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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539008/position-in-the-second-stage-of-labour-for-women-without-epidural-anaesthesia
#1
REVIEW
Janesh K Gupta, Akanksha Sood, G Justus Hofmeyr, Joshua P Vogel
BACKGROUND: For centuries, there has been controversy around whether being upright (sitting, birthing stools, chairs, squatting, kneeling) or lying down (lateral (Sim's) position, semi-recumbent, lithotomy position, Trendelenburg's position) have advantages for women giving birth to their babies. This is an update of a review previously published in 2012, 2004 and 1999. OBJECTIVES: To determine the possible benefits and risks of the use of different birth positions during the second stage of labour without epidural anaesthesia, on maternal, fetal, neonatal and caregiver outcomes...
May 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539007/videolaryngoscopy-versus-direct-laryngoscopy-for-tracheal-intubation-in-children-excluding-neonates
#2
REVIEW
Ibtihal S Abdelgadir, Robert S Phillips, Davinder Singh, Michael P Moncreiff, Joanne L Lumsden
BACKGROUND: Direct laryngoscopy is the method currently used for tracheal intubation in children. It occasionally offers unexpectedly poor laryngeal views. Indirect laryngoscopy involves visualizing the vocal cords by means other than obtaining a direct sight, with the potential to improve outcomes. We reviewed the current available literature and performed a meta-analysis to compare direct versus indirect laryngoscopy, or videolaryngoscopy, with regards to efficacy and adverse effects...
May 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538872/melanoma-tumor-microenvironment-and-new-treatments
#3
Mara Huffenbaecher Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro Francisco Giavina-Bianchi, Cyro Festa
In the recent past years, many discoveries in the tumor microenvironment have led to changes in the management of melanoma and it is rising up hopes, specially, to those in advanced stages. FDA approved seven new drugs from 2011 to 2014. They are: Vemurafenib, Dabrafenib and Trametinib, kinases inhibitors used for patients that have BRAFV600E mutation; Ipilimumab (anti-CTLA4), Pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1) and Nivolumab (anti-PD-1), monoclonal antibodies that stimulate the immune system; and Peginterferon alfa-2b, an anti-proliferative cytokine used as adjuvant therapy...
March 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538746/medical-management-of-hidradenitis-suppurativa
#4
Lauren Av Orenstein, Robert G Micheletti
Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disease of the folliculo-infundibular unit for which no individual treatment is uniformly effective. A wide array of therapies has been reported successful in the treatment of hidradenitis, although few high-quality clinical trials have been conducted. Comparing the effectiveness of different therapies has proven challenging due to heterogeneity and limited validation of outcome measures. We performed a systematic review of clinical trials of medical treatments for hidradenitis, yielding 8 articles reporting on 9 trials of antibiotic, hormonal, and biologic therapies...
June 2017: Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538656/recent-advances-in-c-c-and-c-n-bond-forming-reactions-catalysed-by-polystyrene-supported-copper-complexes
#5
REVIEW
Pavel Drabina, Jan Svoboda, Miloš Sedlák
This present mini-review covers recently published results on Cu(I) and Cu(II) complexes immobilized on polystyrene carriers, which are used as heterogeneous, eco-friendly reusable catalysts applied for carbon-carbon and carbon-nitrogen forming reactions. Recent advances and trends in this area are demonstrated in the examples of oxidative homocoupling of terminal alkynes, the synthesis of propargylamines, nitroaldolization reactions, azide alkyne cycloaddition, N-arylation of nitrogen containing compounds, aza-Michael additions, asymmetric Friedel-Crafts reactions, asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reactions, and asymmetric 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides...
May 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538603/a-systematic-review-of-the-exercise-effect-on-bone-health-the-importance-of-assessing-mechanical-loading-in-perimenopausal-and-postmenopausal-women
#6
Borja Sañudo, Moisés de Hoyo, Jesús Del Pozo-Cruz, Luis Carrasco, Borja Del Pozo-Cruz, Sergio Tejero, Elwyn Firth
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this systematic review were to determine the general effects of exercise on areal bone mineral density (BMD) in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, and to provide information on the most suitable bone-loading exercise regimens that may improve bone health in this population group. METHODS: A computerized, systematic literature search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and The Cochrane Library, from January 2005 to November 2015, to identify all randomized controlled trials related to exercise in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women...
