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Duration of antibiotic therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545834/the-relationship-of-the-subtypes-of-preterm-birth-with-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#1
Anne M Lynch, Brandie D Wagner, Jennifer K Hodges, Tamara S Thevarajah, Emily A Mccourt, Ashlee M Cerda, Naresh Mandava, Ronald S Gibbs, Alan G Palestine
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an adverse outcome of preterm birth (PTB) and is a leading cause of childhood blindness. The relationship between the subtypes of PTB with ROP is understudied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if there is a difference in the incidence of type 1 or type 2 ROP in infants with PTB resulting from spontaneous preterm labor (SPTL), a medical indication (MIPTB), or preterm-premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of 827 infants screened for ROP who delivered at a single tertiary care center in Colorado...
May 22, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545813/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-indole-2-carboxamides-with-pan-anti-mycobacterial-activity
#2
Nicholas D Franz, Juan Manuel Belardinelli, Michael A Kaminski, Louis C Dunn, Vinicius Calado Nogueira de Moura, Michael A Blaha, Dan D Truong, Wei Li, Mary Jackson, E Jeffrey North
Current treatment regimens for non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and tuberculosis (TB) generally require long duration of therapy with multiple drugs, some of which are broad spectrum antibiotics. Despite some advances in antimicrobial compounds, there remains a need in therapy for antibiotics with specific mycobacterial targets. It has been shown that MmpL3 is an essential transporter required for the translocation of mycolic acids to the mycobacterial cell envelope. Here, we synthesized a series of indole-2-carboxamides that inhibit MmpL3 and have potent pan-activity against mycobacterial species...
May 8, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544969/prior-treatment-with-non-anti-tb-antibiotics-and-the-duration-of-symptoms-have-no-effect-on-diagnostics-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#3
Marcin Paciorek, Andrzej Pihowicz, Dominik Bursa, Joanna Schöntaler Humięcka, Justyna D Kowalska, Mateusz Antosiewicz, Magda E Thompson, Agata Skrzat-Wojdacz, Agnieszka Bednarska, Andrzej Horban
PURPOSE: Our objective was to investigate whether diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) with microbiological and molecular analysis was affected by prior empirical non anti tuberculosis antibiotics or by duration of symptoms before lumbar puncture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated medical records of patients with TBM confirmed by positive culture, nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) or Ehrlich-Ziehl-Neelsen staining (EZNs) from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or by characteristic results of biochemical analysis of CSF combined with a typical clinical manifestation...
May 22, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540775/preventing-intrahepatic-infection-after-ablation-of-liver-tumours-in-biliary-enteric-anastomosis-patients
#4
Shui-Lian Tan, Xiao-Ling Yu, Ping Liang, Fangyi Liu, Zhigang Cheng, Zhi-Yu Han, Jie Yu
PURPOSE: To assess the value of bowel preparation plus targeted antibiotics for preventing intrahepatic infections after MWA of liver tumours in BEA patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 21 patients (divided into two groups) with a history of BEA undergoing ultrasound-guided MWA of liver tumours from November 2008 to June 2014. Group A (n = 10) received single-antibiotic therapy (cefazedone 2 g bid 4, amoxicillin and flucloxacillin sodium 2 g bid 3, levofloxacin 0...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538648/less-is-more-antibiotic-duration-and-outcomes-in-fournier-s-gangrene
#5
Margaret Lauerman, Olga Kolesnik, Kinjal Sethuraman, Ronald Rabinowitz, Manjari Joshi, Emily Clark, Deborah Stein, Thomas Scalea, Sharon Henry
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic management of Fournier's gangrene (FG) is without evidence-based guidelines, and is based on expert opinion. The effect of duration of antibiotic therapy on outcomes in FG is unknown. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of FG patients from 2012-2015 at a single institution. Patients were managed by our institutional practice of complete primary wound closure as possible, with antibiotic duration according to physician judgement. Patients were stratified into multiple durations of antibiotic administration...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538361/characteristics-of-and-risk-factors-for-severe-neurological-deficit-in-patients-with-pyogenic-vertebral-osteomyelitis-a-case-control-study
#6
Adrien Lemaignen, Idir Ghout, Aurélien Dinh, Guillaume Gras, Bruno Fantin, Virginie Zarrouk, Robert Carlier, Jean-Edouard Loret, Eric Denes, Alix Greder, François-Xavier Lescure, David Boutoille, Pierre Tattevin, Bertrand Issartel, Jean-Philippe Cottier, Louis Bernard
Severe neurological deficit (SND) is a rare but major complication of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (PVO). We aimed to determine the risk factors and the variables associated with clinical improvement for SND during PVO.This case-control study included patients without PVO-associated SND enrolled in a prospective randomized antibiotic duration study, and patients with PVO-associated SND managed in 8 French referral centers. Risk factors for SND were determined by logistic regression.Ninety-seven patients with PVO-associated SND cases, and 297 controls were included...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536725/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-h-pylori-infection-in-singapore
#7
Claire Alexandra Zhen Chew, Tong Fong Lye, Daphne Ang, Tiing Leong Ang
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an infection that has a role in causing dyspepsia and complications such as peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies. In the primary care setting, one can adopt a stepwise approach with the 'test-and-treat' strategy to manage H. pylori-associated dyspepsia in young patients without alarm symptoms. Empiric first-line therapies should be for a two-week duration; options include clarithromycin-containing triple therapy alone or with the addition of bismuth, concomitant therapy and bismuth quadruple therapy...
