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Surgery, gastrointestinal surgery, hepatopancreatobiliary surgery, laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery

Lee L Swanstrom, Adrian Park, Marty Arregui, Morris Franklin, C Daniel Smith, Christina Blaney
BACKGROUND: Since 1993, there has been an increase in the number of postgraduate fellowships in minimally invasive and gastrointestinal (GI) surgery; from 9 in 1993 to more than 80 in 2004. Early on, there was no supervision or accreditation of these fellowships, and they varied widely in content, structure, and quality. This was widely recognized as being a bad situation for fellow applicants and reflected poorly on the specialties of minimally invasive (MI) and GI surgery. In an effort to bring order to this chaotic situation, the Minimally Invasive Surgery Fellowship Council (MISFC) was founded in 1997...
April 2006: Annals of Surgery
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