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Andrew McDowell, Neeraj Raizada, Sunil D Khaparde, Raghuram Rao, Sanjay Sarin, Aakshi Kalra, Virender Singh Salhotra, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair, Catharina Boehme, Claudia M Denkinger
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in children presents considerable challenges. Upfront testing on Xpert® MTB/RIF ('Xpert')-a rapid molecular assay with high sensitivity and specificity-for pediatric presumptive TB patients, as recommended by India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP), can pave the way for early TB diagnosis. As part of an ongoing project implemented by Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) dedicated to providing upfront free-of-cost (FOC) Xpert testing to children seeking care in the public and private sectors, a qualitative assessment was designed to understand how national guidelines on TB diagnosis and Xpert technology have been integrated into the pediatric TB care practices of different health providers...
2018: PloS One
Haifa A Al-Turki
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of hysteroscopy in the assessment of uterine pathologies in infertile women with repeated implantation failure (RIF) after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and determine whether removal of such pathologies increased pregnancy rates in women with RIF. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 2010 and December 2015. The inclusion criteria were women who underwent IVF treatment cycles and ended in more than 2 RIF, and women who underwent hysterosalpingography (HSG)...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Prakash Shrestha, Hemanta Khanal, Prasanna Dahal, Pranita Dongol
Background: In Nepal, introduction of GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert assay) as an initial confirmation test for tuberculosis (TB) has been considered to have impact as a significant decrease in number of clinically diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases than previous years. This study aims to find out the distribution profile of suspected tuberculosis cases according to patients age, gender, treatment history and HIV status as well as to evaluate the utility of the Xpert assay over conventional acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining method for the proper diagnosis of M...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
T Y Zuo, Q Y Liu, M Y Gan, Q Gao
Objective: To comprehensively identify compensatory mutations in rpoA, rpoB and rpoC genes of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (RIF-r MTB) and to evaluate the effect of rifampicin-resistant mutation type and lineage background on occurrence of compensatory mutations. Methods: Published MTB whole genome sequencing data were searched and downloaded. RIF-r MTB was identified through known rifampicin-resistant mutations. Based on parallel evolutionary patterns, we identified putative compensatory mutations in the phylogenetic tree and calculated proportions of accumulating compensatory mutations in each rifampicin-resistant mutations' type and lineage background of RIF-r MTB...
March 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Giovana Rodrigues Pereira, Márcia Silva Barbosa, Natan José Dutra Dias, Carlos Podalirio Borges de Almeida, Denise Rossato Silva
BACKGROUND: Xpert MTB/RIF is increasingly used in many countries as the initial diagnostic test for tuberculosis (TB). Few studies have evaluated the effect of Xpert on TB diagnosis under programmatic conditions in Brazil. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of introduction of Xpert MTB/RIF on TB diagnosis in a city with high TB incidence in Brazil. METHODS: We included patients evaluated with conventional diagnostic tests during one year before Xpert introduction (pre-Xpert group) and patients evaluated using Xpert during one year after the test introduction (post-Xpert group)...
