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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793061/microstructural-imaging-of-the-human-brain-with-a-super-scanner-10-key-advantages-of-ultra-strong-gradients-for-diffusion-mri
#1
D K Jones, D C Alexander, R Bowtell, M Cercignani, F Dell'Acqua, D J McHugh, K L Miller, M Palombo, G J M Parker, U S Rudrapatna, C M W Tax
The key component of a microstructural diffusion MRI 'super-scanner' is a dedicated high-strength gradient system that enables stronger diffusion weightings per unit time compared to conventional gradient designs. This can, in turn, drastically shorten the time needed for diffusion encoding, increase the signal-to-noise ratio, and facilitate measurements at shorter diffusion times. This review, written from the perspective of the National Facility for In Vivo MR Imaging of Human Tissue Microstructure, an initiative to establish a shared 300 mT/m-gradient facility amongst the microstructural imaging community, describes ten advantages of ultra-strong gradients for microstructural imaging...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793060/a-computational-framework-for-the-detection-of-subcortical-brain-dysmaturation-in-neonatal-mri-using-3d-convolutional-neural-networks
#2
Rafael Ceschin, Alexandria Zahner, William Reynolds, Jenna Gaesser, Giulio Zuccoli, Cecilia W Lo, Vanathi Gopalakrishnan, Ashok Panigrahy
Deep neural networks are increasingly being used in both supervised learning for classification tasks and unsupervised learning to derive complex patterns from the input data. However, the successful implementation of deep neural networks using neuroimaging datasets requires adequate sample size for training and well-defined signal intensity based structural differentiation. There is a lack of effective automated diagnostic tools for the reliable detection of brain dysmaturation in the neonatal period, related to small sample size and complex undifferentiated brain structures, despite both translational research and clinical importance...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792238/mapping-the-neuroanatomic-substrates-of-cognition-in-familial-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
Rachel Muster, Saadia Choudhury, Wendy Sharp, Steven Kasparek, Gustavo Sudre, Philip Shaw
BACKGROUND: While the neuroanatomic substrates of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been investigated, less is known about the neuroanatomic correlates of cognitive abilities pertinent to the disorder, particularly in adults. Here we define the neuroanatomic correlates of key cognitive abilities and determine if there are associations with histories of psychostimulant medication. METHODS: We acquired neuroanatomic magnetic resonance imaging data from 264 members of 60 families (mean age 29...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791914/atlas-independent-electrophysiological-mapping-of-the-optimal-locus-of-subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-for-the-motor-symptoms-of-parkinson-disease
#4
Erin C Conrad, James M Mossner, Kelvin L Chou, Parag G Patil
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD). However, motor outcomes can be variable, perhaps due to inconsistent positioning of the active contact relative to an unknown optimal locus of stimulation. Here, we determine the optimal locus of STN stimulation in a geometrically unconstrained, mathematically precise, and atlas-independent manner, using Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor outcomes and an electrophysiological neuronal stimulation model...
May 23, 2018: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790971/brain-activity-associated-with-attention-deficits-following-chemotherapy-for-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#5
Slim Fellah, Yin T Cheung, Matthew A Scoggins, Ping Zou, Noah D Sabin, Ching-Hon Pui, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Robert J Ogg, Kevin R Krull
Background: The impact of contemporary chemotherapy treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia on central nervous system activity is not fully appreciated. Methods: Neurocognitive testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were obtained in 165 survivors five or more years postdiagnosis (average age = 14.4 years, 7.7 years from diagnosis, 51.5% males). Chemotherapy exposure was measured as serum concentration of methotrexate following high-dose intravenous injection...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789914/correlation-based-perfusion-mapping-using-time-resolved-mr-angiography-a-feasibility-study-for-patients-with-suspicions-of-steno-occlusive-craniocervical-arteries
#6
Yoonho Nam, Jinhee Jang, Sonya Youngju Park, Hyun Seok Choi, So-Lyung Jung, Kook-Jin Ahn, Bum-Soo Kim
PURPOSE: To explore the feasibility of using correlation-based time-delay (CTD) maps produced from time-resolved MR angiography (TRMRA) to diagnose perfusion abnormalities in patients suspected to have steno-occlusive lesions in the craniocervical arteries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven patients who were suspected to have steno-occlusive lesions in the craniocervical arteries underwent both TRMRA and brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