May 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532467/antimicrobial-consumption-costs-and-resistance-patterns-a-two-year-prospective-study-in-a-romanian-intensive-care-unit
#8
Carmen Axente, Monica Licker, Roxana Moldovan, Elena Hogea, Delia Muntean, Florin Horhat, Ovidiu Bedreag, Dorel Sandesc, Marius Papurica, Dorina Dugaesescu, Mirela Voicu, Luminita Baditoiu
BACKGROUND: Due to the vulnerable nature of its patients, the wide use of invasive devices and broad-spectrum antimicrobials used, the intensive care unit (ICU) is often called the epicentre of infections. In the present study, we quantified the burden of hospital acquired pathology in a Romanian university hospital ICU, represented by antimicrobial agents consumption, costs and local resistance patterns, in order to identify multimodal interventional strategies. METHODS: Between 1(st) January 2012 and 31(st) December 2013, a prospective study was conducted in the largest ICU of Western Romania...
May 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531289/management-of-bacteriuria-in-veterans-affairs-hospitals
#9
Emily S Spivak, Muriel Burk, Rongping Zhang, Makoto M Jones, Melinda M Neuhauser, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Francesca E Cunningham
Background: Bacteriuria contributes to antibiotic overuse through treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and long durations of therapy for symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs), yet large-scale evaluations of bacteriuria management among inpatients are lacking. Methods: Inpatients with bacteriuria were classified as asymptomatic or symptomatic based on established criteria applied to data collected by manual chart review. We examined frequency of treatment of ASB, factors associated with treatment of ASB, durations of therapy, and frequency of complications including Clostridium difficile infection, readmission and all-cause mortality within 28 days of discharge...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528870/recurrent-multifocal-osteomyelitis-in-children-experience-in-a-tertiary-care-center
#10
Ana Belén Ariza Jiménez, Esmeralda Núñez Cuadros, Rocío Galindo Zavala, Leticia Núñez Caro, Gisela Díaz-Cordobés Soriano, Antonio Urda Cardona
INTRODUCTION: Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis is a rare aseptic bone inflammation that affects pediatric patients. Its management and treatment have not yet been standardized. METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive study of patients under 14 years of age diagnosed with chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNBO) in a tertiary hospital. We included patients diagnosed over the last 6 years (2010-2015) who met the Jansson criteria. The clinical and radiological characteristics of CNBO were analyzed, as was the outcome after different therapeutic options...
May 18, 2017: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527874/pressor-support-during-a-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction-after-initiation-of-treatment-for-weil-s-disease
#11
Randi Connor-Schuler, Anee Khan, Nikhil Goyal, Erin Zimny
We present a case of Weil's disease complicated by a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) after initiation of antibiotics while in the emergency department requiring invasive monitoring and vasopressor support. The case is followed by a brief review of the JHR which is rarely observed with treatment of leptospirosis. A healthy 28-year-old female who recently returned from the Caribbean presented to the emergency department with flu-like symptoms. The patient appeared jaundiced with conjunctival suffusion and was ultimately treated with the appropriate antibiotics for leptospirosis in the ED...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504784/current-clinical-controversies-in-the-management-of-sepsis
#12
J Cohen
Sepsis remains a challenging clinical problem requiring prompt diagnosis and optimal clinical management if the continuing high mortality is to be contained. In this brief review I consider four specific questions that are the subject of ongoing controversy. First, whether the new 'Sepsis-3' definitions will be helpful, in particular in improving diagnosis, or whether the rapid move towards precision medicine will make the definition redundant. Second, should we routinely use combinations of antibiotics for the empiric treatment of sepsis...
December 2016: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503879/impact-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-intervention-on-appropriateness-of-prescribing-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-an-australian-regional-hospital
#13
Stuart E Bond, Craig S Boutlis, Wilfred W Yeo, Spiros Miyakis
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the second commonest indication for antibiotic use in Australian hospitals and is therefore a frequent target for antimicrobial stewardship. A single-centre prospective study was conducted in a regional referral hospital comparing management of adult patients with CAP before and after an educational intervention. We demonstrated a reduction in duration of therapy and reduced inappropriate use of ceftriaxone-based regimens for non-severe CAP.