2018: PloS One
Kalaiselvi Kumarasingam, Mangayarkarasi Vincent, Shivshankar R Mane, Raja Shunmugam, S Sivakumar, K R Uma Devi
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) has been identified in skeletons over 6000 years old and still remains as the most prevalent infectious disease in the world; thus, there is a need for development of new drugs or tuning of old drugs. Nanotechnology, an advanced technology, plays a vital role in research for the diagnosis and treatment of TB, thus preventing adverse effects and drug resistance. The objective of this study was to enhance the antimycobacterial activity of isoniazid- (INH) and rifampicin (RIF)-incorporated norbornene (NOR) nanoparticles in comparison with plain INH and RIF without nanoparticles...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Marie Sylvianne Rabodoarivelo, A Brandao, M C Cergole Novella, A G C Bombonatte, B Imperiale, N Rakotosamimanana, N Morcillo, V Rasolofo, J C Palomino, A Martin
Background: In low-income countries, rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance is often restricted by the difficulties of transporting and storing sputum samples from remote health centers to the reference laboratories where molecular tests are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of four transport and storage systems for molecular detection of rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance. Methods: This was a multicenter study...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Nontuthuko E Maningi, Luke T Daum, John D Rodriguez, Halima M Said, Remco P H Peters, John Osei Sekyere, Gerald W Fischer, James P Chambers, P Bernard Fourie
Modern advances in genomics provide an opportunity to re-interpret historical bacterial culture collections. In this study, genotypic antibiotic resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from an historical 20-year-old multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) culture collection in South Africa are described. DNA samples extracted from the phenotypically MDR-TB isolates (n=240) were assayed by Hain line probe assay (LPA) for the confirmation of MDR-TB and by Illumina Miseq whole genome sequencing (WGS) for the characterization of mutations in eight genes ( rpo B, kat G, inh A, rps L, pnc A, emb B, gyr A and rrs ) that are known to code for resistance to commonly used anti-TB agents...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Medard Beyanga, Benson R Kidenya, Lisa Gerwing-Adima, Eleanor Ochodo, Stephen E Mshana, Christa Kasang
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) contact tracing is a key strategy for containing TB and provides addition to the passive case finding approach. However, this practice has not been implemented in Tanzania, where there is unacceptably high treatment gap of 62.1% between cases estimated and cases detected. Therefore calls for more aggressive case finding for TB to close this gap. We aimed to determine the magnitude and predictors of bacteriologically-confirmed pulmonary TB among household contacts of bacteriologically-confirmed pulmonary TB index cases in the city of Mwanza, Tanzania...
March 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Muzafar Ahmad Rather, Zubair Shanib Bhat, Ali Mohd Lone, Mubashir Maqbool, Shajrul Amin, Bilal Ahmad Bhat, Zahoor Ahmad
The presented study reports in vitro antituberculosis potential of 2-(((2-hydroxyphenyl) amino)methylene)-5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione (PAMCHD) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. PAMCHD proved to be tuberculostatic as well as tuberculocidal agent by agar and broth dilution methods with MIC and MBC values equivalent to some standard antituberculosis drugs (ATDs). The dynamics of M. tuberculosis killing revealed its time as well as concentration dependent antituberculosis activity and it sterilized M...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Neeraj Raizada, Sunil D Khaparde, Soumya Swaminathan, Sanjay Sarin, Virender Singh Salhotra, Aakshi Kalra, Ashwani Khanna, K K Chopra, M Hanif, K R Umadevi, Syed Hissar, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair, C H Surya Prakash, B K Saha, Raghuram Rao, Claudia Denkinger, Catharina Boehme
BACKGROUND: Unlike in adults, diagnosis of TB can be challenging in children, as signs and symptoms of paediatric TB can be very non-specific and similar to other common childhood chest infections, which may lead to under or delayed diagnosis of TB disease. In spite of the increasing availability of rapid high-sensitivity diagnostics in public and private sectors, majority of paediatric TB cases are empirically diagnosed, without laboratory confirmation. To address these diagnostic challenges, World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended upfront Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) testing for the diagnosis of TB in paediatric presumptive pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) cases...
2018: PloS One
S Tahseen, H Shahnawaz, U Riaz, F M Khanzada, A Hussain, W Aslam, M von Euler-Chelpin
SETTING: Pakistan is a high tuberculosis (TB) burden country, moving from low human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence to a concentrated epidemic driven primarily by people who inject drugs (PWID). The Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Unit (AAU) in Islamabad, Pakistan, is a residential facility that offers combined treatment for opioid dependence and HIV. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: This retrospective study was conducted to assess TB prevalence among HIV-infected PWID referred to the AAU and to evaluate the diagnostic value of cough as a screening symptom...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Hanna Motak-Pochrzest, Andrzej Malinowski
158 non-pregnant women with recurrent implantation failures after IVF/ET procedures were tested for peripheral blood autoimmune profile. The control group consisted of 76 patients after first successful IVF procedure and pregnancy outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate different autoantibodies peripheral blood profile after excluding anatomical, endocrinological, endometrial and genetic disorders and to estimate the risk of implantation failures. The study's including criteria were 1.indications for IVF/ET determined by male factor and unexplained infertility 2...
