers-comprehension-but-enriches-emotional-engagement
#13
Kirsty M Ross, Rachel E Pye, Jordan Randell
Touch screen storybooks turn reading into an interactive multimedia experience, with hotspot-activated animations, sound effects, and games. Positive and negative effects of reading multimedia stories have been reported, but the underlying mechanisms which explain how children's learning is affected remain uncertain. The present study examined the effect of storybook format (touch screen and print) on story comprehension, and considered how level of touch screen interactivity (high and low) and shared reading behaviors (cognitive and emotional scaffolding, emotional engagement) might contribute to comprehension...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891110/-my-child-has-cerebral-palsy-parental-involvement-and-children-s-school-engagement
#14
Armanda Pereira, Tânia Moreira, Sílvia Lopes, Ana R Nunes, Paula Magalhães, Sonia Fuentes, Natalia Reoyo, José C Núñez, Pedro Rosário
Engaged students tend to show school-committed behaviors (e.g., attend classes, get involved with the learning process), high achievement, and sense of belonging. However, students with disabilities are prone to show a lack of engagement with school due to the specific difficulties they have to handle. In fact, children with disabilities are likely to show poor participation in school when compared with children without disabilities. This poor involvement is related to their low autonomy to participate in the school activities, which, in turn, results in low school engagement...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872376/the-multi-component-nature-of-statistical-learning
#15
REVIEW
Joanne Arciuli
The central argument presented in this paper is that statistical learning (SL) is an ability comprised of multiple components that operate largely implicitly. Components relating to the stimulus encoding, retention and abstraction required for SL may include, but are not limited to, certain types of attention, processing speed and memory. It is likely that individuals vary in terms of the efficiency of these underlying components, and in patterns of connectivity among these components, and that SL tasks differ from one another in how they draw on certain underlying components more than others...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872374/what-s-statistical-about-learning-insights-from-modelling-statistical-learning-as-a-set-of-memory-processes
#16
REVIEW
Erik D Thiessen
Statistical learning has been studied in a variety of different tasks, including word segmentation, object identification, category learning, artificial grammar learning and serial reaction time tasks (e.g. Saffran et al. 1996 Science 274: , 1926-1928; Orban et al. 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: , 2745-2750; Thiessen & Yee 2010 Child Development 81: , 1287-1303; Saffran 2002 Journal of Memory and Language 47: , 172-196; Misyak & Christiansen 2012 Language Learning 62: , 302-331). The difference among these tasks raises questions about whether they all depend on the same kinds of underlying processes and computations, or whether they are tapping into different underlying mechanisms...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868191/multigenerational-head-start-participation-an-unexpected-marker-of-progress
#17
Elise Chor
One-quarter of the Head Start population has a mother who participated in the program as a child. This study uses experimental Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) data on 3- and 4-year-olds (N = 2,849) to describe multigenerational Head Start families and their program experiences. In sharp contrast to full-sample HSIS findings, Head Start has large, positive impacts on cognitive and socioemotional development through third grade among the children of former participant mothers, including improved mathematics skills and reductions in withdrawn and aggressive behavior...
November 21, 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867420/a-lattice-model-of-the-development-of-reading-comprehension
#18
Carol McDonald Connor
In this article, I present a developmental model of how children learn to comprehend what they read, which builds on current models of reading comprehension and integrates findings from instructional research and evidence-based models of development in early and middle childhood. The lattice model holds that children's developing reading comprehension is a function of the interacting, reciprocal, and bootstrapping effects of developing text-specific, linguistic, and social-cognitive processes, which interact with instruction as child-characteristic-by-instruction (CXI) interaction effects...
December 2016: Child Development Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709997/maternal-mind-mindedness-and-children-s-school-readiness-a-longitudinal-study-of-developmental-processes
#19
Annie Bernier, Catherine A McMahon, Rachel Perrier
This study aimed to test a 5-wave sequential mediation model linking maternal mind-mindedness during infancy to children's school readiness in kindergarten through a serial mediation involving child language and effortful control in toddlerhood and the preschool years. Among a sample of 204 mother-child dyads, we assessed maternal mind-mindedness when children were aged 1 year, child expressive vocabulary at age 2, effortful control at ages 3 and 4, and finally cognitive school readiness in kindergarten. The results corroborated the model, suggesting that the prospective association between early mind-mindedness and later cognitive school readiness was entirely mediated by the proposed sequence of mediators, all of which were necessary to account for this longitudinal association...
October 6, 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690485/neurocognitive-consequences-of-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Christopher M Ryan, Eelco van Duinkerken, Caterina Rosano
Mild cognitive dysfunction is a well-established complication of diabetes and its management, although large numbers of psychologists and health professionals may be unaware of its existence, clinical implications, and etiology. Drawing on results from key studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, this article delineates the neurocognitive phenotypes characteristic of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D), and identifies the most plausible risk factors, both those that may be modifiable, like degree of metabolic control, and those that cannot be changed, like the age when a child or adult is diagnosed...
October 2016: American Psychologist
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