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lauric acid

Ummara Butt, Amr ElShaer, Lori A S Snyder, Athina Chaidemenou, Raid G Alany
Fatty acids (FAs) are used by many organisms as defence mechanism against virulent bacteria. The high safety profile and broad spectrum of activity make them potential alternatives to currently used topical antibiotics for the treatment of eye infections in neonates. The current study utilised a Design of Experiment approach to optimise the quantification of five fatty acids namely; lauric acid, tridecanoic acid, myristoleic acid, palmitoleic acid and α-linolenic acid. The significance of the influence of the experimental parameters such as volume of catalyst, volume of n-hexane, incubation temperature, incubation time and the number of extraction steps on derivatisation was established by statistical screening with a factorial approach...
October 20, 2016: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Ahmad H Ibrahim, Md Shamsuddin Sultan Khan, Sawsan S Al-Rawi, Aman Shah Bin Abdul Majid, Dan Ji, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid
Fermented Virgin Coconut Oil (FVCO) is widely used in the Southeast Asia as food and traditional medicine. The objective of the present study is the evaluation of chronic safety of the commercialized FVCO of Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries. A single dose of 5000 mg/kg of FVCO was administered orally in rats (each group, n = 5) for the acute toxicity study and 175, 550 and 2000 mg/kg for sub-chronic and chronic studies (each group, n = 10), respectively. The behavior, mortality, and body weight of the rats were assessed to determine the toxic effects of FVCO...
October 15, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
G Klop, S van Laar-van Schuppen, W F Pellikaan, W H Hendriks, A Bannink, J Dijkstra
The adaptation of dairy cows to methane (CH4)-mitigating feed additives was evaluated using the in vitro gas production (GP) technique. Nine rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows were grouped into three blocks and within blocks randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets: Control (CON; no feed additive), Agolin Ruminant® (AR; 0.05 g/kg dry matter (DM)) or lauric acid (LA; 30 g/kg DM). Total mixed rations composed of maize silage, grass silage and concentrate were fed in a 40 : 30 : 30 ratio on DM basis...
October 17, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Lin Zhang, Sandeep Yadav, Barthélemy Demeule, Y John Wang, Olivier Mozziconacci, Christian Schӧneich
PURPOSE: To investigate the mechanisms of polysorbate (PS) degradation with the added objective of differentiating the hydrolysis and oxidation pathways. METHODS: Ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was utilized to characterize all-laurate polysorbate 20 (PS20) and its degradants. (18)O stable isotope labeling was implemented to produce (18)O-labeled degradation products of all-laurate PS20 in H2(18)O, with subsequent UPLC-MS analysis for location of the cleavage site on the fatty acid-containing side chain of PS20...
October 13, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Abdul Sattar Chang, Syed Tufail Hussain Sherazi, Aftab Ahmed Kandhro, Sarfaraz Ahmed Mahesar, Fouzia Chang, Syed Nasrullah Shah, Zahid Hussain Laghari, Tarique Panhwar
Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) is cheap and valuable byproduct of edible oil processing industries. This study was designed to characterize PFAD collected from different local oil industries. AOCS methods were used for the determination of physicochemical parameters such as free fatty acid (FFA), saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV) and moisture content. Fatty acid composition was analyzed using GC-MS. Moisture content of samples was found to be in the range between 0.06-7.50%, while FFA, SV, IV and PV were found to be 65...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Oleo Science
Ying Chen, Zhiyang Zhao, Alamgir Karim, R A Weiss
Surface memory effects for micropattern and nanopattern are demonstrated for shape memory compounds composed of mixtures of the zinc salt of a sulfonated poly(ethylene-co-propylene-co-ethylidene norbornene) ionomer and three different low molar mass fatty acids (FAs): lauric acid (LA), stearic acid (SA), and zinc stearate (ZnSt). This work shows the ability to tune the surface pattern switching temperature (Tc ) by simply varying the FA melting point. The melting point of the FA in the ionomer compound is depressed from that of the pure FA due to strong dipolar interactions between the ionomer and the FAs...