May 22, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538514/long-term-outcome-of-4-patients-with-transcobalamin-deficiency-caused-by-2-novel-tcn2-mutations
#7
Marwan Nashabat, Gustavo Maegawa, Peter H Nissen, Ebba Nexo, Hussain Al-Shamrani, Mohammed Al-Owain, Majid Alfadhel
Cobalamin (vitamin B12 [Cbl]) is an essential cofactor for many biochemical pathways. Transcobalamin (TC) is required to internalize Cbl into the cells through membrane receptor-mediated endocytosis. Cbl is then processed in the cytoplasm and mitochondria by complementation factors leading to its active metabolites; methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosyl-cobalamin. Deficiency of TC results in an elevation in methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. Patients usually present with macrocytic anemia, pancytopenia, failure to thrive, gastrointestinal symptoms, and neurological dysfunction...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538408/precision-of-quantitative-computed-tomography-texture-analysis-using-image-filtering-a-phantom-study-for-scanner-variability
#8
Koichiro Yasaka, Hiroyuki Akai, Dennis Mackin, Laurence Court, Eduardo Moros, Kuni Ohtomo, Shigeru Kiryu
Quantitative computed tomography (CT) texture analyses for images with and without filtration are gaining attention to capture the heterogeneity of tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate how quantitative texture parameters using image filtering vary among different computed tomography (CT) scanners using a phantom developed for radiomics studies.A phantom, consisting of 10 different cartridges with various textures, was scanned under 6 different scanning protocols using four CT scanners from four different vendors...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538404/pregabalin-can-decrease-acute-pain-and-morphine-consumption-in-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-patients-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
Shijie Li, Junqiang Guo, Fangjun Li, Zhijia Yang, Shuai Wang, Changjiang Qin
BACKGROUND: Pregabalin has been used as an adjunct for the management of acute pain in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This meta-analysis aimed to illustrate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin for pain management following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: In March 2017, a systematic computer-based search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Google databases. Data on patients prepared for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in studies that compared pregabalin versus placebo were retrieved...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538386/safety-and-efficiency-of-sglt2-inhibitor-combining-with-insulin-in-subjects-with-diabetes-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#10
Yingying Yang, Shi Chen, Hui Pan, Yun Zou, Bo Wang, Guixia Wang, Huijuan Zhu
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the safety and efficiency of the novel sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor in combinations with insulin for type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM). METHODS: We searched Medline, Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Collaboration Library from January 2010 to December 2016 without restriction of language. FDA data and Clinical Trials (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) were also searched. Study selection, data extraction, and evaluation of risk of bias were performed by 2 persons independently...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538363/the-effect-of-alpha-linolenic-acid-on-glycemic-control-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-clinical-trials
#11
Elena Jovanovski, Dandan Li, Hoang Vi Thanh Ho, Vladimir Djedovic, Any de Castro Ruiz Marques, Esra Shishtar, Sonia Blanco Mejia, John L Sievenpiper, Russell J de Souza, Lea Duvnjak, Vladimir Vuksan
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) have been shown to reduce type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk and improve insulin responsiveness in T2DM subjects, but whether the plant sources of omega-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid [ALA]) have an effect on glycemic control requires further investigation. METHODS: The parameters of interest were glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin (FBI), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fructosamine, and glycated albumin...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538248/minimally-invasive-cardiac-output-technologies-in-the-icu-putting-it-all-together
#12
Ramon P Clement, Jaap J Vos, Thomas W L Scheeren
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Haemodynamic monitoring is a cornerstone in the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment in critically ill patients in circulatory distress. The interest in using minimally invasive cardiac output monitors is growing. The purpose of this review is to discuss the currently available devices to provide an overview of their validation studies in order to answer the question whether these devices are ready for implementation in clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Current evidence shows that minimally invasive cardiac output monitoring devices are not yet interchangeable with (trans)pulmonary thermodilution in measuring cardiac output...
May 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538218/dialysis-therapy-and-conservative-management-of-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease-in-the-elderly-a-systematic-review
#13
Supakanya Wongrakpanich, Paweena Susantitaphong, Suramath Isaranuwatchai, Jirat Chenbhanich, Somchai Eiam-Ong, Bertrand L Jaber
BACKGROUND: Dialysis in older adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and comorbidities may not be associated with improved life expectancy compared to conservative management. To inform clinical practice, we performed a systematic review of all available studies examining this hypothesis. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of retrospective and prospective cohort studies of older adults with stage-5 CKD who chose dialysis (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis) or opted for conservative management (including management of complications of CKD and palliative care)...
