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lauric acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217981/composition-antifungal-and-antiproliferative-activities-of-the-hydrodistilled-oils-from-leaves-and-flower-heads-of-pterocephalus-nestorianus-nab
#1
Fuad O Abdullah, Faiq H S Hussain, Barbara Mannucci, Rosamaria Lappano, Solveig Tosi, Marcello Maggiolini, Giovanni Vidari
This paper reports the first study of the chemical composition, and antifungal and antiproliferative properties of the volatile extracts obtained by hydrodistillation of the flower heads and leaves of the traditional Kurdish medicinal plant P. nestorianus Nab., collected in the wild. A total of fifty-five constituents, 43 of the flower heads' oil (PFO) and 46 of the leaves' oil (PLO), respectively, were identified by GC/MS, constituting 99.68% and 99.04% of the two oils, respectively. The oils were obtained in 0...
February 19, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211691/lipophilized-grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-derivatives-as-novel-antioxidants
#2
Mingshun Chen, Shujuan Yu
Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) is a natural food antioxidant. Natural proanthocyanidins (PC) in grape seed are usually polyhydroxy derivatives which exhibit hydrophilic character. GSP was modified structurally to improve its lipophilicity, expand its application in lipophilic media, and enhance its cellular absorption in vivo. Esterification of the water-soluble GSP was prepared by immobilized lipase Lipozyme TL IM with lauric acid, and their enhanced lipophilicity was confirmed by the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201873/insights-into-the-formation-and-structures-of-starch-protein-lipid-complexes
#3
Shujun Wang, Mengge Zheng, Jinglin Yu, Shuo Wang, Les Copeland
The aim of the present study was to characterize the multi-scale structures of ternary complexes of a model system of starch, fatty acid (FA) and β-lactoglobulin (βLG) prepared using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA). The addition of βLG to starch-lauric acid or starch-oleic acid RVA pastes resulted in the increased intensity or occurrence of a new viscosity peak during cooling when the RVA protocol was repeated. The viscosity peak was attributed to the formation of starch-βLG-FA complexes. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed clearly that starch-βLG-FAs complex was formed as gelatinized starch was cooled in the presence of βLG and FAs...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190808/quantification-of-triacylglycerol-molecular-species-in-edible-fats-and-oils-by-gas-chromatographyflame-ionization-detector-using-correction-factors
#4
Kazuaki Yoshinaga, Junji Obi, Toshiharu Nagai, Hiroyuki Iioka, Akihiko Yoshida, Fumiaki Beppu, Naohiro Gotoh
In the present study, the resolution parameters and correction factors (CFs) of triacylglycerol (TAG) standards were estimated by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) to achieve the precise quantification of the TAG composition in edible fats and oils. Forty seven TAG standards comprising capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and/or linolenic acid were analyzed, and the CFs of these TAGs were obtained against tripentadecanoyl glycerol as the internal standard...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176885/a-novel-human-artery-model-to-assess-the-magnetic-accumulation-of-spions-under-flow-conditions
#5
Agata Janikowska, Jasmin Matuszak, Stefan Lyer, Eveline Schreiber, Harald Unterweger, Jan Zaloga, Jürgen Groll, Christoph Alexiou, Iwona Cicha
Magnetic targeting utilises the properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to accumulate particles in specified vasculature regions under an external magnetic field. As the behaviour of circulating particles varies depending on nanoparticle characteristics, magnetic field strength and flow dynamics, we established an improved ex vivo model in order to estimate the magnetic capture of SPIONs in physiological-like settings. We describe here a new, easy to handle ex vivo model of human umbilical artery...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126466/coconut-oil-protects-cortical-neurons-from-amyloid-beta-toxicity-by-enhancing-signaling-of-cell-survival-pathways
#6
F Nafar, J P Clarke, K M Mearow
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that has links with other conditions that can often be modified by dietary and life-style interventions. In particular, coconut oil has received attention as having potentially having benefits in lessening the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. In a recent report, we showed that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ was rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Here we investigated treatment with Aβ for 1, 6 or 24 h followed by addition of coconut oil for a further 24 h, or treatment with coconut oil for 24 h followed by Aβ exposure for various periods...
