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Duration of antibiotic therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157532/clinical-manifestations-and-outcomes-of-fluoroquinolone-related-acute-interstitial-nephritis
#1
Saira Farid, Maryam Mahmood, Omar M Abu Saleh, Abdurrahman Hamadah, Samih H Nasr, Zerelda Esquer Garrigos, Nelson Leung, M Rizwan Sohail
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and outcomes of patients with biopsy-proven acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) related to fluoroquinolone (FQ) therapy. PATIENT AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of biopsy-proven AIN attributed to FQ use at Mayo Clinic's campus in Rochester, Minnesota, from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 2016. Cases were reviewed by a renal pathologist and attributed to FQ use by an expert nephrologist...
November 17, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157471/case-reports-on-integrated-management-of-tubercular-disease
#2
Kusum S Chand, Priya Kapoor
BACKGROUND: Host immunity plays an important role in prevention of disease as is evident by the increased incidence of Tuberculosis (TB) in immuno-compromised population of HIV infected, diabetes inflicted, immune-suppressant therapy and elderly people. Rising incidence of antibiotic resistance has led to resurgence of TB of epidemic proportions. Integrated treatment with add on homeopathy in addition to anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) appears to improve outcome in TB. The intervention has been integrated treatment with homeopathy regime, which is using a patient specific, disease specific and supportive medicine simultaneously, all individualized for the patient and the disease...
November 2017: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154122/broncho-vaxom-in-pediatric-recurrent-respiratory-tract-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Ju Yin, Baoping Xu, Xiantao Zeng, Kunling Shen
OBJECTIVES: Assess the efficacy and safety of Broncho-Vaxom in pediatric recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs). METHODS: Published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Broncho-Vaxom for pediatric RRTI were searched using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, WanFang Data, and VIP databases up to January 2017. Risk of bias was evaluated in accordance to the guidelines of the Cochrane collaboration and the level of evidence was graded according to the GRADE...
November 16, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153470/impact-of-a-pharmacist-driven-care-package-on-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-management-in-a-large-community-healthcare-network-a-propensity-score-matched-quasi-experimental-study
#4
Jordan R Smith, Jeremy J Frens, Cynthia B Snider, Kimberly C Claeys
OBJECTIVES: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Suboptimal treatment has been associated with poor patient outcomes. Our antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) evaluated SAB management based on predefined performance measures both prior to and after instituting a "care package" intervention led by clinical pharmacists and infectious diseases physicians. The primary outcome included a 4-point "optimal care score" (OCS) consisting of targeted antibiotic therapy within 24hours, repeating blood cultures, antibiotic duration assessment, and appropriate duration of therapy...
October 7, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153444/retrospective-evaluation-of-piperacillin-tazobactam-imipenem-cilastatin-and-meropenem-used-on-surgical-floors-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-saudi-arabia
#5
Eman Youssif, Mohammed Aseeri, Sahal Khoshhal
BACKGROUND: The appropriate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, including appropriate de-escalation, is essential to reduce the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In surgical floors antibiotics are prescribed for prophylaxis (mostly, single dose), empirical treatment (started if infection is suspected till bacteria are identified with its sensitivity to antibiotics), or treatment of well-defined infection of previously isolated bacteria with its sensitivity to antibiotics. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics based on requests for cultures and de-escalation based on sensitivity results of culture tests at tertiary care hospital...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153171/a-100-year-review-mastitis-detection-management-and-prevention
#6
Pamela L Ruegg
Mastitis is the most frequent disease of dairy cows and has well-recognized detrimental effects on animal wellbeing and dairy farm profitability. Since the beginning of modern dairy farming, producers have sought effective methods to minimize the occurrence of mastitis in their herds. The objective of this paper is to review and highlight important advances in detection, management, and prevention of mastitis that have occurred since the first volume of the Journal of Dairy Science was published in 1917. Initial research efforts were directed at understanding the nature of pathogenic bacteria that were responsible for most intramammary infections...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151794/knowledge-and-practices-of-indian-dental-students-regarding-the-prescription-of-antibiotics-and-analgesics
#7
Astha Doshi, Kailash Asawa, Nagesh Bhat, Mridula Tak, Priyanjali Dutta, Tajinder Kumar Bansal, Ruchika Gupta
Background and aim: Making a diagnosis and prescribing medicine is the most important skill required by any doctor in the colleges, hospitals or clinical practice. Prescribing is the intervention that has the greatest influence on patients' health requiring complex series of sub-competencies like making a diagnosis, setting a therapeutic goal, choosing the approach, choosing the best drug, route and frequency of administration, duration of therapy, writing the prescription, patient information, monitoring drug effects and, lastly, review the prescription...