May 22, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789657/the-cooh-terminal-domain-of-huntingtin-interacts-with-rhogef-kalirin-and-modulates-cell-survival
#7
Hollis McClory, Xiaolong Wang, Ellen Sapp, Leah W Gatune, Maria Iuliano, Chiu-Yi Wu, Gina Nathwani, Kimberly B Kegel-Gleason, Marian DiFiglia, Xueyi Li
Human huntingtin (Htt) contains 3144 amino acids and has an expanded polyglutamine region near the NH2 -terminus in patients with Huntington's disease. While numerous binding partners have been identified to NH2 -terminal Htt, fewer proteins are known to interact with C-terminal domains of Htt. Here we report that kalirin, a Rac1 activator, is a binding partner to C-terminal Htt. Kalirin and Htt co-precipitated from mouse brain endosomes and co-localized at puncta in NRK and immortalized striatal cells and primary cortical neurons...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789530/efficient-blood-brain-barrier-opening-in-primates-with-neuronavigation-guided-ultrasound-and-real-time-acoustic-mapping
#8
Shih-Ying Wu, Christian Aurup, Carlos Sierra Sanchez, Julien Grondin, Wenlan Zheng, Hermes Kamimura, Vincent P Ferrera, Elisa E Konofagou
Brain diseases including neurological disorders and tumors remain under treated due to the challenge to access the brain, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricting drug delivery which, also profoundly limits the development of pharmacological treatment. Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles is the sole method to open the BBB noninvasively, locally, and transiently and facilitate drug delivery, while translation to the clinic is challenging due to long procedure, targeting limitations, or invasiveness of current systems...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788845/brain-perfusion-evaluated-by-regional-tissue-oxygenation-as-a-possible-quality-indicator-of-ongoing-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-an-experimental-porcine-cardiac-arrest-study
#9
Tomáš Bouček, Mikuláš Mlček, Petra Krupičková, Michal Huptych, Tomáš Belza, Otomar Kittnar, Aleš Linhart, Jan Bělohlávek
INTRODUCTION: Relationship between regional tissue oxygenation (rSO2 ) and microcirculatory changes during cardiac arrest (CA) are still unclear. Therefore, we designed an experimental study to correlate rSO2 , microcirculation and systemic hemodynamic parameters in a porcine model of CA. METHODS: Ventricular fibrillation was induced in 24 female pigs (50±3kg) and left for three minutes untreated followed by five minutes of mechanical CPR. Regional and peripheral saturations were assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy, sublingual microcirculation by Sidestream Dark Field technology and continuous hemodynamic parameters, including systemic blood pressure (MAP) and carotid blood flow (CF), during baseline, CA and CPR periods...
May 2018: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788460/general-principles-for-pial-synangiosis-in-pediatric-moyamoya-patients-2-dimensional-operative-video
#10
David L Penn, Kyle C Wu, Kayla R Presswood, Coleman P Riordan, R Michael Scott, Edward R Smith
Pial synangiosis is a method of indirect surgical revascularization developed at our institution for the treatment of moyamoya disease in pediatric patients. Similar surgical principles are employed in adult cases, often performed because of lack of an adequate donor vessel. Standardized protocols, including preadmission for preoperative intravenous hydration and aspirin administration, as well as intraoperative electroencephalography, are routinely employed to minimize operative risk. Perioperative heparinization is not required...
May 18, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787867/investigating-common-coding-of-observed-and-executed-actions-in-the-monkey-brain-using-cross-modal-multi-variate-fmri-classification
#11
Prosper Agbesi Fiave, Saloni Sharma, Jan Jastorff, Koen Nelissen
Mirror neurons are generally described as a neural substrate hosting shared representations of actions, by simulating or 'mirroring' the actions of others onto the observers' own motor system. Since single neuron recordings are rarely feasible in humans, it has been argued that cross-modal multi-variate pattern analysis (MVPA) of non-invasive fMRI data is a suitable technique to investigate common coding of observed and executed actions, allowing researchers to infer the presence of mirror neurons in the human brain...
May 19, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786614/a-novel-optimization-framework-for-vmat-with-dynamic-gantry-couch-rotation
#12
Qihui Lyu, Victoria Y Yu, Dan Ruan, Ryan Neph, Daniel O'Connor, Ke Sheng
Existing Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) optimization using coplanar arcs is highly efficient but usually dosimetrically inferior to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with optimized non-coplanar beams. To achieve both dosimetric quality and delivery efficiency, we proposed in this study, a novel integrated optimization method for non-coplanar VMAT (4πVMAT). 4πVMAT with Direct Aperture Optimization (DAO) was achieved by utilizing a least square dose fidelity objective, along with an anisotropic total variation term for regularizing the fluence smoothness, a single segment term for imposing simple apertures, and a group sparsity term for selecting beam angles...
