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Heterogeneity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231607/position-in-the-second-stage-of-labour-for-women-with-epidural-anaesthesia
#1
REVIEW
Marion Kibuka, Jim G Thornton
BACKGROUND: Epidural analgesia for pain relief in labour prolongs the second stage of labour and results in more instrumental deliveries. It has been suggested that a more upright position of the mother during all or part of the second stage may counteract these adverse effects. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different birthing positions (upright and recumbent) during the second stage of labour, on important maternal and fetal outcomes for women with epidural analgesia...
February 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231587/potential-biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor-induced-angioedema
#2
Murat Bas, Katharina Storck, Ulrich Strassen
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema (ACEi-AE) is the most frequent drug-induced angioedema. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential biomarkers for the detection of the risk to develop an ACEi-AE. METHODS: Adult patients who started antihypertensive treatment with ramipril were included and followed up for 4-6 weeks. At baseline, 3 days, and 4-6 weeks after onset of therapy, blood samples were obtained. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients could be enrolled...
February 24, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231559/prostate-cancer-heterogeneity-discovering-novel-molecular-targets-for-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Chiara Ciccarese, Francesco Massari, Roberto Iacovelli, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Rodolfo Montironi, Vincenzo Di Nunno, Francesca Giunchi, Matteo Brunelli, Giampaolo Tortora
Prostate cancer (PCa) shows a broad spectrum of biological and clinical behavior, which represents the epiphenomenon of an extreme genetic heterogeneity. Recent genomic profiling studies have deeply improved the knowledge of the genomic landscape of localized and metastatic PCa. The AR and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways are the two most frequently altered, representing therefore interestingly targets for therapy. Moreover, somatic or germline aberrations of DNA repair genes (DRGs) have been observed at high frequency, supporting the potential role of platinum derivatives and PARP inhibitors as effective therapeutic strategies...
February 11, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231496/attrition-in-trials-evaluating-complex-interventions-for-schizophrenia-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
P Szymczynska, S Walsh, L Greenberg, S Priebe
Essential criteria for the methodological quality and validity of randomized controlled trials are the drop-out rates from both the experimental intervention and the study as a whole. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed these drop-out rates in non-pharmacological schizophrenia trials. A systematic literature search was used to identify relevant trials with ≥100 sample size and to extract the drop-out data. The rates of drop-out from the experimental intervention and study were calculated with meta-analysis of proportions...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231406/fungal-adaptation-to-contemporary-fungicide-applications-the-case-of-botrytis-cinerea-populations-from-champagne-vineyards-france
#5
A-S Walker, V Ravigne, A Rieux, S Ali, F Carpentier, E Fournier
In addition to being one of the most acute problems impeding chemical control of fungal diseases, the evolution of fungicide resistance is an emblematic case of local adaptation to spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable selection pressures. Here we dissected the adaptation of Botrytis cinerea (the causal agent of grey mould) populations on grapes to several fungicides. We carried out a two-year survey (four collection dates) on three treated/untreated pairs of plots from vineyards in Champagne (France), and monitored the frequency of four resistant phenotypes that are unambiguously associated to four distinct genotypes...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231327/functionally-focused-algorithmic-analysis-of-high-resolution-microarray-cgh-genomic-landscapes-demonstrates-comparable-genomic-copy-number-aberrations-in-msi-and-mss-sporadic-colorectal-cancer
#6
Hamad Ali, Milad S Bitar, Ashraf Al Madhoun, Makia Marafie, Fahd Al-Mulla
Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) emerged as a powerful technology for studying copy number variations at higher resolution in many cancers including colorectal cancer. However, the lack of standardized systematic protocols including bioinformatic algorithms to obtain and analyze genomic data resulted in significant variation in the reported copy number aberration (CNA) data. Here, we present genomic aCGH data obtained using highly stringent and functionally relevant statistical algorithms from 116 well-defined microsatellites instable (MSI) and microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231254/rapid-generation-of-drug-resistance-alleles-at-endogenous-loci-using-crispr-cas9-indel-mutagenesis
#7
Jonathan J Ipsaro, Chen Shen, Eri Arai, Yali Xu, Justin B Kinney, Leemor Joshua-Tor, Christopher R Vakoc, Junwei Shi
Genetic alterations conferring resistance to the effects of chemical inhibitors are valuable tools for validating on-target effects in cells. Unfortunately, for many therapeutic targets such alleles are not available. To address this issue, we evaluated whether CRISPR-Cas9-mediated insertion/deletion (indel) mutagenesis can produce drug-resistance alleles at endogenous loci. This method takes advantage of the heterogeneous in-frame alleles produced following Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage, which we show can generate rare alleles that confer resistance to the growth-arrest caused by chemical inhibitors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231245/signalling-crosstalk-at-the-leading-edge-controls-tissue-closure-dynamics-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#8
Raphaël Rousset, Fabrice Carballès, Nadège Parassol, Sébastien Schaub, Delphine Cérézo, Stéphane Noselli
Tissue morphogenesis relies on proper differentiation of morphogenetic domains, adopting specific cell behaviours. Yet, how signalling pathways interact to determine and coordinate these domains remains poorly understood. Dorsal closure (DC) of the Drosophila embryo represents a powerful model to study epithelial cell sheet sealing. In this process, JNK (JUN N-terminal Kinase) signalling controls leading edge (LE) differentiation generating local forces and cell shape changes essential for DC. The LE represents a key morphogenetic domain in which, in addition to JNK, a number of signalling pathways converges and interacts (anterior/posterior -AP- determination; segmentation genes, such as Wnt/Wingless; TGFβ/Decapentaplegic)...
