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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538521/examination-of-the-validity-of-the-atlas-informed-approach-to-functional-parcellation-a-resting-functional-mri-study
#1
Tien-Wen Lee, Shao-Wei Xue
With the advancement in MRI, functional parcellation (FP) of brain structure(s) has become an important topic. However, the large number of voxels is a major obstacle. A-priori partitioning of the brain into several regions of interest (ROIs) is the main data-reduction strategy to simplify brain informatics. This study aims to examine the validity of ROI-based approach to FP by exploring the concordance of the relative distance structures between voxel-wise (raw data) and atlas-informed analyses. Structural and resting state functional MRI (rfMRI) scans of 26 right-handed healthy individuals were selected from the Rockland dataset...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535366/comprehensibility-and-neural-substrate-of-communicative-gestures-in-severe-aphasia
#2
Katharina Hogrefe, Wolfram Ziegler, Nicole Weidinger, Georg Goldenberg
Communicative gestures can compensate incomprehensibility of oral speech in severe aphasia, but the brain damage that causes aphasia may also have an impact on the production of gestures. We compared the comprehensibility of gestural communication of persons with severe aphasia and non-aphasic persons and used voxel based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) to determine lesion sites that are responsible for poor gestural expression in aphasia. On group level, persons with aphasia conveyed more information via gestures than controls indicating a compensatory use of gestures in persons with severe aphasia...
May 20, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533086/spatio-temporal-pattern-of-neuronal-differentiation-in-the-drosophila-visual-system-a-user-s-guide-to-the-dynamic-morphology-of-the-developing-optic-lobe
#3
Kathy T Ngo, Ingrid Andrade, Volker Hartenstein
Visual information processing in animals with large image forming eyes is carried out in highly structured retinotopically ordered neuropils. Visual neuropils in Drosophila form the optic lobe, which consists of four serially arranged major subdivisions; the lamina, medulla, lobula and lobula plate; the latter three of these are further subdivided into multiple layers. The visual neuropils are formed by more than 100 different cell types, distributed and interconnected in an invariant highly regular pattern...
May 19, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531897/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-brain-of-a-monotreme-the-short-beaked-echidna-tachyglossus-aculeatus
#4
Sandilya Cherupalli, Craig D Hardman, Andre Bongers, Ken W S Ashwell
We used magnetic resonance imaging to study the anatomy of cortical regions, nuclear groups, and major tracts in the brain of a monotreme, i.e., the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Our specimens were from a collection held at the Australian Museum in Sydney and had been stored in formaldehyde solution for at least 70 years. Despite this, we were able to detect fine detail in the nuclear divisions of structures as well as in fiber tracts. In particular, we could detect the medial lemniscus as it approached the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, subdivisions within the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, lamination and subdivisions within the hippocampal formation, components of the olfactory pathways, and nuclei within the temporal amygdala...
May 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531806/standard-body-space-relationships-fingers-hold-spatial-information
#5
Daniele Romano, Francesco Marini, Angelo Maravita
The representation of the body in the brain is constantly updated to allow optimal sensorimotor interactions with the external world. In addition to dynamic features, body representation holds stable features that are still largely unknown. In the present work we explored the hypothesis that body parts have preferential associations with relative spatial locations. Specifically, in three experiments, we found consistent preferential associations between the index finger and the top position, and between the thumb and the bottom position...
May 19, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531270/utilization-of-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-for-direct-targeting-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-during-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery
#6
Jonathan Rasouli, Ritesh Ramdhani, Fedor E Panov, Alexey Dimov, Yan Zhang, Catherine Cho, Yi Wang, Brian Harris Kopell
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has demonstrated efficacy in improving motor disability in Parkinson's disease. The recently developed quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) technique, which can accurately map iron deposits in deep brain nuclei, promises precise targeting of the STN. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the use of QSM to target STN effectively by correlating with classical physiological-based targeting measures in a prospective study...
May 21, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529055/intraoperative-mapping-and-monitoring-of-the-pyramidal-tract-using-endoscopic-depth-electrodes
#7
Yukinori Akiyama, Shunya Ohtaki, Katsuya Komatsu, Kentaro Toyama, Rei Enatsu, Takeshi Mikami, Masahiko Wanibuchi, Nobuhiro Mikuni
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate motor function during neuroendoscopic resectioning of deep-seated brain tumors using endoscopically guided depth electrodes. METHODS: For 12 cases of thalamic tumors including high-grade gliomas, germinomas, and malignant lymphomas, depth electrodes were inserted using endoscopic guides between the tumor and the pyramidal tract in the thalamus. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were continuously recorded during neuroendoscopic resectioning of the tumors...
