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G Quiroz-Olguín, I Medina-Vera, A E Serralde-Zúñiga, A Gulias-Herrero, A I Sánchez-Rosales, M Guevara-Cruz
BACKGROUND: The prescription of parenteral nutrition (PN) in hospitalised patients requires an estimation of the energy requirements. Most studies employing prediction equations (PEs) to estimate energy requirements have focused on critically ill patients. The present study aimed to evaluate several PEs of the resting energy expenditure (REE) to identify the most accurate equation for estimating the REE required for PN. METHODS: This cross-sectional and descriptive study included patients hospitalised with medical or surgical diagnoses, making them candidates for PN...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Yanling Bi, Zhoulei Xiang, Shu Li, Baoshan Zhang
Although the negative effects of overconfidence are more likely to be mentioned in the literature, some researchers have argued that the benefits of overconfidence may outweigh its costs. We attempted to explore the positive effects of overconfidence in competitive situations. We had participants compete against fake opponents who were overconfident and then measured their competitive performance in two studies. In Study 1 we examined the effects of overconfidence on competitive performance in a competitive situation and the possible mechanism for this overconfidence...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
Alice Sabatino, Miriam Theilla, Moran Hellerman, Pierre Singer, Umberto Maggiore, Maria Barbagallo, Giuseppe Regolisti, Enrico Fiaccadori
The optimal nutritional support in Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) still remains an open issue. The present study was aimed at evaluating the validity of conventional predictive formulas for the calculation of both energy expenditure and protein needs in critically ill patients with AKI. A prospective, multicenter, observational study was conducted on adult patients hospitalized with AKI in three different intensive care units (ICU). Nutrient needs were estimated by different methods: the Guidelines of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) for both calories and proteins, the Harris-Benedict equation, the Penn-State and Faisy-Fagon equations for energy...
July 26, 2017: Nutrients
Gai Ran, Li Ying, Lin Li, Qiaoqiao Yan, Weijie Yi, Chenjiang Ying, Hongmei Wu, Xiaolei Ye
Defective lipid metabolism is associated with increased risk of various chronic diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenol, has been shown the potential of ameliorating disregulations of lipid metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feed intake and RSV on lipid metabolism in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The adult males were randomly allocated to 6 groups: control (Con, 8 mg cysts/fish/day), control with 20 μmol/L RSV (Con+RSV), calorie restriction (CR, 5 mg cysts/fish/day), calorie restriction with RSV (CR+RSV), overfeed (OF, 60 mg cysts/fish/day), and overfeed with RSV (OF+RSV) groups...
2017: PloS One
Ahdi Amer, Mohammed Abusamaan, Xiaoming Li, Howard Fischer
BACKGROUND: Nonnutritive sucking using a finger or pacifier is a natural reflex for infants. We hypothesized that infants may overfeed if the bottle or breast is constantly offered. Our goal was to determine whether pacifier use in early infancy is associated with lower incidence of obesity at later age. METHODS: Parents of 399 infants, 9 to 15 months old, were interviewed and asked whether a pacifier was used consistently for ≥9 months. Body mass indexes at birth, 6 months, and on the day of interview were calculated...
October 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
Denise E Lackey, Raul G Lazaro, Pingping Li, Andrew Johnson, Angelina Hernandez-Carretero, Natalie Weber, Ivetta Vorobyova, Hidekazu Tsukomoto, Olivia Osborn
Consumption of excess calories results in obesity and insulin resistance and has been intensively studied in mice and humans. The objective of this study was to determine the specific contribution of dietary fat rather than total caloric intake to the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance. We used an intragastric feeding method to overfeed excess calories from a low-fat diet (and an isocalorically matched high-fat diet) through a surgically implanted gastric feeding tube to generate obesity in wild-type mice followed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies to assess the development of insulin resistance...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Severiano R Silva, Rita Payan-Carreira, Miguel Quaresma, Cristina M Guedes, Ana Sofia Santos
BACKGROUND: In equids, health and welfare depend on body composition. A growing number of equids are now used as leisure and companion animals, and often found overfeed. The need for a close monitoring of body fatness led to the search for tools allowing a rapid and non-invasive estimation of fatness. This study intends to assess real-time ultrasonography (RTU) usefulness in establishing a relationship between ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat-plus-skin thickness (SF-Skin) and body condition score (BCS) in horses and donkeys...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Sérgio Luiz Gama Nogueira-Filho, Ivanise da Hora Bastos, Alcester Mendes, Selene Siqueira da Cunha Nogueira
We conducted a nitrogen balance digestion trial to determine the crude protein requirements of paca (Cuniculus paca) during the last growth phase. In a 4 × 4 Latin square design, four young captive male pacas, aged 5 months, were fed four isoenergetic diets containing four different levels of nitrogen (N) (11.3, 16.6, 21.4, and 26.6 g N/kg of dry matter). After 15 days of adaptation, we collected all feces and urine for five consecutive days. By regression analysis between N intake and N in feces and urine, the metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN = 4...
June 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Alison K Ventura, Rebecca Pollack Golen
It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type...
February 2015: Appetite
Douglas L de Almeida, Gabriel S Fabrício, Amanda B Trombini, Audrei Pavanello, Laize P Tófolo, Tatiane A da Silva Ribeiro, Paulo C de Freitas Mathias, Kesia Palma-Rigo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Brown adipose tissue activation has been considered a potential anti-obesity mechanism because it is able to expend energy through thermogenesis. In contrast, white adipose tissue stores energy, contributing to obesity. We investigated whether the early programming of obesity by overfeeding during lactation changes structure of interscapular brown adipose tissue in adulthood and its effects on thermogenesis. METHODS: Birth of litters was considered day 0...