February 23, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231064/three-dimensional-ultrasound-for-prenatal-assessment-of-conjoined-twins-additional-advantages
#9
Tuangsit Wataganara, Pornpimol Ruangvutilert, Prasert Sunsaneevithayakul, Kusol Russameecharoen, Katika Nawapun, Nisarat Phithakwatchara
Conjoined twins are a rare, but serious, complication of monozygotic twins. Early prenatal diagnosis of conjoined twins is increasingly made with transvaginal ultrasound and color Doppler studies. Most prenatally diagnosed conjoined twins are terminated due to the high perinatal mortality, but advancement in pediatric surgery has allowed for successful postnatal separation in a small number of cases, and some parents may consider this option over termination of pregnancy. It is important to get a detailed prenatal ultrasound for the site and extent of fusion for an accurate categorization...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231038/medication-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw-and-dental-implants-failures-a-systematic-review
#10
Riccardo Guazzo, Luca Sbricoli, Sara Ricci, Eriberto Bressan, Adriano Piattelli, Flavia Iaculli
No well-established evidence supporting safe use of bisphosphonates (BPs) or other antiresorptive agents prior, during, or after dentoalveolar surgery, are currently available; moreover, the real risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) development is still unknown. The aim of the present systematic review was to assess the scientific literature concerning the implants placement in antiresorptive agent users and the related risk of implants failure and ONJ development. English papers published from January 2003 until December 2014 were identified on the MEDLINE database...
February 2017: Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231035/biologically-relevant-heterogeneity-metrics-and-practical-insights
#11
Albert Gough, Andrew M Stern, John Maier, Timothy Lezon, Tong-Ying Shun, Chakra Chennubhotla, Mark E Schurdak, Steven A Haney, D Lansing Taylor
Heterogeneity is a fundamental property of biological systems at all scales that must be addressed in a wide range of biomedical applications, including basic biomedical research, drug discovery, diagnostics, and the implementation of precision medicine. There are a number of published approaches to characterizing heterogeneity in cells in vitro and in tissue sections. However, there are no generally accepted approaches for the detection and quantitation of heterogeneity that can be applied in a relatively high-throughput workflow...
March 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231030/safety-of-patient-mobilization-and-rehabilitation-in-the-icu-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#12
Peter Nydahl, Thiti Sricharoenchai, Saurabh Chandra, Firuzan Sari Kundt, Minxuan Huang, Magdalena Fischill, Dale M Needham
BACKGROUND: Early mobilization and rehabilitation of patients in intensive care units (ICU) may improve physical function, and reduce the duration of delirium, mechanical ventilation and ICU length of stay. However, safety concerns are an important barrier to widespread implementation. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize safety data regarding patient mobilization and rehabilitation in the ICU, including falls, removal of endotracheal tubes (ETT), removal or dysfunction of intravascular catheters, removal of other catheters/tubes, cardiac arrest, hemodynamic changes and desaturation...
February 23, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230984/2d-conductive-iron-quinoid-magnets-ordering-up-to-tc-105-k-via-heterogenous-redox-chemistry
#13
Jordan A DeGayner, Ie-Rang Jeon, Lei Sun, Mircea Dinca, T David Harris
We report the magnetism and conductivity for a redox isomeric pair of iron-quinoid metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The oxidized isomer, (Me2NH2)2[Fe2L3]·2H2O·6DMF (LH2 = 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxo-1,4-benzoquinone) was previously shown to magnetically order below 80 K in its solvated form, with the ordering temperature decreasing to 26 K upon desolvation. Here, we demonstrate this compound to exhibit electrical conductivity values up to σ = 1.4(7) × 10(-2) S/cm (Ea = 0.26(1) cm(-1)) and 1.0(3) × 10(-3) S/cm (Ea = 0...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230910/adhesives-for-bonded-molar-tubes-during-fixed-brace-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Declan T Millett, Nicky A Mandall, Rye Cr Mattick, Joy Hickman, Anne-Marie Glenny
BACKGROUND: Orthodontic treatment involves using fixed or removable appliances (dental braces) to correct the positions of teeth. The success of a fixed appliance depends partly on the metal attachments (brackets and bands) being glued to the teeth so that they do not become detached during treatment. Brackets (metal squares) are usually attached to teeth other than molars, where bands (metal rings that go round each tooth) are more commonly used. Orthodontic tubes (stainless steel tubes that allow wires to pass through them), are typically welded to bands but they may also be glued directly (bonded) to molars...