May 25, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538213/prediction-of-egfr-and-kras-mutation-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-using-quantitative-18f-fdg-pet-ct-metrics
#14
Ryogo Minamimoto, Mehran Jamali, Olivier Gevaert, Sebastian Echegaray, Amanda Khuong, Chuong D Hoang, Joseph B Shrager, Sylvia K Plevritis, Daniel L Rubin, Ann N Leung, Sandy Napel, Andrew Quon
This study investigated the relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and quantitative FDG-PET/CT parameters including tumor heterogeneity. 131 patients with NSCLC underwent staging FDG-PET/CT followed by tumor resection and histopathological analysis that included testing for the EGFR and KRAS gene mutations. Patient and lesion characteristics, including smoking habits and FDG uptake parameters, were correlated to each gene mutation...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538183/runx1-eto-and-runx1-evi1-differentially-reprogram-the-chromatin-landscape-in-t-8-21-and-t-3-21-aml
#15
Justin Loke, Salam A Assi, Maria Rosaria Imperato, Anetta Ptasinska, Pierre Cauchy, Yura Grabovska, Natalia Martinez Soria, Manoj Raghavan, H Ruud Delwel, Peter N Cockerill, Olaf Heidenreich, Constanze Bonifer
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease caused by mutations in transcriptional regulator genes, but how different mutant regulators shape the chromatin landscape is unclear. Here, we compared the transcriptional networks of two types of AML with chromosomal translocations of the RUNX1 locus that fuse the RUNX1 DNA-binding domain to different regulators, the t(8;21) expressing RUNX1-ETO and the t(3;21) expressing RUNX1-EVI1. Despite containing the same DNA-binding domain, the two fusion proteins display distinct binding patterns, show differences in gene expression and chromatin landscape, and are dependent on different transcription factors...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538171/proliferation-drives-aging-related-functional-decline-in-a-subpopulation-of-the-hematopoietic-stem-cell-compartment
#16
Kristina Kirschner, Tamir Chandra, Vladimir Kiselev, David Flores-Santa Cruz, Iain C Macaulay, Hyun Jun Park, Juan Li, David G Kent, Rupa Kumar, Dean C Pask, Tina L Hamilton, Martin Hemberg, Wolf Reik, Anthony R Green
Aging of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment is characterized by lineage bias and reduced stem cell function, the molecular basis of which is largely unknown. Using single-cell transcriptomics, we identified a distinct subpopulation of old HSCs carrying a p53 signature indicative of stem cell decline alongside pro-proliferative JAK/STAT signaling. To investigate the relationship between JAK/STAT and p53 signaling, we challenged HSCs with a constitutively active form of JAK2 (V617F) and observed an expansion of the p53-positive subpopulation in old mice...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538152/apoptotic-bax-at-oxidatively-stressed-mitochondrial-membranes-lipid-dynamics-and-permeabilization
#17
Artur Peter Günther Dingeldein, Šárka Pokorná, Martin Lidman, Tobias Sparrman, Radek Šachl, Martin Hof, Gerhard Gröbner
Mitochondria are crucial compartments of eukaryotic cells because they function as the cellular power plant and play a central role in the early stages of programmed cell death (apoptosis). To avoid undesired cell death, this apoptotic pathway is tightly regulated by members of the Bcl-2 protein family, which interact on the external surface of the mitochondria, i.e., the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM), and modulate its permeability to apoptotic factors, controlling their release into the cytosol. A growing body of evidence suggests that the MOM lipids play active roles in this permeabilization process...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537989/obesity-is-independently-associated-with-increased-risk-of-hepatocellular-cancer-related-mortality-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Arjun Gupta, Avash Das, Kaustav Majumder, Nivedita Arora, Helen G Mayo, Preet P Singh, Muhammad S Beg, Siddharth Singh
OBJECTIVE: Excess body weight is associated with increased risk of developing hepatocellular cancer (HCC), but its effect on HCC-related mortality remains unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between premorbid obesity and HCC-related mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through a systematic literature search-up to March 2016, we identified 9 observational studies (1,599,453 individuals, 5705 HCC-related deaths) reporting the association between premorbid body mass index (BMI), and HCC-related mortality...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537986/an-update-on-lupus-animal-models
#19
Wei Li, Anton A Titov, Laurence Morel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The complexity and heterogeneity of the clinical presentation in systemic lupus of erythematosus (SLE), combined to the inherent limitations of clinical research, have made it difficult to investigate the cause of this disease directly in patients. Various mouse models have been developed to dissect the cellular and genetic mechanisms of SLE, as well as to identify therapeutic targets and to screen treatments. The purpose of this review is to summarize the major spontaneous and induced mouse models of SLE and to provide an update on the major advances they have contributed to the field...
May 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537982/selective-cannabinoids-for-chronic-neuropathic-pain-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Howard Meng, Bradley Johnston, Marina Englesakis, Dwight E Moulin, Anuj Bhatia
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of consensus on the role of selective cannabinoids for the treatment of neuropathic pain (NP). Guidelines from national and international pain societies have provided contradictory recommendations. The primary objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis (SR-MA) was to determine the analgesic efficacy and safety of selective cannabinoids compared to conventional management or placebo for chronic NP. METHODS: We reviewed randomized controlled trials that compared selective cannabinoids (dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols) with conventional treatments (eg, pharmacotherapy, physical therapy, or a combination of these) or placebo in patients with chronic NP because patients with NP may be on any of these therapies or none if all standard treatments have failed to provide analgesia and or if these treatments have been associated with adverse effects...
May 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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