February 6, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Martin Rao, Davide Valentini, Alimuddin Zumla, Markus Maeurer
BACKGROUND: New tuberculosis (TB) drug treatment regimens are urgently needed. We evaluated the potential of the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) valproic acid (VPA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) to enhance the effects of first-line TB drugs against intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). METHODS: M. tb H37Rv cultures were exposed to VPA or SAHA over six days, in the presence or absence of isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF). The efficacy of VPA and SAHA against intracellular M...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Zibusiso Ndlovu, Emmanuel Fajardo, Elton Mbofana, Tatenda Maparo, Daniela Garone, Carol Metcalf, Helen Bygrave, Kekeletso Kao, Sekesai Zinyowera
BACKGROUND: HIV Viral Load and Early Infant Diagnosis technologies in many high burden settings are restricted to centralized laboratory testing, leading to long result turnaround times and patient attrition. GeneXpert (Cepheid, CA, USA) is a polyvalent near point-of-care platform and is widely implemented for Xpert MTB/RIF diagnosis. This study sought to evaluate the operational feasibility of integrated HIV VL, EID and MTB/RIF testing in new GeneXpert platforms. METHODS: Whole blood samples were collected from consenting patients due for routine HIV VL testing and DBS samples from infants due for EID testing, at three rural health facilities in Zimbabwe...
2018: PloS One
Lydia Meziani, Michele Mondini, Benoît Petit, Alexandre Boissonnas, Vincent Thomas de Montpreville, Olaf Mercier, Marie-Catherine Vozenin, Eric Deutsch
Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RIF) is a delayed side-effect of chest radiotherapy, frequently associated with macrophage infiltration.We aimed to characterise the role of pulmonary macrophages in RIF using human lung biopsies from patients receiving radiotherapy for thorax malignancies and a RIF model developed in C57BL/6 mice after 16-Gy thorax irradiation.High numbers of macrophages (both interstitial and alveolar) were detected in clinical and preclinical RIF. In the preclinical model, upregulation of T-helper (Th)2 cytokines was measured, whereas Th1 cytokines were downregulated in RIF tissue lysate...
March 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Min-Yan Chen, Guang-Dong Liao, Bin Zhou, Le-Ni Kang, Yan-Mei He, Shang-Wei Li
OBJECTIVES: To compare long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels in endometrium between patients with repeated implantation failure (RIF) following in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer and control women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and alignments were performed to identify lncRNAs and mRNAs using endometrial samples collected from 3 patients and 3 control women. A subset of 10 differentially expressed lncRNAs and 6 mRNAs were validated in all participants using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Zhao-Yan Zhang, Liang Yang, Xiao-Yan Huang, Mei-Xi Wang, Zeng-Chun Ma, Xiang-Lin Tang, Yu-Guang Wang, Yue Gao
The rapid screening technology was used to investigate the transcriptional regulation effect of main chemical constituents in tubers of Polygonum multiflorum, including 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(THSG) and anthraquinones (such as rhein, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, emodin) on CYP3A4 drug inducers induced by human pregnancy X receptor (PXR).The effect of chemical composition on the cell activity was detected by MTS cell viability assay. IC₅₀ was calculated. The expression vector and the reporter vector were co-transfected into HepG2 cells, with 10 μmol•L⁻¹ rifampicin (RIF) as a positive control, and 10 μmol•L⁻¹ ketoconazole (TKZ) as a negative control...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Marzie Farimani, Jalal Poorolajal, Soghra Rabiee, Maryam Bahmanzadeh
Background: Platelets contain a significant amount of growth factors that have positive effects on local tissue repair and endometrial receptivity. Case: Here we present a 45-yr-old woman with primary infertility and two failed in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles who was candidate to receive donor eggs. Five consecutive frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles with good quality embryos were performed within 2 yr. With the diagnosis of recurrent implantation failure (RIF), the patient was treated for improving endometrial receptivity with intrauterine administration of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP), 24 hr before embryo transfer...
December 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Kanchan Ajbani, Mubin Kazi, Jeffrey Tornheim, Swapna Naik, Rajeev Soman, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
Delayed diagnosis of drug resistance has been a major obstacle to proper management and control of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). Expanded access to rapid molecular diagnostics such as Xpert MTB/RIF has been helpful, but has generated confusion about how to interpret genotype-phenotype discordance. Optimal management is not clearly defined for patients with rifampin resistance by Xpert MTB/RIF but rifampin susceptibility by phenotypic testing. To resolve this discrepancy, we performed pyrosequencing of discordant isolates identified at a reference laboratory over a 6-month period...
March 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
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