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Duration of antibiotic therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327131/renal-vein-thrombosis-complicating-severe-acute-pyelonephritis-with-renal-abscesses-and-associated-bacteraemia-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli
#1
Stelios F Assimakopoulos, Pantelis Kraniotis, Charalambos Gogos, Markos Marangos
Acute pyelonephritis might be complicated by the formation of renal and perirenal abscesses and very rarely by renal vein thrombosis, which is a life-threatening condition. The main causative agents of acute pyelonephritis are enterobacteriaceae with the incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains increasing worldwide. We present the case of a 71-year-old Greek man with history of diabetes mellitus and recent hospitalization, who suffered from severe pyelonephritis with renal abscesses formation and associated bacteraemia caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, complicated by extensive thrombosis of the ipsilateral renal vein and its branches, protruding also in the inferior venal cava...
January 11, 2018: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326806/negative-impact-of-prolonged-antibiotics-or-persistent-diarrhea-on-vitamin-k1-levels-in-2-24-weeks-aged-egyptian-infants
#2
Mohsen S Elalfy, Fatma S E Ebeid, Iman A Elagouza, Fatma A Ibrahim, Noura B M Hassan, Beshoy A Botros
Background: To evaluate the hazard of prolonged antibiotic therapy and/or persistent diarrhea on vitamin K1 (VK1) level and bleeding profile in infants (2-24 weeks). Methods: A one-year case-control study, conducted at Ain Shams University, Egypt. 338 infants (2-24 weeks) were recruited and divided into 3 groups (1:1:3 ratios); group A (n=67) patients who received antibiotics for ≥10 days, group B (n=67) who had persistent diarrhea ≥ 14 days and group C (n=204) age- and gender- matched infants who had not either received antibiotics nor had diarrhea...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322168/patient-preferences-for-surgery-or-antibiotics-for-the-treatment-of-acute-appendicitis
#3
Alexis L Hanson, Ross D Crosby, Marc D Basson
Importance: Studies have compared surgical with nonsurgical therapy for acute uncomplicated appendicitis, but none of these studies have a patient-centered perspective. Objectives: To evaluate how patients might choose between surgical and nonsurgical therapy for acute uncomplicated appendicitis and to identify targets to make antibiotic treatment more appealing. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study comprised an online survey and an in-person sensitivity analysis survey...
January 10, 2018: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313584/an-interesting-case-of-recurrent-pyelonephritis
#4
Achintya Dinesh Singh, Siddharth Jain, Agrima Mian, Surabhi Vyas, Neeraj Nischal, Pankaj Jorwal
A 35-year-old male presented with repeated episodes of fever and abdominal pain of 3-month duration. He had been hospitalized twice with similar complaints in the past 3-month. He was diagnosed as pyelonephritis and managed with intravenous antibiotics. However, fever recurred after ten days of discharge from the hospital. With these complaints, he was referred to the Department of Medicine, AIIMS, New Delhi. After evaluation, he was diagnosed as pyelonephritis with right sided consolidation and was started on broad spectrum antibiotics...
September 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313072/-antibiotic-stewardship-measures-for-optimizing-prescription-of-anti-infective-agents
#5
REVIEW
C Lanckohr, H Bracht
Antibiotic stewardship (ABS) comprises a bundle of different interventions to improve anti-infective treatment in a hospital setting. An important component of ABS interventions is the interdisciplinary approach to infection management. Besides improving infrastructural aspects on a hospital level, including surveillance of the use of anti-infective agents and nosocomial infections, collation and interpretation of statistics on resistance and formulation of local treatment guidelines, ABS teams go to the wards and advise treating physicians on antibiotic therapy...
January 8, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311193/microbacterium-peritonitis-in-peritoneal-dialysis-a-case-report-and-review
#6
REVIEW
Philip W Lam, David M Naimark, Jerome A Leis
Peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis (PDRP) is a commonly encountered complication in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Establishing the causative organism in PDRP allows for targeted antibiotic selection, helps to guide duration of therapy, and determines the need for catheter removal. Microbacterium is a genus of aerobic gram-positive bacilli found in the environment. Its detection in clinical isolates has increased owing to improved microbiology diagnostics. We present a case of PDRP due to M...