January 23, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111388/antibacterial-efficacy-of-triple-layered-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-nanoapatite-lauric-acid-guided-bone-regeneration-membrane-on-periodontal-bacteria
#7
Nur Najiha Saarani, Kalitheerta Jamuna-Thevi, Neelam Shahab, Hendra Hermawan, Syafiqah Saidin
A guided bone regeneration (GBR) membrane has been extensively used in the repair and regeneration of damaged periodontal tissues. One of the main challenges of GBR restoration is bacterial colonization on the membrane, constitutes to premature membrane degradation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of triple-layered GBR membrane composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), nanoapatite (NAp) and lauric acid (LA) with two types of Gram-negative periodontal bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis through a disc diffusion and bacterial count tests...
January 20, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074058/intracellular-atp-in-balance-of-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-in-adipose-tissue-with-and-without-tissue-expansion
#8
J H Lee, Y Zhang, Z Zhao, X Ye, X Zhang, H Wang, J Ye
OBJECTIVES: To understand the mechanism of white fat expansion in the presence of inflammation, we examined the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in epididymal fat during weight gain in DIO mice. METHODS: The pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were examined in white fat of diet-induced obese mice and lean mice. The mechanism of gene expression was investigated with a focus on intracellular ATP (iATP). ATP activity was tested in cellular and non-cellular systems in activation of serine kinases (IKKβ, JNK and ERK)...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054477/acute-treatment-with-lauric-acid-reduces-blood-pressure-and-oxidative-stress-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#9
Naiane Ferraz Bandeira Alves, Thyago Moreira de Queiroz, Rafael de Almeida Travassos, Marciane Magnani, Valdir de Andrade Braga
The effects of acute administration of lauric acid (LA), the most abundant medium-chain fatty acid of coconut oil, on blood pressure, heart rate and oxidative stress were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Intravenous doses of LA reduced blood pressure in a dose-dependent fashion (1, 3, 4, 8 and 10 mg/kg) in both SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats. LA (10(-8) to 3 × 10(-3) M) induced vasorelaxation in isolated superior mesenteric artery rings of SHR in the presence (n = 7) or absence (n = 8) of functional endothelium [maximum effect (ME) = 104 ± 3 versus 103 ± 4%]...
November 7, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000465/difference-in-fatty-acids-composition-of-breast-adipose-tissue-in-women-with-breast-cancer-and-benign-breast-disease
#10
Lisiane Lopes da Conceição, Mariana De Moura Dias, Milene Cristine Pessoa, Geórgia Das Graças Pena, Maria Carolina Santos Mendes, Cristiane Vilas Boas Neves, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Renata Nascimento Freitas, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world, and the most frequent cancer among women. Moreover, there are factors that influence the risk for breast cancer including the age, genetic and endocrine factors, and lifestyle. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the consumption of fatty acids; compare the fatty acids composition in the breast adipose tissue of women with breast cancer and benign breast disease as well as potential risk factors; and describe the genotypic frequency of the Pro12Ala PPARγ polymorphism...
