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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447869/mitigation-of-discordant-rifampicin-susceptibility-results-obtained-by-xpert-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rifampicin-and-mycobacterium-growth-indicator-tube
#1
Elmira Gurbanova, Rafail Mehdiyev, Kai Blondal, Rasim Tahirli, Fuad Mirzayev, Doris Hillemann, Asker Ismayilov, Alan Altraja
BACKGROUND: Simultaneous use of genotypic and phenotypic diagnostic tools for detection of rifampicin (RIF) susceptibility may yield discrepant results. OBJECTIVE: To measure the discordance between the RIF-susceptibility results by Xpert MTB/RIF and Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT), to evaluate if application of both tests to the same sample affects the discrepancy, and to evaluate treatment outcome in patients with the discordant strains. DESIGN: Sputa from patients with tuberculosis managed in the penitentiary system of Azerbaijan during 2011-2015 were examined for RIF susceptibility using Xpert MTB/RIF and MGIT...
April 27, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446574/the-use-of-genexpert-remnants-for-drug-resistance-profiling-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-in-libreville-gabon
#2
Amel Kévin Alame-Emane, Catherine Pierre-Audigier, Oriane Cordelia Aboumegone-Biyogo, Amandine Nzoghe-Mveang, Véronique Cadet-Daniel, Christophe Sola, Joël Fleury Djoba-Siawaya, Brigitte Gicquel, Howard E Takiff
Multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis are major problems in global health. The GeneXpertMTB/RIF (Xpert) rapidly detects resistance to rifampicin (RIF-R), but detection of the additional resistance that defines MDR and XDR-TB, and for molecular epidemiology, specimen cultures and biosafe infrastructure are generally required. We sought to determine whether the remnants of sputa prepared for Xpert could be used directly to find mutations associated with drug resistance and for molecular epidemiology, and thus provide a precise characterization of MDR-TB cases in countries lacking BSL3 facilities for M...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442117/tuberculosis-toxoplasmosis-co-infection-in-egyptian-patients-a-reciprocal-impact
#3
Mervat Mashaly, Nairmen Nabih, Iman M Fawzy, Abeer A El Henawy
OBJECTIVE: To assess the concurrent toxoplasmosis infection in Egyptian TB patients and the impact of each infection on the other in terms of increased severity of TB or reactivation of latent Toxoplasma infection. METHODS: Three hundred suspected pulmonary TB cases were initially screened for TB using direct Ziehl Neelsen staining and Lowenstein Jensen culture of their sputa. Rifampicin resistance was detected by Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Control group of 30 age and sex-matched healthy individuals negative for TB was included for comparison...
March 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441042/aberrantly-expressed-long-noncoding-rnas-in-recurrent-implantation-failure-a-microarray-related-study
#4
Li-Juan Fan, Hong-Jing Han, Jing Guan, Xiao-Wei Zhang, Qing-Hua Cui, Huan Shen, Cheng Shi
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides. They were long regarded as transcription noise for their low expression and non-protein coding features. Recent published reports indicate that lncRNAs are involved in virtually every aspect of human biology. We aimed to profile the endometrial lncRNA expression pattern in women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) and predict the function of the genes of the dysregulated lncRNA transcripts. Endometrial samples (24) were collected during window of implantation (14 RIF women and 10 women who conceived after embryo transfer)...