May 18, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528909/melanopsin-contributions-to-the-representation-of-images-in-the-early-visual-system
#8
Annette E Allen, Riccardo Storchi, Franck P Martial, Robert A Bedford, Robert J Lucas
Melanopsin photoreception enhances retinal responses to variations in ambient light (irradiance) and drives non-image-forming visual reflexes such as circadian entrainment [1-6]. Melanopsin signals also reach brain regions responsible for form vision [7-9], but melanopsin's contribution, if any, to encoding visual images remains unclear. We addressed this deficit using principles of receptor silent substitution to present images in which visibility for melanopsin versus rods+cones was independently modulated, and we recorded evoked responses in the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN; thalamic relay for cortical vision)...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528636/correlative-two-photon-and-serial-block-face-scanning-electron-microscopy-in-neuronal-tissue-using-3d-near-infrared-branding-maps
#9
Robert M Lees, Christopher J Peddie, Lucy M Collinson, Michael C Ashby, Paul Verkade
Linking cellular structure and function has always been a key goal of microscopy, but obtaining high resolution spatial and temporal information from the same specimen is a fundamental challenge. Two-photon (2P) microscopy allows imaging deep inside intact tissue, bringing great insight into the structural and functional dynamics of cells in their physiological environment. At the nanoscale, the complex ultrastructure of a cell's environment in tissue can be reconstructed in three dimensions (3D) using serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM)...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528634/3d-subcellular-localization-with-superresolution-array-tomography-on-ultrathin-sections-of-various-species
#10
Sebastian M Markert, Vivien Bauer, Thomas S Muenz, Nicola G Jones, Frederik Helmprobst, Sebastian Britz, Markus Sauer, Wolfgang Rössler, Markus Engstler, Christian Stigloher
Array Tomography (AT) is a relatively easy-to-use and yet powerful method to put molecular identity in its full ultrastructural context. Ultrathin sections are stained with fluorophores and then imaged by light and afterward by electron microscopy to obtain a correlated view of a region of interest: its ultrastructure and specific staining. By combining AT with high-pressure freezing for superior structural preservation and superresolution light microscopy, even small subcellular structures can be mapped in 3D...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528586/white-matter-connectivity-disruptions-in-early-and-chronic-schizophrenia
#11
M A Di Biase, V L Cropley, B T Baune, J Olver, G P Amminger, C Phassouliotis, C Bousman, P D McGorry, I Everall, C Pantelis, A Zalesky
BACKGROUND: White matter disruptions in schizophrenia have been widely reported, but it remains unclear whether these abnormalities differ between illness stages. We mapped the connectome in patients with recently diagnosed and chronic schizophrenia and investigated the extent and overlap of white matter connectivity disruptions between these illness stages. METHODS: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired in recent-onset (n = 19) and chronic patients (n = 45) with schizophrenia, as well as age-matched controls (n = 87)...
May 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528447/a-single-bout-of-endurance-exercise-modulates-eeg-microstates-temporal-features
#12
Jérôme N Spring, Miralena I Tomescu, Jérôme Barral
Electrical neuroimaging is a promising method to explore the spontaneous brain function after physical exercise. The present study aims to investigate the effect of acute physical exercise on the temporal dynamic of the resting brain activity captured by the four conventional map topographies (microstates) described in the literature, and to associate these brain changes with the post-exercise neuromuscular function. Twenty endurance-trained subjects performed a 30-min biking task at 60% of their maximal aerobic power followed by a 10 km all-out time trial...
May 20, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527792/3d-cmro2-mapping-in-human-brain-with-direct-17-o-mri-comparison-of-conventional-and-proton-constrained-reconstructions
#13
Dmitry Kurzhunov, Robert Borowiak, Marco Reisert, Axel Joachim Krafft, Ali Caglar Özen, Michael Bock
Oxygen metabolism is altered in brain tumor regions and is quantified by the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2). Direct dynamic (17)O MRI with inhalation of isotopically enriched (17)O2 gas can be used to quantify CMRO2; however, pixel-wise CMRO2 quantification in human brain is challenging due to low natural abundance of (17)O isotope and, thus, the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of (17)O MR images. To test the feasibility CMRO2 mapping at a clinical 3 T MRI system, a new iterative reconstruction was proposed, which uses the edge information contained in a co-registered (1)H gradient image to construct a non-homogeneous anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526432/quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-using-principles-of-echo-shifting-with-a-train-of-observations-sequence-on-1-5t-mri
#14
Hirohito Kan, Nobuyuki Arai, Harumasa Kasai, Hiroshi Kunitomo, Yasujiro Hirose, Yuta Shibamoto
PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of susceptibility estimated from the principles of echo shifting with a train of observations (PRESTO) sequence using a 1.5T MRI system, we conducted experiments on the human brain using the PRESTO sequence and compared our results with the susceptibility obtained from spoiled gradient-recalled echo (GRE) sequence with flow compensation using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) reconstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experiments on the human brain were conducted on 12 healthy volunteers (27±4years) using PRESTO and spoiled GRE sequences on a 1...