November 29, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979115/green-synthesis-of-%C3%AE-sitostanol-esters-catalyzed-by-the-versatile-lipase-sterol-esterase-from-ophiostoma-piceae
#11
María Molina-Gutiérrez, Neumara L S Hakalin, Leonor Rodríguez-Sanchez, Alicia Prieto, María Jesús Martínez
β-sitostanol esters, used as dietary complement for decreasing cholesterol absorption, have been synthesized at 28°C via direct esterification or transesterification catalyzed by the versatile lipase/sterol esterase from the ascomycete fungus O. piceae. Direct esterification was conducted in biphasic isooctane: water systems containing 10mM β-sitostanol and lauric or oleic acid as acyl donors, reaching 90% esterification in 3h with the recombinant enzyme. The use of molar excesses of the free fatty acids did not improve direct esterification rate, and the enzyme did not convert one of the two fatty acids preferentially when both were simultaneously available...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978622/lauric-acid-stimulates-mammary-gland-development-of-pubertal-mice-through-activation-of-gpr84-and-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#12
Yingying Meng, Jing Zhang, Fenglin Zhang, Wei Ai, Xiaotong Zhu, Gang Shu, Lina Wang, Ping Gao, Qianyun Xi, Yongliang Zhang, Xingwei Liang, Qingyan Jiang, Songbo Wang
It has been demonstrated that dietary fat affects pubertal mammary gland development. However, the role of lauric acid (LA) in this process remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of LA on mammary gland development in pubertal mice and to explore the underlying mechanism. In vitro, 100 μM LA significantly promoted proliferation of mouse mammary epithelial cell line HC11 by regulating expression of proliferative markers (cyclin D1/3, p21, PCNA). Meanwhile, LA activated the G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941697/crystal-structure-of-a-putative-cytochrome-p450-alkane-hydroxylase-cyp153d17-from-sphingomonas-sp-pamc-26605-and-its-conformational-substrate-binding
#13
Chang Woo Lee, Sang-Cheol Yu, Joo-Ho Lee, Sun-Ha Park, Hyun Park, Tae-Jin Oh, Jun Hyuck Lee
Enzymatic alkane hydroxylation reactions are useful for producing pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical intermediates from hydrocarbons. Several cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze the regio- and stereo-specific hydroxylation of alkanes. We evaluated the substrate binding of a putative CYP alkane hydroxylase (CYP153D17) from the bacterium Sphingomonas sp. PAMC 26605. Substrate affinities to C10-C12 n-alkanes and C10-C14 fatty acids with Kd values varied from 0.42 to 0.59 μM. A longer alkane (C12) bound more strongly than a shorter alkane (C10), while shorter fatty acids (C10, capric acid; C12, lauric acid) bound more strongly than a longer fatty acid (C14, myristic acid)...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900443/p450bm3-fused-to-phosphite-dehydrogenase-allows-phosphite-driven-selective-oxidations
#14
Nina Beyer, Justyna K Kulig, Anette Bartsch, Martin A Hayes, Dick B Janssen, Marco W Fraaije
To facilitate the wider application of the NADPH-dependent P450BM3, we fused the monooxygenase with a phosphite dehydrogenase (PTDH). The resulting monooxygenase-dehydrogenase fusion enzyme acts as a self-sufficient bifunctional catalyst, accepting phosphite as a cheap electron donor for the regeneration of NADPH.The well-expressed fusion enzyme was purified and analyzed in comparison to the parent enzymes. Using lauric acid as substrate for P450BM3, it was found that the fusion enzyme had similar substrate affinity and hydroxylation selectivity while it displayed a significantly higher activity than the non-fused monooxygenase...