2017: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150372/duration-of-group-a-streptococcus-pcr-positivity-following-antibiotic-treatment-of-pharyngitis
#8
Jason H Homme, Corryn S Greenwood, Lisa B Cronk, Lisa M Nyre, James R Uhl, Amy L Weaver, Robin Patel
BACKGROUND: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has high sensitivity and specificity for detection of group A streptococcus (GAS) in throat swabs and is routinely used for GAS pharyngitis diagnosis at our institution. Herein we defined the natural history of throat swab GAS PCR and culture positivity during and following treatment of GAS pharyngitis. METHODS: Fifty children with a PCR positive GAS throat swab were recruited for participation. Four additional throat swabs were collected over 2 weeks following the initial positive PCR result (during and following a standard course of antibiotic therapy) and tested for GAS using rapid real-time PCR and culture...
October 12, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149338/multiplex-respiratory-virus-testing-for-antimicrobial-stewardship-a-prospective-assessment-of-antimicrobial-use-and-clinical-outcomes-among-hospitalized-adults
#9
Makeda Semret, Ian Schiller, Barbara Ann Jardin, Charles Frenette, Vivian G Loo, Jesse Papenburg, Shelly A McNeil, Nandini Dendukuri
Background: Respiratory tract infections are frequent causes of hospitalization and initiation of empirical antimicrobial therapy. Testing for a broad panel of respiratory viruses has been advocated as a useful tool for antibiotic stewardship. We conducted a prospective observational study to assess the impact of rapid viral test results on antimicrobial prescriptions and clinical outcomes among hospitalized adults. Methods: Eight hundred patients admitted with respiratory symptoms were tested by a 12-virus respiratory panel (RVP) during 3 consecutive winters in Montreal, Canada...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146620/diagnosing-infection-in-a-neonate-using-whole-body-screening-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#10
Ting Ting Fu, Paul S Kingma
The location of invasive infections is difficult to detect in infants, in part due to their inability to localize signs and symptoms. However, identifying the location often significantly alters clinical management by extending the duration of antibiotic therapy or revealing a source requiring surgical intervention. Compared with commonly used first-line imaging techniques such as radiographs and ultrasounds, MRI has higher sensitivity for identifying invasive infections and allows for simultaneous evaluation of multiple foci...
November 16, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145857/treatment-of-charcot-neuroarthropathy-and-osteomyelitis-of-the-same-foot-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Martin Berli, Lazaros Vlachopoulos, Sabra Leupi, Thomas Böni, Charlotte Baltin
BACKGROUND: We evaluated treatment of osteomyelitis in the foot in the presence of Charcot neuroarthropathy, a devastating condition with progressive degeneration and joint destruction. We hypothesized that there was a difference in (1) amputation rate, (2) amputation level, (3) duration of antibiotic therapy, and (4) duration of immobilization for treatment of osteomyelitis within versus outside the Charcot zone. METHODS: Forty patients (43 ft) diagnosed with Charcot neuroarthropathy and osteomyelitis of the same foot were retrospectively analyzed...
November 16, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137105/urgent-laparoscopic-ureterolithotomy-for-proximal-ureter-stones-accompanied-with-obstructive-pyelonephritis-is-it-safe-and-effective-without-preoperative-drainage
#12
Huan Yang, Xiao Yu, Ejun Peng, Cong Li, Lei Cui, Xing Zeng, Shen Wang, Chao Wei, Zhihua Wang, Xiaolin Guo, Zhiqiang Chen, Zhangqun Ye, Shaogang Wang, Chenming Zhao
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy (RLU) in the treatment of proximal ureteral stones accompanied with obstructive pyelonephritis without preoperative drainage.We retrospectively reviewed 21 cases of proximal ureteral stones with infected kidney undergoing RLU between July 2013 and September 2016. Stone-induced obstructive infected hydronephrosis was diagnosed using blood and urine tests and imaging modalities. Empirical effective broad spectrum antibiotic therapy was initiated immediately, and then urgent RLU was performed without preoperative drainage...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136035/comparative-efficacy-and-safety-of-antibiotics-used-to-treat-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-results-of-a-network-meta-analysis
#13
Julian F Guest, Jaime Esteban, Anton G Manganelli, Andrea Novelli, Giuliano Rizzardini, Miquel Serra
OBJECTIVE: This NMA compared the efficacy and safety between IV antibiotics that are used in the current standard of care for managing adult patients (≥18 years of age) with ABSSSI. METHODS: Comparators were chosen on the basis that both direct and indirect comparisons between the interventions of interest could be performed. Outcomes of the analysis were selected on the basis that they are frequently measured and reported in trials involving ABSSSI patients, and only published randomised control trials of any size and duration and with any blinding status were eligible for inclusion in the analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128389/the-impact-of-initial-antibiotic-treatment-failure-real-world-insights-in-patients-with-complicated-urinary-tract-infection
#14
Sudeep Karve, Kellie Ryan, Pascale Peeters, Elisa Baelen, Sonia Rojas-Farreras, Danielle Potter, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
