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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743074/coronary-perfusion-pressure-and-compression-quality-in-maternal-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-supine-and-left-lateral-tilt-positions-a-prospective-crossover-study-using-mannequins-and-swine-models
#1
Satoshi Dohi, Kiyotake Ichizuka, Ryu Matsuoka, Kohei Seo, Masaaki Nagatsuka, Akihiko Sekizawa
OBJECTIVE: The risk of maternal and fetal mortality is high if cardiopulmonary arrest occurs during pregnancy. To assess the best position for maternal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), a prospective randomized crossover study was undertaken, involving basic life support mannequin-based simulation (BLS-MS) and a swine model of pulseless electrical activity (an unstable cardiac state) incorporating a fetal mannequin (PEA-FM). STUDY DESIGN: The BLS-MS (performed by certified rescuers) served to evaluate the quality of chest compressions in 30° left lateral tilt (LLT) and supine positions...
July 16, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742998/reading-the-centromere-epigenetic-mark
#2
Lydia Smith, Paul S Maddox
Centromeres epitomize the central problem of propagating non-DNA sequence-based information across generations. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Hori et al. (2017) and French et al. (2017) show that the centromere-associated protein KNL-2/M18BP1 reads the centromere epigenetic code to maintain centromere identity.
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742928/shotgun-mitogenomics-across-body-size-classes-in-a-local-assemblage-of-tropical-diptera-phylogeny-species-diversity-and-mitochondrial-abundance-spectrum
#3
Le Qin Choo, Alex Crampton-Platt, Alfried P Vogler
Mitochondrial genomes can be assembled readily from shotgun sequenced DNA mixtures of mass-trapped arthropods ('mitochondrial metagenomics'), speeding up the taxonomic characterization. Bulk sequencing was conducted on some 800 individuals of Diptera obtained by canopy-fogging of a single tree in Borneo dominated by small (<1.5 mm) individuals. Specimens were split into five body-size classes for DNA extraction, to equalize read numbers across specimens and to study how body size, a key ecological trait, interacts with species and phylogenetic diversity...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742732/educational-colonoscopy-video-enhances-bowel-preparation-quality-and-comprehension-in-an-inner-city-population
#4
Ajish Pillai, Radha Menon, David Oustecky, Asyia Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Quality of bowel preparation and patient knowledge remains a major barrier for completing colorectal cancer screening. Few studies have tested unique ways to impact patient understanding centering on interactive computer programs, pictures, and brochures. Two studies explored instructional videos but focused on patient compliance and anxiety as endpoints. Furthermore, excessive video length and content may limit their impact on a broad patient population. No study so far has studied a video's impact on preparation quality and patient understanding of the colonoscopy procedure...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742414/neural-correlates-of-depressive-symptoms-in-smokers-a-systematic-review-of-imaging-studies
#5
Michele de Oliveira Gonzalez, Anna E Goudriaan, Cíntia de Azevedo-Marques Périco, Marcela Waisman Campos, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, Dinesh Bhugra, João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia
This review aims to summarize neuroimaging studies in order to better understand the neural correlates of depressive symptoms in tobacco smokers. Using the keywords "depressive OR depression" AND "tobacco OR nicotine OR smok(*) OR cigarette" AND "neuroimage OR magnetic resonance OR smri OR structural magnetic resonance OR fmri OR functional magnetic resonance OR pet OR positron emission tomography", literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and PsycINFO databases. The first and the last author read the abstracts of all the studies found in the search (n = 179)...
