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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635498/effect-of-age-related-hearing-loss-on-the-click-rate-induced-facilitation-of-acoustic-reflex-thresholds
#1
Vishakha Waman Rawool
OBJECTIVE: This investigation was designed to evaluate the effect of age-related hearing loss on the click-rate-induced improvement in the acoustic reflex thresholds. DESIGN: Case-control study. STUDY SAMPLE: Data from five different adults ear-groups (15 ears each) were included in the study: 1. Younger with normal hearing. 2. Older with normal hearing. 3. Older with mild high-frequency loss. 4. Older with moderate high-frequency loss. 5...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633698/feasibility-of-a-streamlined-tuberculosis-diagnosis-and-treatment-initiation-strategy
#2
P B Shete, T Nalugwa, K Farr, C Ojok, M Nantale, P Howlett, P Haguma, E Ochom, F Mugabe, M Joloba, L H Chaisson, D W Dowdy, D Moore, J L Davis, A Katamba, A Cattamanchi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of a streamlined strategy for improving tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic evaluation and treatment initiation among patients with presumed TB. DESIGN: Single-arm interventional pilot study at five primary care health centers of a streamlined, SIngle-saMPLE (SIMPLE) TB diagnostic evaluation strategy: 1) examination of two smear results from a single spot sputum specimen using light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy, and 2) daily transportation of smear-negative sputum samples to Xpert® MTB/RIF testing sites...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631643/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-detection-and-characterization-of-mutations-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-genotype-mtbdrplus
#3
Rajneesh Tripathi, Shampa Anupurba
Detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by conventional phenotypic drug susceptibility testing methods requires several weeks. Therefore, molecular diagnostic tests for rapid detection of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are urgently needed. Early diagnosis helps in initiating optimal treatment which would not only enable cure of an individual patient but also will curb the transmission of drug resistance in the community. Line probe assay (LPA) has shown great promises in the diagnosis of MDR-TB...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630857/effectiveness-of-a-commercial-lactic-acid-bacteria-intervention-applied-to-inhibit-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-on-refrigerated-vacuum-aged-beef
#4
Katie R Kirsch, Tamra N Tolen, Jessica C Hudson, Alejandro Castillo, Davey Griffin, T Matthew Taylor
Because of their antagonistic activity towards pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, some members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been evaluated for use as food biopreservatives. The objectives of this study were to assess the antimicrobial utility of a commercial LAB intervention against O157 and non-O157 Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC) on intact beef strip loins during refrigerated vacuum aging and determine intervention efficacy as a function of mode of intervention application. Prerigor strip loins were inoculated with a cocktail (8...
2017: International journal of food science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628437/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-infections-at-a-provincial-reference-hospital-cambodia
#5
Maryline Bonnet, Kim Chamroeun San, Yati Pho, Chandara Sok, Jean-Philippe Dousset, William Brant, Northan Hurtado, Khun Kim Eam, Elisa Ardizzoni, Seiha Heng, Sylvain Godreuil, Wing-Wai Yew, Cathy Hewison
Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is poorly documented in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB). We describe prevalence, risk factors, and TB program implications for NTM isolates and disease in Cambodia. A prospective cohort of 1,183 patients with presumptive TB underwent epidemiologic, clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic evaluation, including >12-months of follow-up for patients with NTM isolates. Prevalence of NTM isolates was 10.8% and of disease was 0.9%; 217 (18...