February 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230908/probiotics-for-people-with-hepatic-encephalopathy
#15
REVIEW
Rohan Dalal, Richard G McGee, Stephen M Riordan, Angela C Webster
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy is a disorder of brain function as a result of liver failure or portosystemic shunt or both. Both hepatic encephalopathy (clinically overt) and minimal hepatic encephalopathy (not clinically overt) significantly impair patient's quality of life and daily functioning, and represent a significant burden on healthcare resources. Probiotics are live micro-organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, may confer a health benefit on the host. OBJECTIVES: To determine the beneficial and harmful effects of probiotics in any dosage, compared with placebo or no intervention, or with any other treatment for people with any grade of acute or chronic hepatic encephalopathy...
February 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230773/programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-tumor-expression-is-associated-with-a-better-prognosis-and-diabetic-disease-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-patients
#16
Gerardo Botti, Francesca Collina, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Federica Rao, Valentina Peluso, Rossella De Cecio, Michela Piezzo, Gabriella Landi, Michelino De Laurentiis, Monica Cantile, Maurizio Di Bonito
Triple Negative Breast Cancers (TNBC) subtype is an aggressive disease with poor clinical outcome. The only treatment available is surgery followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a trans-membrane protein expressed on a wide variety of cells including immune cells, epithelial and vascular endothelial cells. Recently, PD-1/PD-L1 pathway signaling was described as an adaptive immune resistance mechanism enacted by the tumor cells to evade the immune response. Its presence on tumor cell membranes, acquired for this reason, through time, is an important prognostic value...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230746/oxidation-of-5-chloromethylfurfural-cmf-to-2-5-diformylfuran-dff
#17
Ana I Vicente, Jaime A S Coelho, Svilen P Simeonov, Hristina I Lazarova, Margarita D Popova, Carlos A M Afonso
2,5-Diformylfuran (DFF) is an important biorenewable building block, namely for the manufacture of new polymers that may replace existing materials derived from limited fossil fuel resources. The current reported methods for the preparation of DFF are mainly derived from the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and, to a lesser extent, directly from fructose. 5-Chloromethylfurfural (CMF) has been considered an alternative to HMF as an intermediate building block due to its advantages regarding stability, polarity, and availability from glucose and cellulose...
February 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230737/role-of-fiber-in-symptomatic-uncomplicated-diverticular-disease-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Marilia Carabotti, Bruno Annibale, Carola Severi, Edith Lahner
Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent abdominal symptoms in patients with colonic diverticula. There is some evidence that a high-fiber diet or supplemental fibers may reduce symptoms in SUDD patients and a high-fiber diet is commonly suggested for these patients. This systematic review aims to update the evidence on the efficacy of fiber treatment in SUDD, in terms of a reduction in symptoms and the prevention of acute diverticulitis. According to PRISMA, we identified studies on SUDD patients treated with fibers (PubMed and Scopus)...
February 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230567/magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-of-solitary-hypothalamitis
#19
Hua Zhang, Jing Wang, Yue Wu, Ying Tang, Ran Tao, Hongying Ye, Zhenwei Yao
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to characterize magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of solitary hypothalamitis and evaluate their clinical value in diagnosis. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging scans, including T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, of 8 biopsy-proven hypothalamitis lesions were retrospectively analyzed along with MRI features including size, shape, signal intensity, enhancement pattern, correlation with adjacent tissues, and changes in infundibular stalk and sella turcica...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230558/risk-for-overall-infection-with-anti-tnf-and-anti-integrin-agents-used-in-ibd-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Eric D Shah, Jeremy P Farida, Corey A Siegel, Kelly Chong, Gil Y Melmed
BACKGROUND: The overall risk for infection with contemporary biological agents in treating Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) has not been systematically assessed. METHODS: We performed a PubMed and Cochrane database literature search to evaluate randomized, placebo-controlled trials of biologics in treating UC and CD. Meta-analysis was performed using a DerSimonian and Laird random effects model. We determined relative risk (RR) of harm against placebo; number needed to harm (NNH) was reported when appropriate...
February 22, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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