May 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503064/combined-intrastromal-injection-of-amphotericin-b-and-topical-fluconazole-in-the-treatment-of-resistant-cases-of-keratomycosis-a-retrospective-study
#14
Waled Mahdy Nada, Mahmoud A Al Aswad, Wael M El-Haig
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of combination therapy of a single intrastromal injection of amphotericin B and topical fluconazole in resistant cases of fungal keratitis, and also topical amphotericin B as monotherapy in terms of the duration of the recovery period and toxic drug effects. METHODS: This retrospective 2-year study reviewed 68 cases of unilateral fungal keratitis diagnosed by clinical features and positive laboratory culture results. Forty-one cases were resistant and did not respond to monotherapy with an antifungal agent...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502875/efficacy-of-photodynamic-therapy-versus-antibiotics-as-an-adjunct-to-scaling-and-root-planing-in-the-treatment-of-periodontitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Zohaib Akram, Tahira Hyder, Nawwaf Al-Hamoudi, Munerah Saleh Binshabaib, Shatha Subhi Alharthi, Ayesha Hanif
BACKGROUND: To determine whether treatment with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) yield better clinical periodontal outcomes than antibiotics (AB) as adjunct to SRP in periodontitis. METHODS: Electronic searches were conducted in databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register databases) up to and including April 2017...
May 11, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502580/-non-antiretroviral-drugs-uses-among-hiv-infected-persons-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-in-senegal-costs-and-factors-associated-with-prescription
#16
A Diouf, T J Youbong, M Maynart, M Ndoye, F L Diéye, N A Ndiaye, M B Koita-Fall, B Ndiaye, M Seydi
BACKGROUND: In addition to antiretroviral therapy, non-antiretroviral drugs are necessary for the appropriate care of people living with HIV. The costs of such drugs are totally or partially supported by the people living with HIV. We aimed to evaluate the overall costs, the costs supported by the people living with HIV and factors associated with the prescription of non-antiretroviral drugs in people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy in Senegal. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 331 people living with HIV who initiated antiretroviral therapy between 2009 and 2011 and followed until March 2012...
May 11, 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494608/parenteral-nutrition-in-childhood-and-consequences-for-dentition-and-gingivae
#17
D Olczak-Kowalczyk, M Danko, E Banaś, D Gozdowski, K Popińska, E Krasuska-Sławińska, J Książyk
AIM: Assessment of dentition in children under parenteral nutrition, risk factors for caries, and dental developmental abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved 63 patients (aged 2.25-16.6 years), i.e. 32 subjects receiving parenteral nutrition for a mean period of 5.6±2.94 years, and 31 healthy control subjects. Oral hygiene (OHI-S, PL-I), gingival (GI), and dentition status (caries, DMFT/dmft, enamel defects, shape alterations), frequency of oral meals and frequency of cariogenic snacks consumption were evaluated...
March 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483256/infectious-complications-of-pediatric-cochlear-implants-are-highly-influenced-by-otitis-media
#18
Peter M Vila, Nsangou T Ghogomu, Audrey R Odom-John, Timothy E Hullar, Keiko Hirose
OBJECTIVE: Determine the incidence of ear infections in cochlear implant patients, evaluate the contribution of otitis media to complications, describe the bacteriology of otitis media in the cochlear implant population, the treatment provided at our center, and the long term outcome. METHODS: Data collected included age at implantation, history of otitis media or ear tubes, etiology of hearing loss, inner ear anatomy, postoperative infections, time to infection, route of antibiotic administration, and interventions for infections...
June 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483246/comparison-of-first-year-of-life-acute-otitis-media-admissions-before-and-after-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine
#19
Tal Marom, Ofer Israel, Haim Gavriel, Jacob Pitaro, Ali Abo Baker, Ephraim Eviatar
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common childhood infection, which is usually managed in the outpatient setting. Yet, the more severe cases are referred for inpatient treatment. We hypothesized that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), administered during the first year of life, would decrease AOM admissions rate in this age group. We studied the characteristics of infants admitted with AOM and acute mastoiditis (AM) in the PCV13 era, routinely given from November 2010 to all infants...
June 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475793/effectiveness-of-probiotic-prebiotic-and-synbiotic-therapies-in-reducing-postoperative-complications-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#20
Nongyao Kasatpibal, JoAnne D Whitney, Surasak Saokaew, Kirati Kengkla, Margaret M Heitkemper, Anucha Apisarnthanarak
Background: Microbiome-directed therapies are increasingly used preoperatively and postoperatively to improve postoperative outcomes. Recently, the effectiveness of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics in reducing postoperative complications (POCs) has been questioned. This systematic review aimed to examine and rank the effectiveness of these therapies on POCs in adult surgical patients. Methods: We searched for articles from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, Scopus, and CINAHL plus...
May 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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