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627431/evaluation-of-the-quantamatrix-multiplexed-assay-platform-system-for-simultaneous-detection-of-mycobacteirum-tuberculosis-and-rifampicin-resistance-gene-using-culture-positive-mycobacteria
#6
Hye-Young Wang, Young Uh, Seoyong Kim, Tae-Sun Shim, Hyeyoung Lee
BACKGROUND: The differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is of primary importance for infection control and choice of anti-tuberculosis drugs. Prevailing data on rifampicin (RIF)-resistant TB is essential for early management of multidrug resistant-TB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a newly developed multiplexed, bead-based bioassay (Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform; QMAP) for the rapid differentiation of 23 Mycobacterium species including MTBC and RIF-resistant strains...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622763/treatment-decisions-and-mortality-in-hiv-positive-presumptive-smear-negative-tb-in-the-xpert%C3%A2-mtb-rif-era-a-cohort-study
#7
Sabine M Hermans, Juliet A Babirye, Olive Mbabazi, Francis Kakooza, Robert Colebunders, Barbara Castelnuovo, Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi, Yukari C Manabe
BACKGROUND: The Xpert™ MTB/RIF (XP) has a higher sensitivity than sputum smear microscopy (70% versus 35%) for TB diagnosis and has been endorsed by the WHO for TB high burden countries to increase case finding among HIV co-infected presumptive TB patients. Its impact on the diagnosis of smear-negative TB in a routine care setting is unclear. We determined the change in diagnosis, treatment and mortality of smear-negative presumptive TB with routine use of Xpert MTB/RIF (XP). METHODS: Prospective cohort study of HIV-positive smear-negative presumptive TB patients during a 12-month period after XP implementation in a well-staffed and trained integrated TB/HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda...
June 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622509/antibacterial-nucleoside-analog-inhibitor-of-bacterial-rna-polymerase
#8
Sonia I Maffioli, Yu Zhang, David Degen, Thomas Carzaniga, Giancarlo Del Gatto, Stefania Serina, Paolo Monciardini, Carlo Mazzetti, Paola Guglierame, Gianpaolo Candiani, Alina Iulia Chiriac, Giuseppe Facchetti, Petra Kaltofen, Hans-Georg Sahl, Gianni Dehò, Stefano Donadio, Richard H Ebright
Drug-resistant bacterial pathogens pose an urgent public-health crisis. Here, we report the discovery, from microbial-extract screening, of a nucleoside-analog inhibitor that inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) and exhibits antibacterial activity against drug-resistant bacterial pathogens: pseudouridimycin (PUM). PUM is a natural product comprising a formamidinylated, N-hydroxylated Gly-Gln dipeptide conjugated to 6'-amino-pseudouridine. PUM potently and selectively inhibits bacterial RNAP in vitro, inhibits bacterial growth in culture, and clears infection in a mouse model of Streptococcus pyogenes peritonitis...
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619229/cost-effectiveness-of-xpert-mtb-rif-for-tuberculosis-diagnosis-in-south-africa-a-real-world-cost-analysis-and-economic-evaluation
#9
Anna Vassall, Mariana Siapka, Nicola Foster, Lucy Cunnama, Lebogang Ramma, Katherine Fielding, Kerrigan McCarthy, Gavin Churchyard, Alison Grant, Edina Sinanovic
BACKGROUND: In 2010 a new diagnostic test for tuberculosis, Xpert MTB/RIF, received a conditional programmatic recommendation from WHO. Several model-based economic evaluations predicted that Xpert would be cost-effective across sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the cost-effectiveness of Xpert in the real world during national roll-out in South Africa. METHODS: For this real-world cost analysis and economic evaluation, we applied extensive primary cost and patient event data from the XTEND study, a pragmatic trial examining Xpert introduction for people investigated for tuberculosis in 40 primary health facilities (20 clusters) in South Africa enrolled between June 8, and Nov 16, 2012, to estimate the costs and cost per disability-adjusted life-year averted of introducing Xpert as the initial diagnostic test for tuberculosis, compared with sputum smear microscopy (the standard of care)...
July 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612135/comparative-study-of-genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-and-multiplex-pcr-assay-for-direct-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-suspected-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients
#10
Anil Kumar Sah, Bishnu Joshi, Dhruba Kumar Khadka, Birendra Prasad Gupta, Anurag Adhikari, Subodh Kant Singh, Ganesh Rai, Geeta Shrestha Vaidya, Reema Rajbhandari, Basant Pant, Shiba Kumar Rai
Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is one of the major infectious diseases in developing countries. The objective of this study was to compare rapid diagnostics technique, GeneXpert MTB/RIF (GeneXpert) and Multiplex PCR assay (MPCR) targeting IS6110 segment and mpb64 gene for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in suspected PTB patients. A cross sectional study was carried among 105 sputum samples from suspected PTB patients to evaluate GeneXpert and Multiplex PCR who visited National Tuberculosis Center, Nepal...