January 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310512/moxifloxacin-versus-levofloxacin-for-antibacterial-prophylaxis-in-acute-leukemia-patients
#7
Pauline Lee, Randall W Knoebel, Jennifer Pisano, Natasha N Pettit
Objective The primary endpoint of this study was to determine the incidence of febrile neutropenia among patients receiving either moxifloxacin or levofloxacin for antibacterial prophylaxis. Secondary endpoints were number of documented infections and in-hospital mortality in patients who develop febrile neutropenia. Methods A single-center retrospective cohort analysis at a large tertiary care academic medical center was conducted. This study included adult acute leukemia patients (age ≥18 years old) who received inpatient antibacterial prophylaxis (moxifloxacin or levofloxacin) from 1 July 2012 to 1 October 2014...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306716/risk-factors-affecting-the-prognosis-of-descending-necrotizing-mediastinitis-from-odontogenic-infection
#8
Luyao Qu, Xiang Liang, Bin Jiang, Wentao Qian, Weijie Zhang, Xieyi Cai
PURPOSE: Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a serious complication of head and neck infections and has an excessively high mortality rate owing to the lack of understanding of DNM. We assessed the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of odontogenic DNM and evaluated the risk factors affecting the prognosis of DNM to provide an up-to-date overview for clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study, enrolling a sample of patients with DNM due to odontogenic infection who had been referred from January 2013 to December 2016...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301730/the-aetiopathogenesis-of-capsular-contracture-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Yara Bachour, Stephan P Verweij, Susan Gibbs, Johannes C F Ket, Marco J P F Ritt, Frank B Niessen, Margriet G Mullender
BACKGROUND: Capsular contracture is the most frequent complication after breast augmentation or reconstruction with breast implants. The immune system plays a prominent role in capsular contracture formation, albeit to an unknown extent. Bacterial contamination in situ has been hypothesized to be causative for capsular contracture. How this relates to the immunological processes involved is unknown. This article aims to provide an overview of immunological and bacterial factors involved in development of capsular contracture...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298407/a-hybrid-form-of-telemedicine-a-unique-way-to-extend-intensive-care-service-to-neonates-in-medically-underserved-areas
#10
Abhishek Makkar, Mike McCoy, Gene Hallford, Marilyn Escobedo, Edgardo Szyld
BACKGROUND: More than 90% of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the United States are in urban areas, denying rural residents' easy NICU access. Telemedicine use for patient contact and management, although studied in adults and children, is understudied in neonates. A hybrid telemedicine system, with 24/7 neonatal nurse practitioner coverage and with a neonatologist physically present 3 days per week and telemedicine coverage the remaining days, was recently implemented at Comanche County Memorial Hospital's (CCMH) Level II NICU...
January 3, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290233/antibiotic-therapy-of-bone-and-joint-infections-in-children-proposals-of-the-french-pediatric-infectious-disease-group
#11
M Lorrot, Y Gillet, C Gras Le Guen, E Launay, R Cohen, E Grimprel
Acute hematogenous bone and joint infections (osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, osteoarthritis, and spondylodiscitis) affect more frequently children younger than 5 years of age. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are needed to limit the risk of complications. Children with suspected bone and joint infections (BJI) should be hospitalized at the beginning of treatment. Surgical drainage is indicated in patients with septic arthritis and in those with periosteal abscess. Staphylococcus aureus is involved in BJIs in children at all ages; Kingella kingae is a very common causative pathogen in children under 4 years of age...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284155/a-retrospective-analysis-comparing-oral-stepdown-therapy-for-enterobacteriaceae-bloodstream-infections-fluoroquinolones-versus-beta-lactams
#12
Nicholas J Mercuro, Patricia Stogsdill, Minkey Wungwattana
Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infections (EB-BSI) are a common manifestation of Gram-negative sepsis, and are initially managed with empiric intravenous (IV) antibiotics. Upon stabilization and source control, patients are often transitioned to an oral agent. The fluoroquinolone (FQ) class plays a prominent role in stepdown therapy for severe infections due to favorable pharmacokinetic parameters; however, serious adverse effects have been documented with their use. Two hundred and twenty-four adults with EB-BSI initiated on empiric IV antibiotics with stepdown to oral beta-lactam (BLM) (n= 84) or FQ (n= 140) were included to compare clinical success and identify risk factors for treatment failure...
December 25, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281989/necrotizing-soft-tissue-infection-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-at-a-reconstructive-center-in-jilin-province
#13
Jing-Chun Zhao, Bo-Ru Zhang, Kai Shi, Xi Zhang, Chun-Hui Xie, Jian Wang, Qing-Hua Yu, Xin-Xin Gao, Lei Hong, Jia-Ao Yu
BACKGROUND: To investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in necrotizing fasciitis (NF) patients in a reconstructive unit in northeastern China. METHODS: Medical records of patients diagnosed with and treated for NF in the extremities from November 2013 to December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, duration of signs and symptoms, location of infection, predisposing factors, causative microbiological organisms, laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (LRINEC) score, number of surgical debridements, length of hospital stay, treatments, and outcomes were recorded...