May 22, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785582/altered-cerebro-cerebellum-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-hiv-infected-male-patients
#13
Huijuan Wang, Ruili Li, Yawen Zhou, Yanming Wang, Jin Cui, Benedictor Alexander Nguchu, Bensheng Qiu, Xiaoxiao Wang, Hongjun Li
In addition to the role of planning and executing movement, the cerebellum greatly contributes to cognitive process. Numerous studies have reported structural and functional abnormalities in the cerebellum for HIV-infected patients, but little is known about the altered functional connectivity of particular cerebellar subregions and the cerebrum. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes of the cerebellum and further analyze the relationship between the rsFC changes and the neuropsychological evaluation...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785360/identical-patterns-of-cortico-efferent-tract-involvement-in-primary-lateral-sclerosis-and-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-tract-of-interest-based-mri-study
#14
Hans-Peter Müller, Martin Gorges, Rebecca Kassubek, Johannes Dorst, Albert C Ludolph, Jan Kassubek
Background: There is an ongoing debate whether primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) should be regarded as an independent disease entity separate from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or as a slowly progressive variant of ALS. Objective: The study was designed to investigate specific white matter alterations in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from PLS patients by a hypothesis-guided tract-of-interest-based approach compared with 'classical' ALS patients and healthy controls, in order to identify microstructural changes according to the neuropathologically defined ALS affectation pattern in vivo...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785359/white-matter-microstructure-white-matter-lesions-and-hypertension-an-examination-of-early-surrogate-markers-of-vascular-related-brain-change-in-midlife
#15
Thaddeus Haight, R Nick Bryan, Guray Erus, Meng-Kang Hsieh, Christos Davatzikos, Ilya Nasrallah, Mark D'Esposito, David R Jacobs, Cora Lewis, Pamela Schreiner, Stephen Sidney, Osorio Meirelles, Lenore J Launer
Objective: We examined imaging surrogates of white matter microstructural abnormalities which may precede white matter lesions (WML) and represent a relevant marker of cerebrovascular injury in adults in midlife. Methods: In 698 community-dwelling adults (mean age 50 years ±3.5 SD) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Brain MRI sub-study, WML were identified on structural MR and fractional anisotropy (FA), representing WM microstructural integrity, was derived using Diffusion Tensor Imaging...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785110/prefrontoparietal-dysfunction-during-emotion-regulation-in-anxiety-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#16
Hai-Yang Wang, Xiao-Xia Zhang, Cui-Ping Si, Yang Xu, Qian Liu, He-Tao Bian, Bing-Wei Zhang, Xue-Lin Li, Zhong-Rui Yan
Objective: Impairments in emotion regulation, and more specifically in cognitive reappraisal, are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. However, the available evidence on such deficits is inconsistent. To further illustrate the neurobiological underpinnings of anxiety disorder, the present meta-analysis summarizes functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings for cognitive reappraisal tasks and investigates related brain areas. Methods: We performed a comprehensive series of meta-analyses of cognitive reappraisal fMRI studies contrasting patients with anxiety disorder with healthy control (HC) subjects, employing an anisotropic effect-size signed differential mapping approach...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785013/genetic-identification-of-brain-cell-types-underlying-schizophrenia
#17
Nathan G Skene, Julien Bryois, Trygve E Bakken, Gerome Breen, James J Crowley, Héléna A Gaspar, Paola Giusti-Rodriguez, Rebecca D Hodge, Jeremy A Miller, Ana B Muñoz-Manchado, Michael C O'Donovan, Michael J Owen, Antonio F Pardiñas, Jesper Ryge, James T R Walters, Sten Linnarsson, Ed S Lein, Patrick F Sullivan, Jens Hjerling-Leffler
With few exceptions, the marked advances in knowledge about the genetic basis of schizophrenia have not converged on findings that can be confidently used for precise experimental modeling. By applying knowledge of the cellular taxonomy of the brain from single-cell RNA sequencing, we evaluated whether the genomic loci implicated in schizophrenia map onto specific brain cell types. We found that the common-variant genomic results consistently mapped to pyramidal cells, medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and certain interneurons, but far less consistently to embryonic, progenitor or glial cells...
May 21, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783119/in-vivo-imaging-of-neuronal-calcium-during-electrode-implantation-spatial-and-temporal-mapping-of-damage-and-recovery
#18
James R Eles, Alberto L Vazquez, Takashi D Y Kozai, X Tracy Cui
Implantable electrode devices enable long-term electrophysiological recordings for brain-machine interfaces and basic neuroscience research. Implantation of these devices, however, leads to neuronal damage and progressive neural degeneration that can lead to device failure. The present study uses in vivo two-photon microscopy to study the calcium activity and morphology of neurons before, during, and one month after electrode implantation to determine how implantation trauma injures neurons. We show that implantation leads to prolonged, elevated calcium levels in neurons within 150 μm of the electrode interface...
May 7, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782884/semi-automated-quantification-and-neuroanatomical-mapping-of-heterogeneous-cell-populations
#19
Oscar A Mendez, Colin J Potter, Michael Valdez, Thomas Bello, Theodore P Trouard, Anita A Koshy
BACKGROUND: Our group studies the interactions between cells of the brain and the neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Using an in vivo system that allows us to permanently mark and identify brain cells injected with Toxoplasma protein, we have identified that Toxoplasma-injected neurons (TINs) are heterogeneously distributed throughout the brain. Unfortunately, standard methods to quantify and map heterogeneous cell populations onto a reference brain atlas are time consuming and prone to user bias...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781808/tensor-driven-extraction-of-developmental-features-from-varying-paediatric-eeg-datasets
#20
Eli Kinney-Lang, Loukianos Spyrou, Ahmed Ebied, Richard Fm Chin, Javier Escudero
Constant changes in developing children's brains can pose a challenge in EEG dependant technologies. Advancing signal processing methods to identify developmental differences in paediatric populations could help improve function and usability of such technologies. Taking advantage of the multi-dimensional structure of EEG data through tensor analysis may offer a framework for extracting relevant developmental features of paediatric datasets. A proof of concept is demonstrated through identifying latent developmental features in resting-state EEG...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
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