June 13, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611407/evaluation-of-the-mtbdrplus-2-0-assay-for-the-detection-of-multidrug-resistance-among-persons-with-presumptive-pulmonary-tb-in-china
#11
Yaoju Tan, Qiang Li, Qing Wang, Huiping Sun, Jin Chen, Xingshan Cai, Yinchai Yao, Xundi Bao, Chao Wang, Yuan Liu, Xia Wu, Yu Pang, Yanlin Zhao
We have conducted a multicenter study of the diagnostic accuracy of the MTBDRplus 2.0 assay in compared with conventional and molecular reference standard in four tuberculosis (TB)-specialized hospitals of China. A total of 5038 patients were enrolled in this study. The overall sensitivity of the assay for the diagnosis of TB was 92.7% [1723/1858, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 91.5-93.9]. In smear-positive/culture-positive cases the sensitivity was 97.7% (995/1018, 95% CI: 96.6-98.6), whereas in smear-negative/culture-positive cases it was 86...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610794/molecular-mechanisms-of-action-resistance-detection-to-the-first-line-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-rifampicin-and-pyrazinamide-in-the-post-whole-genome-sequencing-era
#12
REVIEW
Ameeruddin Nusrath Unissa, Luke Elizabeth Hanna
Recent studies in addition to studies based on whole genome sequencing (WGS) of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) from diverse geographical regions have provided useful insights into the mechanisms of drug resistance. Of importance, are some of the findings pertaining to mechanisms of resistance to two of the first-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs, namely, rifampicin (RIF) and pyrazinamide (PZA). For example, the implication of mutations in rpoA and rpoC genes that act as compensatory mutations for those in the rpoB gene with respect to RIF resistance is noteworthy...
July 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610793/a-novel-automatic-molecular-test-for-detection-of-multidrug-resistance-tuberculosis-in-sputum-specimen-a-case-control-study
#13
Qiang Li, Xi C Ou, Yu Pang, Hui Xia, Hai R Huang, Bing Zhao, Sheng F Wang, Yan L Zhao
MiniLab tuberculosis (ML TB) assay is a new automatic diagnostic tool for diagnosis of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB). This study was conducted with aims to know the performance of this assay. Sputum sample from 224 TB suspects was collected from tuberculosis suspects seeking medical care at Beijing Chest hospital. The sputum samples were directly used for smear and ML TB test. The left sputum sample was used to conduct Xpert MTB/RIF, Bactec MGIT culture and drug susceptibility test (DST). All discrepancies between the results from DST, molecular and phenotypic methods were confirmed by DNA Sequencing...
July 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608596/live-birth-rate-following-oral-antibiotic-treatment-for-chronic-endometritis-in-infertile-women-with-repeated-implantation-failure
#14
Kotaro Kitaya, Hidehiko Matsubayashi, Yukiko Takaya, Rie Nishiyama, Kohei Yamaguchi, Takumi Takeuchi, Tomomoto Ishikawa
PROBLEM: The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the prevalence of chronic endometritis (CE) in infertile women with a history of repeated implantation failure (RIF) and to determine whether oral antibiotic treatment improves their live birth rate in the following embryo transfer (ET) cycles. METHOD OF STUDY: Endometrial biopsy samples obtained from infertile women with RIF were subjected to immunohistochemistrical/histopathologic diagnosis of CE. Following antibiotic administration to the RIF/CE group, their histopathologic cure rate, microbial detection rate, and reproductive outcome in the subsequent ET cycles were prospectively studied...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602479/recurrent-implantation-failure-is-a-pathology-with-a-specific-transcriptomic-signature
#15
REVIEW
Nick Macklon
Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is a source of distress and frustration to both patients and their clinicians. In the absence of clinically useful tests, the therapeutic approach has been largely empirical, with limited efficacy. In recent years, new insights into the role of the endometrium in implantation have emerged, and a number of dysfunctions that may underlie implantation failure have been characterized. These point to the presence, in some patients, of an underlying endometrial pathology. In this article, the case is made that constitutive (rather than maturation) defects underlying RIF can be identified...