July 25, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742115/mind-wandering-during-attention-performance-effects-of-adhd-inattention-symptomatology-negative-mood-ruminative-response-style-and-working-memory-capacity
#6
Lisa M Jonkman, C Rob Markus, Michael S Franklin, Jens H van Dalfsen
OBJECTIVE: In adulthood, depressive mood is often comorbid with ADHD, but its role in ADHD-inattentiveness and especially relations with mind wandering remains to be elucidated. This study investigated the effects of laboratory-induced dysphoric mood on task-unrelated mind wandering and its consequences on cognitive task performance in college students with high (n = 46) or low (n = 44) ADHD-Inattention symptomatology and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity symptoms in the normal range. METHODS: These non-clinical high/low ADHD-Inattention symptom groups underwent negative or positive mood induction after which mind wandering frequency was measured in a sustained attention (SART), and a reading task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742110/evaluation-of-exome-variants-using-the-ion-proton-platform-to-sequence-error-prone-regions
#7
Heewon Seo, Yoomi Park, Byung Joo Min, Myung Eui Seo, Ju Han Kim
The Ion Proton sequencer from Thermo Fisher accurately determines sequence variants from target regions with a rapid turnaround time at a low cost. However, misleading variant-calling errors can occur. We performed a systematic evaluation and manual curation of read-level alignments for the 675 ultrarare variants reported by the Ion Proton sequencer from 27 whole-exome sequencing data but that are not present in either the 1000 Genomes Project and the Exome Aggregation Consortium. We classified positive variant calls into 393 highly likely false positives, 126 likely false positives, and 156 likely true positives, which comprised 58...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742088/genome-wide-identification-of-hami-melon-mirnas-with-putative-roles-during-fruit-development
#8
Hong Zhang, Lan Yin, Huaisong Wang, Guangzhi Wang, Xinli Ma, Meihua Li, Haibo Wu, Qiushi Fu, Yi Zhang, Hongping Yi
MicroRNAs represent a family of small endogenous, non-coding RNAs that play critical regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and environmental stress responses. Hami melon is famous for its attractive flavor and excellent nutritional value, however, the mechanisms underlying the fruit development and ripening remains largely unknown. Here, we performed small RNA sequencing to investigate the roles of miRNAs during Hami melon fruit development. Two batches of flesh samples were collected at four fruit development stages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742079/the-dcdc2-deletion-is-not-a-risk-factor-for-dyslexia
#9
T S Scerri, E Macpherson, A Martinelli, W C Wa, A P Monaco, J Stein, M Zheng, C Suk-Han Ho, C McBride, M Snowling, C Hulme, M E Hayiou-Thomas, M M Y Waye, J B Talcott, S Paracchini
Dyslexia is a specific impairment in learning to read and has strong heritability. An intronic deletion within the DCDC2 gene, with ~8% frequency in European populations, is increasingly used as a marker for dyslexia in neuroimaging and behavioral studies. At a mechanistic level, this deletion has been proposed to influence sensory processing capacity, and in particular sensitivity to visual coherent motion. Our re-assessment of the literature, however, did not reveal strong support for a role of this specific deletion in dyslexia...
July 25, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741996/transcriptome-changes-associated-with-tomato-spotted-wilt-virus-infection-in-various-life-stages-of-its-thrips-vector-frankliniella-fusca-hinds
#10
Anita Shrestha, Donald E Champagne, Albert K Culbreath, Dorith Rotenberg, Anna E Whitfield, Rajagopalbabu Srinivasan
Persistent propagative viruses maintain intricate interactions with their arthropod vectors. In this study, we investigated the transcriptome-level responses associated with a persistent propagative phytovirus infection in various life stages of its vector using an Illumina HiSeq sequencing platform. The pathosystem components included a Tospovirus, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), its insect vector, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), and a plant host, Arachis hypogaea (L.). We assembled (de novo) reads from three developmental stage groups of virus-exposed and non-virus-exposed F...
July 26, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741800/eteplirsen-for-the-treatment-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-quality-of-evidence-concerns-an-alternative-viewpoint
#11
Adriane N Irwin, Megan C Herink
We read the paper by Reinig AM and colleagues entitled "Advances in the Treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: New and Emerging Pharmacotherapies" with great interest.(1) The authors discuss several novel therapies to increase production of dystrophin in myocytes, of which, eteplirsen (Exondys) is the only currently approved by the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA).(2) Pharmacologic management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) centers on the use of glucocorticoids which works by decreasing inflammation and reducing immune system activity...
July 25, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741795/a-novel-molecular-mechanism-of-cellular-transformation-via-a-mutant-molecular-chaperone-in-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#12
REVIEW
Marito Araki, Norio Komatsu
Deregulation of the cytokine-receptor signaling pathway plays a significant role in tumorigenesis. Such deregulation is frequently caused by alterations in the genes involved in the signaling pathway. At the end of 2013, recurrent somatic mutations in the calreticulin (CALR) gene that encodes a molecular chaperone were identified in a subset of patients with Philadelphia-chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). This review focuses on the role of CALR mutations in the oncogenic transformations observed in MPNs...
July 25, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741462/development-of-a-solid-phase-array-assay-for-the-screening-of-galactose-oxidase-activity-and-for-fast-identification-of-inhibitors
#13
Martin J Weissenborn, Damien P Debecker, Bruno Linclau, Nicolas J Turner, Sabine Flitsch
Galactose oxidase catalyses the highly selective oxidation of terminal galactosides on a wide range of natural glycoconjugates and has found wide applications in biotechnology, particularly in biocatalysis. Here we show that the enzyme is able to oxidise solid gold-SAM surfaces functionalised with galactose. This array platform allows for the fast identification of galactose oxidase substrates and inhibitors from a library of deoxy-fluorinated sugars using MALDI-Tof spectrometry as a label -free read-out method...
