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Diffusion tensor imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320182/axial-mr-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-tractography-in-clinical-diagnosed-and-pathology-confirmed-cervical-spinal-cord-astrocytoma
#1
Mangsuo Zhao, Bingxin Shi, Tuoyu Chen, Yuqi Zhang, Tongchao Geng, Liyan Qiao, Mingjie Zhang, Le He, Huancong Zuo, Guihuai Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) features of cervical spinal cord astrocytoma. METHODS: Eleven patients with cervical spinal cord astrocytomas and 10 healthy volunteers were recruited in this study. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and axial DTI were performed on a 3.0T MRI system. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) values for the lesions were measured...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318507/usefulness-of-diffusion-tensor-mri-in-the-diagnosis-of-parkinson-variant-of-multiple-system-atrophy-and-parkinson-s-disease-a-valuable-tool-to-differentiate-between-them
#2
B Chen, G Fan, W Sun, X Shang, S Shi, S Wang, G Lv, C Wu
AIM: To evaluate the differences between patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSAp) at fractional anisotropy (FA) in the white matter when using the tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) algorithm to provide objective markers for a differential diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired from 18 PD patients, 20 MSAp patients, and 24 healthy controls using a GE 3 T Signa HDx magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316255/a-bayesian-double-fusion-model-for-resting-state-brain-connectivity-using-joint-functional-and-structural-data
#3
Hakmook Kang, Hernando Ombao, Christopher Fonnesbeck, Zhaohua Ding, Victoria L Morgan
Current approaches separately analyze concurrently acquired diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The primary limitation of these approaches is that they do not take advantage of the information from DTI that could potentially enhance estimation of resting state functional connectivity (FC) between brain regions. To overcome this limitation, we develop a Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal model that incorporates structural connectivity into estimating FC. In our proposed approach, structural connectivity (SC) based on DTI data is used to construct an informative prior for functional connectivity based on resting state fMRI data via the Cholesky decomposition...
March 19, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315957/right-sided-dominance-of-the-bilateral-vestibular-system-in-the-upper-brainstem-and-thalamus
#4
Marianne Dieterich, V Kirsch, T Brandt
MRI diffusion tensor imaging tractography was performed on the bilateral vestibular brainstem pathways, which run from the vestibular nuclei via the paramedian and posterolateral thalamic subnuclei to the parieto-insular vestibular cortex. Twenty-one right-handed healthy subjects participated. Quantitative analysis revealed a rope-ladder-like system of vestibular pathways in the brainstem with crossings at pontine and mesencephalic levels. Three structural types of right-left fiber distributions could be delineated: (1) evenly distributed pathways at the lower pontine level from the vestibular nuclei to the pontine crossing, (2) a moderate, pontomesencephalic right-sided lateralization between the pontine and mesencephalic crossings, and (3) a further increase of the right-sided lateralization above the mesencephalic crossing leading to the thalamic vestibular subnuclei...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315741/individual-classification-of-alzheimer-s-disease-with-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
Tijn M Schouten, Marisa Koini, Frank de Vos, Stephan Seiler, Mark de Rooij, Anita Lechner, Reinhold Schmidt, Martijn van den Heuvel, Jeroen van der Grond, Serge A R B Rombouts
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful non-invasive method to study white matter integrity, and is sensitive to detect differences in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Diffusion MRI may be able to contribute towards reliable diagnosis of AD. We used diffusion MRI to classify AD patients (N=77), and controls (N=173). We use different methods to extract information from the diffusion MRI data. First, we use the voxel-wise diffusion tensor measures that have been skeletonised using tract based spatial statistics...
March 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314375/inter-subject-variability-of-axonal-injury-in-diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Jeffrey B Ware, Tessa Hart, John Whyte, Amanda Rabinowitz, John A Detre, Junghoon Kim
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of cognitive morbidity worldwide, for which reliable biomarkers are needed. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a promising biomarker of traumatic axonal injury (TAI), however existing studies have been limited by a primary reliance upon group-level analytic methods not well-suited to account for inter-subject variability. In this study, 42 adults with TBI of at least moderate severity were examined 3 months following injury and compared to 35 healthy controls. DTI data was used for both traditional group-level comparison as well as subject-specific analysis using the distribution-corrected Z-score (DisCo-Z) approach...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303912/new-technologies-for-the-assessment-of-neuropathies
#7
REVIEW
Roberto Gasparotti, Luca Padua, Chiara Briani, Giuseppe Lauria
Technical advances are rapidly changing the clinical and instrumental approach to peripheral nerve diseases. Magnetic resonance neurography, diffusion tensor imaging and nerve ultrasonography are increasingly entering the diagnostic workup of peripheral neuropathies as tools that complement neurophysiology and enable investigation of proximal structures, such as plexuses and roots. Progress in the design of magnetic resonance scanners and sequences, and the development of high-frequency ultrasound probes mean that high-resolution peripheral nerve imaging is possible, enabling detailed examination of nerve size, morphology and internal fascicular structure that can integrate nerve conduction studies into clinical practice...