June 8, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602478/short-term-copper-intrauterine-device-placement-improves-the-implantation-and-pregnancy-rates-in-women-with-repeated-implantation-failure
#16
Xiaoyan Mao, Jie Zhang, Qiuju Chen, Yanping Kuang, Shaozhen Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To study if hysteroscopy and short-term copper intrauterine device placement (Cu-IUD) improves the pregnancy rates of women with repeated implantation failure (RIF) undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET). DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Medical university hospital. PATIENT(S): Infertile women with at least two implantation failures with the use of at least one good-quality embryo. INTERVENTION(S): All patients received operative hysteroscopy in the follicular cycle, and if endometrial polyps, polypoid endometrium, or intrauterine adhesions were found they were removed...
June 8, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601524/rifampin-stability-and-solution-concentration-enhancement-through-amorphous-solid-dispersion-in-cellulose-%C3%AF-carboxyalkanoate-matrices
#17
Hale Çiğdem Arca, Laura I Mosquera-Giraldo, Junia M Pereira, Nammalwar Sriranganathan, Lynne S Taylor, Kevin J Edgar
Tuberculosis (TB) is a deadly infectious disease; approximately 2 billion people are currently latently infected with the causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Approximately 8 million new active cases and 2 million deaths due to TB are recorded annually(1). Rifampin (Rif) is a vital first line TB treatment drug. Its effectiveness is hampered by the high dose required (600 mg 1x/day) and by its moderate, variable bioavailability. These issues can be explained by Rif instability at gastric pH, limited solubility at neutral pH, polymorphism, and stimulation of its own metabolism...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596140/formation-characterization-and-ph-dependence-of-rifampicin-heptakis-2-6-di-o-methyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-complexes
#18
Lorenzo Angiolini, Marco Agnes, Boiko Cohen, Konstantina Yannakopoulou, Abderrazzak Douhal
Rifampicin (Rif) is a broad spectrum antibiotic used as a first line agent in the treatment of mycobacterial infections. However, its low solubility and reduced stability in water limit its bioavailability, thus requiring the use of complex formulations. Here, we present a systematic study of Rif in complex with a methylated cyclodextrin, heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DIMEB), in phosphate buffer using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and steady-state UV-Visible spectroscopic methods An increase in the stability and solubility of Rif in complex with DIMEB was observed in buffered solutions (phosphate, PBS)...
June 5, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592547/performance-of-the-abbott-realtime-mtb-and-mtb-rif-inh-assays-in-a-high-tb-and-hiv-coinfection-setting-in-south-africa
#19
Lesley Scott, Anura David, Lara Noble, Matilda Nduna, Pedro Da Silva, Andrew Black, Francois Venter, Wendy Stevens
Background: South Africa is a country with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), complicated by coinfection with HIV. The Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is used in South Africa as the test for initial diagnosis of TB, and other molecular platforms such as the m2000 (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA) are widely used for molecular monitoring of HIV viral load. This latter platform is now also equipped with the RealTime MTB and RealTime MTB RIF/INH assays for TB and first line drug resistance screening, but has not been evaluated in settings of HIV and TB coinfection...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591399/detection-of-tuberculosis-drug-resistance-a-comparison-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-mlpa-assay-versus-genotype%C3%A2-mtbdrplus
#20
Paula Fernanda Gonçalves Dos Santos, Elis Regina Dalla Costa, Daniela M Ramalho, Maria Lucia Rossetti, Regina Bones Barcellos, Luciana de Souza Nunes, Leonardo Souza Esteves, Rodrigo Rodenbusch, Richard M Anthony, Indra Bergval, Sarah Sengstake, Miguel Viveiros, Afrânio Kritski, Martha M Oliveira
BACKGROUND: To cope with the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), new molecular methods that can routinely be used to screen for a wide range of drug resistance related genetic markers in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome are urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of multiplex ligaton-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) against Genotype® MTBDRplus to detect resistance to isoniazid (INHr) and rifampicin (RIFr). METHOD: 96 culture isolates characterised for identification, drug susceptibility testing (DST) and sequencing of rpoB, katG, and inhA genes were evaluated by the MLPA and Genotype®MTBDRplus assays...
June 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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