2013: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
R J Corbee, M A Tryfonidou, I P Beckers, H A W Hazewinkel
Enostosis or eosinophilic panosteitis is a common disease in young growing large-breed dogs, such as the German Shepherd, and the risk of developing the disease by 3-4 months of age is increased by a high calcium intake. The aim of the study was to investigate whether German Shepherd puppies raised on milk replacers receive more calcium and/or vitamin D than their requirements in the pre-weaning period and thus are at increased risk of developing skeletal diseases. To this end, we surveyed German Shepherd breeders in the Netherlands about the use of puppy milk replacers (PMR)...
June 2012: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
M Braga, O Ljungqvist, P Soeters, K Fearon, A Weimann, F Bozzetti
In modern surgical practice it is advisable to manage patients within an enhanced recovery protocol and thereby have them eating normal food within 1-3 days. Consequently, there is little room for routine perioperative artificial nutrition. Only a minority of patients may benefit from such therapy. These are predominantly patients who are at risk of developing complications after surgery. The main goals of perioperative nutritional support are to minimize negative protein balance by avoiding starvation, with the purpose of maintaining muscle, immune, and cognitive function and to enhance postoperative recovery...
August 2009: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
January N Baumgardner, Kartik Shankar, Leah Hennings, Thomas M Badger, Martin J J Ronis
We have used total enteral nutrition (TEN) to moderately overfeed rats high-polyunsaturated fat diets to develop a model for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed by TEN a 187 diet containing 5% (total calories) corn oil or a 220 diet in which corn oil constituted 5, 10, 25, 35, 40, or 70% of total calories for 21 or 65 days. Rats fed the 5% corn oil, 220 had greater body weight gain (P < or = 0.05), fat mass (P < or = 0...
January 2008: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Antti Vasala, Johanna Panula, Monika Bollók, Lutz Illmann, Christian Hälsig, Peter Neubauer
BACKGROUND: Shake flasks are widely used because of their low price and simple handling. Many researcher are, however, not aware of the physiological consequences of oxygen limitation and substrate overflow metabolism that occur in shake flasks. Availability of a wireless measuring system brings the possibilities for quality control and design of cultivation conditions. RESULTS: Here we present a new wireless solution for the measurement of pH and oxygen from shake flasks with standard sensors, which allows data transmission over a distance of more than 100 metres in laboratory environments...
2006: Microbial Cell Factories
Kirpal S Sidhu, Robert O Kimmer
A fluoride overfeed occurred at a well site near an elementary school in Portage, Michigan. The incident resulted in a high concentration of fluoride (92 milligrams per liter) in drinking water at the school. Seven students who drank water from the school fountain reportedly suffered nausea and vomiting. Toxicological evaluations were made by conducting a risk assessment. On the basis of the symptoms experienced by the students, it was concluded that the fluoride had irritated the stomach causing nausea and vomiting...
October 2002: Journal of Environmental Health
D C Gunn
Clinical incinerators are important combustion appliances which need to meet emission regulations of increasing severity. In present designs the principles of overfeed and underfeed ignition, well established for coal firing, do not appear to have been appreciated in the incinerator field. It is suggested that important advantages could accrue from using overfeed rather than underfeed ignition and complete rather than partial combustion in the primary chamber.
May 1993: Health Estate Journal: Journal of the Institute of Hospital Engineering
A D Penman, B T Brackin, R Embrey
OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent and confirm the cause of an August 1993 outbreak of acute fluoride poisoning in a small Mississippi community, thought to result from excess fluoride in the public water supply. METHODS: State health department investigators interviewed patrons of a restaurant where the outbreak first became manifest and obtained blood and urine samples for measurement of fluoride levels. State health department staff conducted a random sample telephone survey of community households...
September 1997: Public Health Reports
D J Rodriguez, E C Benzel, F W Clevenger
The metabolic response to trauma, including neurotrauma in general, has been studied extensively, but the acute metabolic response to spinal cord injury (SCI) has not. Therefore, 12 patients with SCI are presented in whom intensive nutrition assessment and management were instituted immediately after injury. Nitrogen balance (NB), predicted energy expenditure (PEE), and actual energy expenditure (MEE) were calculated or measured in each patient. A persistent negative NB was observed in all but one of the 12 patients...
September 1997: Spinal Cord
R A Flanders, L Marques
A description of the fluoride overfeed in Hooper Bay, Alaska, that resulted in the first reported death due to fluoride toxicity caused by drinking water from a community water system.
May 1993: Illinois Dental Journal
M Rank, J Gram, K S Nielsen, B Danielsson
Industrial fermentations carried out in a 500-l bioreactor were monitored on-line by a prototype of a split-flow modified thermal biosensor. Acetaldehyde and glycerol in the extracellular broth were monitored over the first 48 h of fed-batch fermentations. The aim was to determine the usefulness of these secondary metabolites for on-line monitoring and control. When fermentation of the 13-16 g/l batch sugar was monitored, using immobilised aldehyde dehydrogenase, the acetaldehyde reached a peak value of 0.3 g/l...
March 1995: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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