OBJECTIVES: RECOMMEND (NCT02364284; D4280R00005) assessed treatment patterns and outcomes associated with initial antibiotic therapy (IAT; antibiotics received <48 h post-initiation of antibiotic therapy) in healthcare-associated infections across five countries. METHODS: Data from medical records of hospitalized patients aged ≥18 years with healthcare-associated complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) are presented. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses identified potential risk factors associated with IAT failure...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126268/duration-of-antibiotic-use-among-adults-with-uncomplicated-community-acquired-pneumonia-requiring-hospitalization-in-the-united-states
#15
Sarah H Yi, Kelly M Hatfield, James Baggs, Lauri A Hicks, Arjun Srinivasan, Sujan Reddy, John A Jernigan
Background: Previous studies suggest duration of antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) often exceeds national recommendations and might represent an important opportunity to improve antibiotic stewardship nationally. The objective of this study was to determine average length of antibiotic therapy (LOT) for patients treated for uncomplicated CAP in US hospitals and proportion of patients with excessive durations. Methods: Records of retrospective cohorts of patients 18-64 years with private insurance and ≥65 years with Medicare hospitalized for CAP in 2012-13 were utilized...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126042/successful-treatment-of-infected-wound-dehiscence-after-minimally-invasive-locking-plate-osteosynthesis-of-tibial-pilon-and-calcaneal-fractures-by-plate-preservation-surgical-debridement-and-antibiotics
#16
Giandavide Ieropoli, Jorge Hugo Villafañe, Silvia Chiara Zompi, Umberto Morozzo, Riccardo D'Ambrosi, Federico Giuseppe Usuelli, Pedro Berjano
OBJECTIVE: The aim is to present a case series that illustrates possible benefits from combining minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO), plastic surgery and antibiotic therapy, in order to treat and eradicate infection in patients with tibial pilon or calcaneal fractures. METHODS: Eleven consecutive patients with dehiscence of the surgical wound in outcomes MIPO using a Locking Compression Plate (LCP) for tibial pilon, or calcaneus fractures. The patients had developed a documented infection of the surgical wound...
October 23, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113712/prior-antimicrobial-therapy-duration-influences-causative-pathogens-identification-in-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#17
Jean-François Llitjos, Marlène Amara, Ahlem Benzarti, Guillaume Lacave, Jean-Pierre Bedos, Béatrice Pangon
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prior antimicrobial therapy, divided in recent or current antibiotic treatment, influences the identification rate and/or the type of causative pathogens in patients with suspected episodes of ventilator-acquired pneumonia. DESIGN: Monocentric retrospective study. SETTING: Intensive car unit in a universitary hospital. PATIENTS: 230 episodes of ventilator-associated pneumonia with a Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score≥6 were retrospectively evaluated...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112565/a-randomized-control-trial-of-preoperative-oral-antibiotics-as-adjunct-therapy-to-systemic-antibiotics-for-preventing-surgical-site-infection-in-clean-contaminated-contaminated-and-dirty-type-of-colorectal-surgeries
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Nadeem Anjum, Jianan Ren, Gefei Wang, Guanwei Li, Xiuwen Wu, Hu Dong, Qin Wu, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND: Preoperative bowel preparation with or without oral antibiotics is controversial in terms of postoperative surgical site infections. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of oral antibiotics as adjunct therapy to systemic antibiotics with mechanical bowel preparation for preventing surgical site infections in clean contaminated, contaminated, and dirty colorectal procedures. DESIGN: This was a single-center, prospective randomized study...
December 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106885/outpatient-management-of-pediatric-acute-mastoiditis
#19
Ahmed Alkhateeb, Francis Morin, Haya Aziz, Mayuri Manogaran, William Guertin, Melanie Duval
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the Montreal Children's Hospital experience with outpatient management of uncomplicated acute mastoiditis with parenteral antibiotic therapy alone and determine if it is a safe alternative to inpatient management. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: A retrospective review of pediatric patients diagnosed with acute mastoiditis at a tertiary care pediatric hospital between 2013 and 2015 was performed. Patients with syndromes, immunodeficiency, cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media, cochlear implant in the affected ear, or incidental mastoid opacity were excluded...
November 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105519/staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia-and-endocarditis-epidemiology-and-outcome-a-review
#20
Hilmir Asgeirsson, Anders Thalme, Ola Weiland
PURPOSE: To review the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) and endocarditis (SAE), and discuss the short- and long-term outcome.  Materials and methods: A literature review of the epidemiology of SAB and SAE. RESULTS: The reported incidence of SAB in Western countries is 16-41/100,000 person-years. Increasing incidence has been observed in many regions, in Iceland by 27% during 1995-2008. The increase is believed to depend on changes in population risk factors and possibly better and more frequent utilization of diagnostic procedures...
November 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases
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