March 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303844/significance-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-vastus-medialis-oblique-in-recurrent-patellar-dislocation
#8
Li-Si Liu, Zhuo-Zhao Zheng, Hui-Shu Yuan
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have investigated the influence of osseous factors on patellofemoral joint instability, but research on the influence of dynamic muscle factors in vivo is still in the exploratory stage. This study aimed to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to evaluate vastus medialis oblique (VMO) fiber bundles in patients with recurrent patellar dislocation to explore the changes in muscle morphology and function. METHODS: This prospective study involved 30 patients (7 males and 23 females; average age, 21...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303377/the-differences-of-the-precommissural-and-postcommissural-fornix-in-the-hippocampal-location-a-diffusion-tensor-tractography-study
#9
Sung Ho Jang, Sang Seok Yeo
PURPOSE: The precommissural fornix and postcommissural fornix have different connections to the basal forebrain and septal region, and mammillary body, respectively. However, little is known about the differences of the precommissural fornix and postcommissural fornix in the hippocampal location. In this study, using diffusion tensor tractography, we investigated the differences of the precommissural fornix and postcommissural fornix in the hippocampal location. METHODS: We recruited 25 healthy volunteers for this study...
March 16, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301102/neural-correlates-of-language-variability-in-preschool-aged-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Letitia R Naigles, Ryan Johnson, Ann Mastergeorge, Sally Ozonoff, Sally J Rogers, David G Amaral, Christine Wu Nordahl
Children with autism vary widely in their language abilities, yet the neural correlates of this language variability remain unclear, especially early in development. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to examine diffusivity measures along the length of 18 major fiber tracts in 104 preschool-aged boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The boys were assigned to subgroups according to their level of language development (Low: no/low language, Middle: small vocabulary, High: large vocabulary and grammar), based on their raw scores on the expressive language (EL) and receptive language (RL) sections of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL)...
March 16, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298891/white-matter-deterioration-may-foreshadow-impairment-of-emotional-valence-determination-in-early-stage-dementia-of-the-alzheimer-type
#11
Ravi Rajmohan, Ronald C Anderson, Dan Fang, Austin G Meyer, Pavis Laengvejkal, Parunyou Julayanont, Greg Hannabas, Kitten Linton, John Culberson, Hafiz M R Khan, John De Toledo, P Hemachandra Reddy, Michael O'Boyle
In Alzheimer Disease (AD), non-verbal skills often remain intact for far longer than verbally mediated processes. Four (1 female, 3 males) participants with early-stage Clinically Diagnosed Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (CDDAT) and eight neurotypicals (NTs; 4 females, 4 males) completed the emotional valence determination test (EVDT) while undergoing BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We expected CDDAT participants to perform just as well as NTs on the EVDT, and to display increased activity within the bilateral amygdala and right anterior cingulate cortex (r-ACC)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298033/diffusion-tractography-imaging-guided-frameless-linear-accelerator-stereotactic-radiosurgical-thalamotomy-for-tremor-case-report
#12
Won Kim, Justin Sharim, Stephen Tenn, Tania Kaprealian, Yvette Bordelon, Nzhde Agazaryan, Nader Pouratian
Essential tremor and Parkinson's disease-associated tremor are extremely prevalent within the field of movement disorders. The ventral intermediate (VIM) nucleus of the thalamus has been commonly used as both a neuromodulatory and neuroablative target for the treatment of these forms of tremor. With both deep brain stimulation and Gamma Knife radiosurgery, there is an abundance of literature regarding the surgical planning, targeting, and outcomes of these methodologies. To date, there have been no reports of frameless, linear accelerator (LINAC)-based thalomotomies for tremor...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297590/insight-into-illness-and-cognition-in-schizophrenia-in-earlier-and-later-life
#13
Philip Gerretsen, Aristotle N Voineskos, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Mahesh Menon, Bruce G Pollock, David C Mamo, Benoit H Mulsant, Tarek K Rajji
OBJECTIVE: Impaired insight into illness in schizophrenia is associated with illness severity and deficits in premorbid intellectual function, executive function, and memory. A previous study of patients aged 60 years and older found that illness severity and premorbid intellectual function accounted for variance in insight impairment. As such, we aimed to test whether similar relationships would be observed in earlier life. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 1 large sample of participants (n = 171) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia aged 19 to 79 years acquired from 2 studies: (1) a psychosocial intervention trial for older persons with schizophrenia (June 2008 to May 2014) and (2) a diffusion tensor imaging and genetics study of psychosis across the life span (February 2007 to December 2013)...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297334/assessment-of-diffusion-tensor-image-quality-across-sites-and-vendors-using-the-american-college-of-radiology-head-phantom
#14
Zhiyue J Wang, Youngseob Seo, Evelyn Babcock, Hao Huang, Stefan Bluml, Jessica Wisnowski, Barbara Holshouser, Ashok Panigrahy, Dennis W W Shaw, Nolan Altman, Roderick W McColl, Nancy K Rollins
The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of assessing quality of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) from multiple sites and vendors using American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom. Participating sites (Siemens (n=2), GE (n=2), and Philips (n=4)) reached consensus on parameters for DTI and used the widely available ACR phantom. Tensor data were processed at one site. B0 and eddy current distortions were assessed using grid line displacement on phantom Slice 5; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was measured at the center and periphery of the b=0 image; fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were assessed using phantom Slice 7...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295175/hypothesis-testing-in-functional-linear-models
#15
Yu-Ru Su, Chong-Zhi Di, Li Hsu
Functional data arise frequently in biomedical studies, where it is often of interest to investigate the association between functional predictors and a scalar response variable. While functional linear models (FLM) are widely used to address these questions, hypothesis testing for the functional association in the FLM framework remains challenging. A popular approach to testing the functional effects is through dimension reduction by functional principal component (PC) analysis. However, its power performance depends on the choice of the number of PCs, and is not systematically studied...