April 25, 2017: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438139/digital-cxr-with-computer-aided-diagnosis-versus-symptom-screen-to-define-presumptive-tuberculosis-among-household-contacts-and-impact-on-tuberculosis-diagnosis
#5
Monde Muyoyeta, Nkatya Chanda Kasese, Deborah Milimo, Isaac Mushanga, Mapopa Ndhlovu, Nathan Kapata, Maureen Moyo-Chilufya, Helen Ayles
BACKGROUND: Household (HH) contact tracing is a strategy that targets high risk groups for TB. Symptom based screening is the standard used to identify HH contacts at risk for TB during HH contact tracing for TB. However, this strategy may be limited due to poor performance in predicting TB. The objective of this study was to compare CXR with Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) against symptom screen for defining presumptive TB and how TB detection changes with each method. METHODS: Household contacts of consecutive index bacteriologically confirmed TB cases were visited by study teams and given TB/HIV education to raise awareness of the risk of TB following close contact with a TB patient...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438132/early-detection-of-multidrug-and-pre-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-from-smear-positive-sputum-by-direct-sequencing
#6
Jun Chen, Peng Peng, Yixiang Du, Yi Ren, Lifeng Chen, Youyi Rao, Weihua Wang
BACKGROUND: Emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) is a major hurdle for TB control programs especially in developing countries like China. Resistance to fluoroquinolones is high among MDR-TB patients. Early diagnosis of MDR/pre-XDR-TB is essential for lowering transmission of drug-resistant TB and adjusting the treatment regimen. METHODS: Smear-positive sputum specimens (n = 186) were collected from Wuhan Institute for Tuberculosis Control...
April 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430807/diagnosis-of-smear-negative-tuberculosis-is-greatly-improved-by-xpert-mtb-rif
#7
Giulia Lombardi, Valentina Di Gregori, Nicolò Girometti, Marina Tadolini, Francesco Bisognin, Paola Dal Monte
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of pulmonary (PTB) and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in smear-negative patients can be difficult. We assessed retrospectively the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF system (Xpert, Cepheid) in diagnosing smear-negative tuberculosis (TB), which represents the most common form of TB in a low incidence setting. METHODS: Performance of Xpert was compared to acid-fast microscopic examination using Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain in patients with culture-confirmed TB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425873/rapid-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-rifampicin-resistance-in-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-and-sputum-smear-negative-pulmonary-suspects-using-xpert-mtb-rif
#8
Irfan Ullah, Arshad Javaid, Haleema Masud, Mazhar Ali, Anila Basit, Waqas Ahmad, Faisal Younis, Rehana Yasmin, Afsar Khan, Abdul Jabbar, Masroor Husain, Zahid Ahmad Butt
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health problem in developing countries such as Pakistan. Rapid diagnosis of TB and detection of drug resistance are very important for timely and appropriate management of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic efficacy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for rapid diagnosis of TB and detection of rifampicin (RIF) resistance in extrapulmonary and smear-negative pulmonary TB suspects...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422984/the-impact-of-atosiban-on-pregnancy-outcomes-in-women-undergoing-in-vitro-fertilization-embryo-transfer-a-meta-analysis
#9
Qian-Yi Huang, Min-Hua Rong, Ai-Hua Lan, Xiao-Miao Lin, Xing-Gu Lin, Rong-Quan He, Gang Chen, Mu-Jun Li
BACKGROUND: Atosiban is administered to women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) to improve pregnancy outcomes. However, the results of this treatment were controversial. We conducted this meta-analysis to investigate whether atosiban improves pregnancy outcomes in the women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). METHODS: Databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, China BioMedicine, and Google Scholar were systematically searched. Meta-analyses were performed to investigate whether atosiban improves pregnancy outcomes in the women undergoing IVF...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421119/influences-of-realgar-indigo-naturalis-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-formula-on-the-main-cyp450-activities-in-rats-using-a-cocktail-method
#10
Huan-Hua Xu, Fei-Ran Hao, Mei-Xi Wang, Si-Jia Ren, Ming Li, Hong-Ling Tan, Yu-Guang Wang, Xiang-Lin Tang, Cheng-Rong Xiao, Qian-De Liang, Yue Gao, Zeng-Chun Ma