July 24, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741081/capuchin-monkeys-use-of-human-and-conspecific-cues-to-solve-a-hidden-object-choice-task
#14
Jennifer L Essler, Lindsay P Schwartz, Mattea S Rossettie, Peter G Judge
Learning by watching others can provide valuable information with adaptive consequences, such as identifying the presence of a predator or locating a food source. The extent to which nonhuman animals can gain information by reading the cues of others is often tested by evaluating responses to human gestures, such as a point, and less often evaluated by examining responses to conspecific cues. We tested whether ten brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus [Sapajus] apella) were able to use cues from monkeys and a pointing cue from a human to obtain hidden rewards...
July 24, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741080/transcriptomic-analyses-reveal-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis-involved-in-symbiotic-seed-germination-of-gastrodia-elata
#15
Xu Zeng, Yuanyuan Li, Hong Ling, Sisi Liu, Mengmeng Liu, Juan Chen, Shunxing Guo
BACKGROUND: Gastrodia elata is a well-known medicinal orchid. In nature, the germination rate of G. elata is extremely poor, because there is no endosperm within the mature seed. It is crucial for G. elata to obtain nutrition from mycorrhizal fungi (Mycena) at the early-stage of germination. After germination, the seed gives rise to a protocorm. However, there are no "omic" studies on understanding the interaction between Gastrodia and Mycena. Here, we used transcriptomic approaches to explore changes in seed germination of G...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740843/comparative-readability-analysis-of-online-patient-education-resources-on-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#16
Rishabh Gulati, Mohammad Nawaz, Linh Lam, Nikolaos T Pyrsopoulos
BACKGROUND: The National Institutes of Health recommend a readability grade level of less than 7th grade for patient directed information. In this study, we use validated readability metrics to analyze patient information from prominent websites pertaining to ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. METHODS: The terms "Crohn's Disease," "Ulcerative Colitis," and "Inflammatory Bowel Disease" were queried on Google and Bing. Websites containing patient education material were saved as a text file and then modified through expungement of medical terminology that was described within the text...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740812/decoding-emotion-of-the-other-differs-among-schizophrenia-patients-and-schizoaffective-patients-a-pilot-study
#17
Hagar Tadmor, Maya Levin, Tzameret Dadon, Meital E Meiman, Alaa Ajameeh, Hosam Mazzawi, Amihai Rigbi, Ilana Kremer, Idit Golani, Alon Shamir
The deficit in ability to attribute mental states such as thoughts, beliefs, and intentions of another person is a key component in the functional impairment of social cognition in schizophrenia. In the current study, we compared the ability of persons with first episode schizophrenia (FE-SZ) and individuals with schizophrenia displaying symptomatic remission (SZ-CR) to decode the mental state of others with healthy individuals and schizoaffective patients. In addition, we analyzed the effect of dopamine-related genes polymorphism on the ability to decode the mental state of another, and searched for different genetic signatures...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740351/partners-of-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-exhibit-a-biologically-relevant-dysbiosis-in-fecal-microbial-metacommunities
#18
Guang-Lan Chen, Ye Zhang, Wang-Yue Wang, Xue-Liang Ji, Fei Meng, Pei-Song Xu, Ning-Min Yang, Fu-Qiang Ye, Xiao-Chen Bo
AIM: To investigate alterations in the fecal microbiome using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing in couples in the same cohabitation environment. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from eight ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and their healthy partners at Lishui People's Hospital, Zhejiang Province, China. DNA was extracted and the variable regions V3 and V4 of the 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified using a two-step protocol. Clear reads were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% sequence similarity level using UCLUST v1...
July 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739820/efficient-plastid-transformation-in-arabidopsis
#19
Qiguo Yu, Kerry Ann Lutz, Pal Maliga
Plastid transformation is routine in tobacco, but 100-fold less frequent in Arabidopsis, preventing its use in plastid biology. A recent study revealed that null mutations in ACC2, encoding a plastid-targeted acetyl-CoA-carboxylase, cause hypersensitivity to spectinomycin. We hypothesized that plastid transformation efficiency should increase in the acc2 background, because when ACC2 is absent, fatty acid biosynthesis becomes dependent on translation of the plastid-encoded ACC β-Carboxylase subunit. We bombarded ACC2-defective Arabidopsis leaves with a vector carrying a selectable spectinomycin resistance (aadA) gene and gfp, encoding the green fluorescence protein GFP...
July 24, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739646/koh-mount-as-an-aid-in-the-management-of-infectious-keratitis-at-secondary-eye-care-centre
#20
Varsha M Rathi, Monica Thakur, Savitri Sharma, Rohit Khanna, Prashant Garg
AIMS: To report the clinical outcome of infectious keratitis managed after doing 10% KOH mount of corneal smears and reporting done by an ophthalmologist in the secondary eye care centre in South India. METHODS: 103 consecutive cases of microbial keratitis were studied. Inclusion criteria were presence of corneal infiltrate on slit lamp biomicroscopy. An ophthalmologist carried out microbiological evaluation of 10% KOH mount of corneal scrapings. No cultures were done at secondary centres...
July 24, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
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