May 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526235/zero-echo-time-mri-only-treatment-planning-for-radiation-therapy-of-brain-tumors-after-resection
#15
C Boydev, B Demol, D Pasquier, H Saint-Jalmes, G Delpon, N Reynaert
Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the sole imaging modality for patient modeling in radiation therapy (RT) is a challenging task due to the need to derive electron density information from MRI and construct a so-called pseudo-computed tomography (pCT) image. We have previously published a new method to derive pCT images from head T1-weighted (T1-w) MR images using a single-atlas propagation scheme followed by a post hoc correction of the mapped CT numbers using local intensity information. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of our method with head zero echo time (ZTE) MR images...
May 16, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524543/snapshot-whole-brain-t1-relaxometry-using-steady-state-prepared-spiral-multislice-variable-flip-angle-imaging
#16
Rahel Heule, Josef Pfeuffer, Oliver Bieri
PURPOSE: Variable flip angle (VFA) imaging is widely used for whole-brain T1 quantification. Because of the requirement to acquire at least two sets of MR images at different flip angles, VFA relaxometry is relatively slow. Here, whole-brain VFA T1 mapping at 1.5 T is accelerated by using efficient spiral non-Cartesian imaging METHODS: To quantify T1 in the human brain, radiofrequency spoiled gradient-echo imaging is performed at two optimized flip angles using an interleaved 2D multislice sequence with high spoiling efficiency...
May 19, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524178/transcriptome-analyses-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-show-alterations-in-protein-phosphatase-expression-associated-with-tauopathy
#17
Jeong-Sun Seo, Seungbok Lee, Jong-Yeon Shin, Yu Jin Hwang, Hyesun Cho, Seong-Keun Yoo, Yunha Kim, Sungsu Lim, Yun Kyung Kim, Eun Mi Hwang, Su Hyun Kim, Chong-Hyun Kim, Seung Jae Hyeon, Ji-Young Yun, Jihye Kim, Yona Kim, Victor E Alvarez, Thor D Stein, Junghee Lee, Dong Jin Kim, Jong-Il Kim, Neil W Kowall, Hoon Ryu, Ann C McKee
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is associated with repetitive head injury and has distinctive neuropathological features that differentiate this disease from other neurodegenerative diseases. Intraneuronal tau aggregates, although they occur in different patterns, are diagnostic neuropathological features of CTE, but the precise mechanism of tauopathy is not known in CTE. We performed whole RNA sequencing analysis of post-mortem brain tissue from patients with CTE and compared the results to normal controls to determine the transcriptome signature changes associated with CTE...
May 19, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523963/brain-hypoxia-mapping-in-acute-stroke-back-to-back-t2-mr-versus-18-f-fluoromisonidazole-pet-in-rodents
#18
Ulf Jensen-Kondering, Roido Mavanaki, Sohail Ejaz, Stephen J Sawiak, T Adrian Carpenter, Tim D Fryer, Franklin I Aigbirhio, David J Williamson, Jean-Claude Baron
Background Mapping the hypoxic brain in acute ischemic stroke has considerable potential for both diagnosis and treatment monitoring. PET using (18)F-fluoro-misonidazole (FMISO) is the reference method; however, it lacks clinical accessibility and involves radiation exposure. MR-based T2' mapping may identify tissue hypoxia and holds clinical potential. However, its validation against FMISO imaging is lacking. Here we implemented back-to-back FMISO-PET and T2' MR in rodents subjected to acute middle cerebral artery occlusion...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523357/lesion-location-associated-with-balance-recovery-and-gait-velocity-change-after-rehabilitation-in-stroke-patients
#19
Hyun Im Moon, Hyo Jeong Lee, Seo Yeon Yoon
PURPOSE: Impaired gait function after stroke contributes strongly to overall patient disability. However, the response to rehabilitation varies between individuals. The aims of this study were to identify predictors of gait velocity change and to elucidate lesion location associated with change of balance and gait function. METHODS: We reviewed 102 stroke patients. The patients were divided into two groups according to gait ability post-rehabilitation, and we analyzed differences in their characteristics, such as demographic information, lesion factors, and initial balance function...
May 18, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523216/foresight-beats-hindsight-the-neural-correlates-underlying-motor-preparation-in-the-pro-anti-cue-paradigm
#20
Franziska Emmerling, Felix Duecker, Tom A de Graaf, Teresa Schuhmann, Jos J Adam, Alexander T Sack
BACKGROUND: Human motor behaviors are characterized by both, reactive and proactive mechanisms. Yet, studies investigating the neural correlates of motor behavior almost exclusively focused on reactive motor processes. Here, we employed the pro-/anti-cue motor preparation paradigm to systematically study proactive motor control in an imaging environment. In this paradigm, either pro- or anti-cues are presented in a blocked design. Four fingers (two from each hand) are mapped onto four visual target locations...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
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