December 28, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258474/full-title-peripheral-venous-catheter-complications-in-children-predisposing-factors-in-a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#14
Rim Ben Abdelaziz, Habiba Hafsi, Hela Hajji, Hela Boudabous, Amel Ben Chehida, Ali Mrabet, Khadija Boussetta, Sihem Barsaoui, Azza Sammoud, Mourad Hamzaoui, Hatem Azzouz, Néji Tebib
BACKGROUND: Peripheral venous catheterization (PVC) is frequently used in children. This procedure is not free from potential complications. Our purpose was to identify the types and incidences of PVC complications in children and their predisposing factors in a developing country. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational multicenter study in five pediatric and pediatric surgery departments over a period of 2 months. Two hundred fifteen PVC procedures were conducted in 98 children...
December 19, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238942/salmonella-typhimurium-meningitis-in-an-infant-presenting-with-recurrent-meningitis
#15
Rajendra Prasad Anne, Pankaj C Vaidya, Pallab Ray, Pratibha D Singhi
Salmonella typhimurium meningitis in infancy is very uncommon and does not respond to usual duration of empirical antibiotic therapy. A 5-mo-old infant presented with clinical picture of acute pyogenic meningitis and was treated with empirical antibiotic therapy for 14 d. But, 2 wk after the discharge, the child presented again with similar complaints. CSF culture had grown Salmonella typhimurium following which dual antibiotic therapy was given for 6 wk.
December 14, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236303/impact-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-on-hospitalized-patients-at-the-intensive-care-unit-a-prospective-audit-and-feedback-study
#16
Maher R Khdour, Hussein O Hallak, Mamoon Al-Deyab, Mowafq A Nasif, Aliaa M Khalili, Ahamad A Dallashi, Mohammad B Khofash, Michael G Scott
AIMS: Inappropriate use of antibiotics is one of the most important factors contributing to the emergence of drug resistant pathogens. The purpose of this study was to measure the clinical impact of Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) interventions on hospitalized patients at the Intensive care unit at Palestinian Medical Complex. METHODS: A prospective audit with intervention and feedback by ASP team within 48-72h of antibiotic administration began in Sep, 2015...
December 13, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232988/does-antibiotic-treatment-duration-affect-the-outcomes-of-exacerbations-of-asthma-and-copd-a-systematic-review
#17
Marie Stolbrink, Jack Amiry, John D Blakey
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, primarily through exacerbations. Exacerbations are often treated with antibiotics but their optimal course duration is uncertain. Reducing antibiotic duration may influence antimicrobial resistance but risks treatment failure. The objective of this article is to review published literature to investigate whether shorter antibiotic therapy duration affects clinical outcomes in the treatment of asthma and COPD exacerbations...
January 1, 2017: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232685/surgical-management-of-deep-brain-stimulator-scalp-erosion-without-hardware-removal
#18
Michael D Staudt, Navid Pourtaheri, Gregory E Lakin, Hooman T Soltanian, Jonathan P Miller
BACKGROUND: Scalp erosion in patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) hardware is an uncommon complication that lacks a clearly defined management strategy. Previous studies have described various therapies including conservative treatment with antibiotics and surgical debridement with or without hardware removal. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of a hardware-sparing management strategy for the treatment of scalp erosion. METHODS: Five patients with previous DBS implantation presented with scalp erosion and visible hardware exposure at the calvarial burr hole site, and underwent tension-free, vascularized, rotational scalp flap, with preservation of the leads under the pericranium...
December 13, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231774/modern-management-of-diabetic-foot-osteomyelitis-the-when-how-and-why-of-conservative-approaches
#19
Javier Aragón-Sánchez, Benjamin A Lipsky
Diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) has long been considered a complex infection that is both difficult to diagnose and treat, and is associated with a high rate of relapse and limb loss. Areas covered: DFO can usually be diagnosed by a combination of clinical evaluation, serum inflammatory markers and plain X-ray. When the results of these procedures are negative or contradictory, advanced imaging tests or bone biopsy may be necessary. Staphylococcus aureus remains the most frequent microorganism isolated from bone specimens, but infection is often polymicrobial...
December 19, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226307/macrolides-for-treatment-of-haemophilus-ducreyi-infection-in-sexually-active-adults
#20
REVIEW
Laura Romero, Cesar Huerfano, Carlos F Grillo-Ardila
BACKGROUND: Chancroid is a genital ulcerative disease caused by Haemophilus ducreyi. This microorganism is endemic in Africa, where it can cause up to 10% of genital ulcers. Macrolides may be an effective alternative to treat chancroid and, based on their oral administration and duration of therapy, could be considered as first line therapy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of macrolides for treatment of H ducreyi infection in sexually active adults...
December 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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