March 10, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294464/assessing-connectivity-related-injury-burden-in-diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Berkan Solmaz, Birkan Tunç, Drew Parker, John Whyte, Tessa Hart, Amanda Rabinowitz, Morgan Rohrbach, Junghoon Kim, Ragini Verma
Many of the clinical and behavioral manifestations of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are thought to arise from disruption to the structural network of the brain due to diffuse axonal injury (DAI). However, a principled way of summarizing diffuse connectivity alterations to quantify injury burden is lacking. In this study, we developed a connectome injury score, Disruption Index of the Structural Connectome (DISC), which summarizes the cumulative effects of TBI-induced connectivity abnormalities across the entire brain...
March 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294462/disruption-of-white-matter-structural-integrity-and-connectivity-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-tbss-and-tractography-study
#17
Elizabeth A Olson, Jiaolong Cui, Rena Fukunaga, Lisa D Nickerson, Scott L Rauch, Isabelle M Rosso
BACKGROUND: Most studies of brain white matter (WM) in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have focused on combat trauma, and often were confounded by neurological and substance dependence comorbidity. This study used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and probabilistic tractography to characterize WM microstructure in a mixed-sex community sample of PTSD patients exposed to diverse and multiple traumas, and in trauma-exposed normal comparison (TENC) subjects. METHODS: TBSS compared diffusion measures between 20 adults with DSM-IV PTSD and 17 TENC, using a whole-brain voxel-wise approach...
March 15, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294192/microstructural-changes-are-coincident-with-the-improvement-of-clinical-symptoms-in-surgically-treated-compressed-nerve-roots
#18
Weifei Wu, Jie Liang, Ying Chen, Aihua Chen, Yongde Wu, Zong Yang
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been widely used to visualize peripheral nerves, but the microstructure of compressed nerve roots can be assessed using DTI. However, there are no data regarding the association among microstructural changes evaluated using DTI, the symptoms assessed using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the duration of symptoms after surgery in patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Thirty patients with unilateral radiculopathy were investigated using DTI. The changes in the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values as well as the correlation between these changes and the severity and duration of the clinical symptoms were investigated before and at least one month after surgery...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293701/diffusion-tensor-imaging-as-a-prognostic-biomarker-for-motor-recovery-and-rehabilitation-after-stroke
#19
REVIEW
Josep Puig, Gerard Blasco, Gottfried Schlaug, Cathy M Stinear, Pepus Daunis-I-Estadella, Carles Biarnes, Jaume Figueras, Joaquín Serena, Maria Hernández-Pérez, Angel Alberich-Bayarri, Mar Castellanos, David S Liebeskind, Andrew M Demchuk, Bijoy K Menon, Götz Thomalla, Kambiz Nael, Max Wintermark, Salvador Pedraza
PURPOSE: Despite improved acute treatment and new tools to facilitate recovery, most patients have motor deficits after stroke, often causing disability. However, motor impairment varies considerably among patients, and recovery in the acute/subacute phase is difficult to predict using clinical measures alone, particularly in severely impaired patients. Accurate early prediction of recovery would help rationalize rehabilitation goals and improve the design of trials testing strategies to facilitate recovery...
March 14, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293484/structural-and-functional-hyperconnectivity-within-the-sensorimotor-system-in-xenomelia
#20
Jürgen Hänggi, Deborah A Vitacco, Leonie M Hilti, Roger Luechinger, Bernd Kraemer, Peter Brugger
INTRODUCTION: Xenomelia is a rare condition characterized by the persistent and compulsive desire for the amputation of one or more physically healthy limbs. We highlight the neurological underpinnings of xenomelia by assessing structural and functional connectivity by means of whole-brain connectome and network analyses of regions previously implicated in empirical research in this condition. METHODS: We compared structural and functional connectivity between 13 xenomelic men with matched controls using diffusion tensor imaging combined with fiber tractography and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
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