The purpose of this work was to study the influences of Realgar-Indigo naturalis (RIF) and its principal element realgar on 4 main cytochrome P450 enzymes activities in rats. A simple and efficient cocktail method was developed to detect the four probe drugs simultaneously. In this study, Wistar rats were administered intragastric RIF and realgar for 14 days; mixed probe drugs were injected into rats by caudal vein. Through analyzing the pharmacokinetic parameter of mixed probe drugs in rats, we can calculate the CYPs activities...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413105/investigation-of-omnigene%C3%A2-sputum-performance-in-delayed-tuberculosis-testing-by-smear-culture-and-xpert-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rif-assays-in-uganda
#11
Cassandra D Kelly-Cirino, P S Curry
OMNIgene·SPUTUM (OM-S) is a sample transport reagent designed to work with all tuberculosis diagnostics while eliminating the need for cold chain. OM-S-treated sputum samples were assayed in several tests after multiday holds. Raw sputa from 100 patients underwent direct smear microscopy, were manually split and assigned to the OM-S group [OM-S added at collection (no other processing required) and tested after 0- to 5-day holds at room temperature] or standard-of-care (SOC) group (NaOH/N-acetyl l-cysteine decontamination, all tested on day of collection)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399964/pooling-sputum-samples-to-improve-the-feasibility-of-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif-in-systematic-screening-for-tuberculosis
#12
J Ho, P Jelfs, P T B Nguyen, V Sintchenko, G J Fox, G B Marks
SETTING: Systematic screening for tuberculosis (TB) using Xpert® MTB/RIF. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pooling sputum samples for Xpert testing may improve the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of Xpert by reducing the number of Xpert tests required. DESIGN: Mycobacterium tuberculosis-spiked sputum samples at low organism concentrations were used to mimic samples that are more likely to be found in the screening, compared to the diagnostic, setting...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399963/diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif-cycle-threshold-level-to-predict-smear-positivity-a-meta-analysis
#13
B Lange, P Khan, G Kalmambetova, H A Al-Darraji, D Alland, U Antonenka, T Brown, M E Balcells, R Blakemore, C M Denkinger, K Dheda, H Hoffmann, A Kadyrov, N Lemaitre, M B Miller, V Nikolayevskyy, E N Ntinginya, N Ozkutuk, J J Palacios, E B Popowitch, J M Porcel, J Teo, G Theron, K Kranzer
SETTING: Xpert® MTB/RIF is the most widely used molecular assay for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The number of polymerase chain reaction cycles after which detectable product is generated (cycle threshold value, CT) correlates with the bacillary burden.OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between Xpert CT values and smear status through a systematic review and individual-level data meta-analysis. DESIGN: Studies on the association between CT values and smear status were included in a descriptive systematic review...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398162/control-over-interfering-memories-in-eating-disorders
#14
Davide Francesco Stramaccia, Barbara Penolazzi, Arianna Libardi, Aldo Genovese, Luigi Castelli, Daniela Palomba, Giovanni Galfano
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have suggested that patients suffering from either anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) exhibit abnormal performance in the ability to control cognitive interference in response selection. METHOD: We assessed the status of cognitive control in episodic memory by addressing the ability to inhibit interfering memories. To this end, we used the retrieval-practice paradigm, which allows for measuring both the beneficial and the detrimental effects of memory practice...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396527/leveraging-of-rifampicin-dosed-cynomolgus-monkeys-to-identify-bile-acid-3-o-sulfate-conjugates-as-potential-novel-biomarkers-for-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptides
#15
Rhishikesh Thakare, Hongying Gao, Rachel E Kosa, Yi-An Bi, Manthena V S Varma, Matthew Cerny, Raman Sharma, Max Kuhn, Bingshou Huang, Yiping Liu, Aijia Yu, Gregory S Walker, Mark Niosi, Larry M Tremaine, Yazen Alnouti, A David Rodrigues
In the search for novel bile acid (BA) biomarkers of liver organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs), cynomolgus monkeys received oral rifampicin (RIF) at four dose levels (1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) that generated plasma free Cmax values (0.06, 0.66, 2.57 and 7.79 μM, respectively) that covered the reported in vitro IC50s for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 (≤ 1.7 μM). As expected, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of an OATP probe drug (intravenous (2)H4-pitavastatin, 0.2 mg/kg) was increased 1...