November 29, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894987/a-novel-approach-for-dry-powder-coating-of-pellets-with-ethylcellulose-part-i-evaluation-of-film-formulation-and-process-set-up
#15
Beatrice Albertini, Serena Bertoni, Cecilia Melegari, Luisa Stella Dolci, Nadia Passerini
An innovative dry powder coating technology was developed in a high-shear granulator using ethylcellulose (E10) as polymer. Several solid plasticizers were investigated with the aim of decreasing the polymer Tg at least to the highest possible working temperature (80°C). DSC analysis of physical mixtures of E10 and plasticizers evidenced that lauric acid (LA) was the most effective plasticizer. In order to reach the target temperature a liquid plasticizer, oleic acid (OA), was introduced in the coating formulation...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890614/structural-insights-into-the-binding-of-lauric-acid-to-cyp107l2-from-streptomyces-avermitilis
#16
Songhee Han, Tan-Viet Pham, Joo-Hwan Kim, Young-Ran Lim, Hyoung-Goo Park, Dabin Jeong, Chul-Ho Yun, Young-Jin Chun, Lin-Woo Kang, Donghak Kim
Streptomyces avermitilis is an actinobacterium known to produce clinically useful macrolides including avermectins. CYP107L2 from S. avermitilis shares a high sequence similarity with the PikC (CYP107L1) from S. venezuelae. To elucidate the structural features of CYP107L2, we conducted biochemical and structural characterization of CYP107L2 from S. avermitilis. The CYP107L2 gene was cloned, and its recombinant protein was expressed and purified. The CYP107L2 showed a low-spin state of heme, and the reduced form yielded the CO difference spectra with a maximal absorption at 449 nm...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881409/intake-of-individual-saturated-fatty-acids-and-risk-of-coronary-heart-disease-in-us-men-and-women-two-prospective-longitudinal-cohort-studies
#17
Geng Zong, Yanping Li, Anne J Wanders, Marjan Alssema, Peter L Zock, Walter C Willett, Frank B Hu, Qi Sun
OBJECTIVES:  To investigate the association between long term intake of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and the risk of coronary heart disease, in two large cohort studies. DESIGN:  Prospective, longitudinal cohort study. SETTING:  Health professionals in the United States. PARTICIPANTS:  73 147 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2012) and 42 635 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010), who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline...
November 23, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847327/solid-cellulose-nanofiber-based-foams-towards-facile-design-of-sustained-drug-delivery-systems
#18
Anna J Svagan, Jan-Willem Benjamins, Zeinab Al-Ansari, Daniel Bar Shalom, Anette Müllertz, Lars Wågberg, Korbinian Löbmann
Control of drug action through formulation is a vital and very challenging topic within pharmaceutical sciences. Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) are an excipient candidate in pharmaceutical formulations that could be used to easily optimize drug delivery rates. CNF has interesting physico-chemical properties that, when combined with surfactants, can be used to create very stable air bubbles and dry foams. Utilizing this inherent property, it is possible to modify the release kinetics of the model drug riboflavin in a facile way...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793475/biochemical-analysis-of-recombinant-cyp4a11-allelic-variant-enzymes-w126r-k276t-and-s353g
#19
Songhee Han, Gun-Su Cha, Young-Jin Chun, Chang Hoon Lee, Donghak Kim, Chul-Ho Yun
Human CYP4A11 is the major ω-hydroxylase of fatty acids in the liver and kidneys. It produces 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid as well as hydroxylates fatty acids. In this study, we investigated the biochemical properties of three alleles of CYP4A11: W126R, K276T, and S353G. Site-directed mutagenesis of the wild type CYP4A11 was performed, to construct the W126R, K276T, and S353G variant clones. The CYP4A11 wild type and variant constructs were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. CO-binding spectra showed the expression of the wild type, K276T and S353G variants, indicating the functional P450 holoenzyme...
December 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766599/fatty-acid-microemulsion-for-the-treatment-of-neonatal-conjunctivitis-quantification-characterisation-and-evaluation-of-antimicrobial-activity
#20
Ummara Butt, Amr ElShaer, Lori A S Snyder, Athina Chaidemenou, Raid G Alany
Fatty acids (FAs) are used by many organisms as defence mechanism against virulent bacteria. The high safety profile and broad spectrum of activity make them potential alternatives to currently used topical antibiotics for the treatment of eye infections in neonates. The current study utilised a Design of Experiment approach to optimise the quantification of five fatty acids namely; lauric acid, tridecanoic acid, myristoleic acid, palmitoleic acid and α-linolenic acid. The significance of the influence of the experimental parameters such as volume of catalyst, volume of n-hexane, incubation temperature, incubation time and the number of extraction steps on derivatisation was established by statistical screening with a factorial approach...
December 2016: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
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