April 10, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392175/structural-basis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-transcription-and-transcription-inhibition
#16
Wei Lin, Soma Mandal, David Degen, Yu Liu, Yon W Ebright, Shengjian Li, Yu Feng, Yu Zhang, Sukhendu Mandal, Yi Jiang, Shuang Liu, Matthew Gigliotti, Meliza Talaue, Nancy Connell, Kalyan Das, Eddy Arnold, Richard H Ebright
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causative agent of tuberculosis, which kills 1.8 million annually. Mtb RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the target of the first-line antituberculosis drug rifampin (Rif). We report crystal structures of Mtb RNAP, alone and in complex with Rif, at 3.8-4.4 Å resolution. The results identify an Mtb-specific structural module of Mtb RNAP and establish that Rif functions by a steric-occlusion mechanism that prevents extension of RNA. We also report non-Rif-related compounds-Nα-aroyl-N-aryl-phenylalaninamides (AAPs)-that potently and selectively inhibit Mtb RNAP and Mtb growth, and we report crystal structures of Mtb RNAP in complex with AAPs...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391384/the-role-of-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-tubercular-spondylodiscitis
#17
Justin Arockiaraj, Joy S Michael, Rohit Amritanand, Kenny Samuel David, Venkatesh Krishnan
PURPOSE: This study aims to assess the accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in the diagnosis of tubercular spondylodiscitis and to identify its role in detecting Rifampicin resistance in patients with infective spondylodiscitis. METHODS: A retrospective study including 348 patients suspected to have infective spondylodiscitis was done. Tissue/pus samples obtained were sent for culture, histopathology and Xpert MTB/RIF assay. All patients who were confirmed to have tubercular spondylodiscitis and those patients who were suspected on clinico-radiological basis were also treated with anti-tuberculous chemotherapy for a period of 9 months...
April 8, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387444/comparative-modulation-of-levels-of-oxidative-stress-in-the-liver-of-anti-tuberculosis-drug-treated-wistar-rats-by-vitamin-b12-beta-carotene-and-spirulina-fusiformis-role-of-nf-kb-inos-il-6-and-il-10
#18
Sherry Joseph Martin, Evan Prince Sabina
PURPOSE: Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampicin (RIF) are known hepatotoxic agents. We compared the efficacy of Spirulina fusiformis and its active components vitamin B12 and beta-carotene in attenuating INH & RIF induced hepatotoxicity. We also tried to elucidate the inflammatory mechanism behind anti-tuberculosis drug induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS: INH & RIF were administered to Wistar albino rats for 28 days to induce hepatotoxicity. Spirulina fusiformis, vitamin B12 and beta-carotene were co-administered with INH & RIF and their hepatoprotective, antioxidant and immunomodulatory roles were studied through blood and liver analysis...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380276/microscopic-observation-drug-susceptibility-assay-vs-xpert-%C3%A2-mtb-rif-for-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-a-rural-african-setting-a-cost-utility-analysis
#19
Philip Erick Wikman-Jorgensen, Jara Llenas-García, Tomàs María Pérez-Porcuna, Michael Hobbins, Jochen Ehmer, Manuel Aly Mussa, Carlos Ascaso
OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost-utility of Microscopic Observation Drug-Susceptibility Assay (MODS) and Xpert(®) MTB/RIF implementation for TB diagnosis in rural northern Mozambique. METHODS: Stochastic transmission compartmental TB model from the health care provider perspective with parameter input from direct measurements, systematic literature reviews, and expert opinion. MODS and Xpert(®) MTB/RIF were evaluated as replacement test of smear microscopy (SM) or as an add-on test after a negative SM...
April 5, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375809/cannabis-cultivation-within-a-religious-context-a-case-study-of-ghomara-in-the-rif-mountain-northern-morocco
#20
Meklach Yassin, Randolph Haluza-Delay, Mohamed Kadiri, Abdeltif El Ouahrani, Joaquin Molero Mesa, Abderrahmane Merzouki
To understand the relationship between Muslim religious attitudes and the growing/consumption of cannabis, we surveyed 251 residents and conducted interviews in Northern Morocco. The local population is Ghomarian, an ethnic group of Berber heritage that experienced socioeconomic marginalization. Cannabis is grown throughout the region, despite Islamic legal code (shari'a) that makes cannabis, like any substances that alter consciousness, illicit (haram). The survey aimed to gather (a) the perceptions of the local population toward the cultivation of cannabis and its consumption and (b) their attitudes and intention to abandon or to continue this activity despite its unlawful aspect under Islamic legislation (Shari'a)...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
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