October 10, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Fabiane Cristina Petry, Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante
Interest about composition of carotenoid esters of fruits is growing since esterification may affect their bioavailability. Thus, the aim was to provide detailed identification of carotenoid esters in Citrus and mango. Orange cv. Valencia and cv. Pera presented 9 free carotenoids, 38 mono- and 60 diesters. Violaxanthin and luteoxanthin derivatives were the major ones, followed by antheraxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and zeinoxanthin esters; many of them reported for the first time in orange pulp...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kouji Kojima, Sumie Keta, Kazuma Uesaka, Akihiro Kato, Nobuyuki Takatani, Kunio Ihara, Tatsuo Omata, Makiko Aichi
Cyanobacterial mutants defective in acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (Aas) secrete free fatty acids (FFAs) into the external medium and hence have been used for the studies aimed at photosynthetic production of biofuels. While the wild-type strain of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is highly sensitive to exogenously added linolenic acid, mutants defective in the aas gene are known to be resistant to the externally provided fatty acid. In this study, the wild-type Synechocystis cells were shown to be sensitive to lauric, oleic, and linoleic acids as well, and the resistance to these fatty acids was shown to be enhanced by inactivation of the aas gene...
October 4, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Kandikere R Sridhar, Dorathy D Anita, Sudeep D Ghate
This study compares the composition of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in seeds of Sesbania speciosa (dry and mature) after processing (uncooked and cooked) and extraction (hot and cold). Among PUFA, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were common to uncooked and cooked dry seeds which were high on cold extraction. Only two fatty acid ratios were favorable in hot extraction [(C14:0 + C15:0 + (C16:0 / C18:0) and C18:1 / C18:2]. Cold extraction yielded docosahexaenoic acid in uncooked as well as cooked dry seeds and all fatty acid ratios were nutritionally favorable...
October 3, 2016: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
X Z Li, S H Choi, C G Yan, J S Shin, S B Smith
Supplementary dietary plant oils have the potential to alter milk fatty acid composition in ruminants as a result of changes in the amount and kind of fatty acid precursors. We hypothesized that linseed oil in combination with malate (a key propionate precursor in the rumen) would increase ∆9 unsaturated fatty acids and specific gene expression in somatic cells and mammary glands of lactating goats. Twelve lactating goats were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Treatments included the basal diet (CON), the CON plus 4% linseed oil (LO), and the CON plus 4% linseed oil and 2% -malate (LOM)...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Devi Lekshmi Sheela, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla Nazeem, Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Jeksy Jos Manalil, Achuthan C Raghavamenon
The coconut oil (CO) contains 91 % of saturated fatty acids in which 72 % are medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) like lauric, capric and caprylic acids. In contrast to animal fat, coconut oil has no cholesterol. Despite this fact, CO is sidelined among other vegetable oils due to the health hazards attributed to the saturated fatty acids. Though various medicinal effects of CO have been reported including the hypolipidemic activity, people are still confused in the consumption of this natural oil. In silico analyses and wet lab experiments have been carried out to identify the hypolipidemic properties of MCFAs and phenolic acids in CO by using different protein targets involved in cholesterol synthesis...
September 27, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
B Kikalishvili, D Zurabashvili, Ts Sulakvelidze, M Malania, D Turabelidze
There was established the lipid composition of the seeds of Vitex agnus castus L. by the qualitative and quantitative methods of analyses. There were received neutral lipids from the seeds by extraction with hexane in the yield 10%, counted on dry material. For the divide of neutral lipids there was used silica gel plates LS 5/40 in the systems of solvents: 1. petroleum ether-diethylether-acidum aceticum (85:14:1), 2. hexane-diethylether (1:1). After obtaining neutral lipids from the residual plant shrot pollar lipids was extracted with the mixture of chloroform-methanol (2:1) and was divided on silica gel plates LS 5/40, mobile phase: 1...
July 2016: Georgian Medical News
Sunsanee Udomrati, Nauman Khalid, Shoichi Gohtani, Mitsutoshi Nakajima, Kunihiko Uemura, Isao Kobayashi
A series of amphiphilically esterified xylo-oligosaccharides (xylo esters) with different fatty acids residues - decanoic acid (C-10), lauric acid (C-12) and palmitic acid (C-16) - were enzymatically modified at 60°C for 4h. These xylo esters were used as emulsifiers to formulate oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions by microchannel emulsification (MCE). Grooved and straight-through MCE was used to investigate the droplet generation and/or emulsion stability. Xylo ester-stabilized oil droplets were generated smoothly from microchannels arranged linearly or two dimensionally, while xylo ester-stabilized emulsions were less monodispersed owing to low surface activity of the xylo esters...
September 6, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
B Martínez-Vallespín, W Vahjen, J Zentek
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have been suggested as an alternative to the use of antibiotics in animal nutrition with promising results. First, we studied the sensitivity of Salmonella Enteritidis and an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain against caprylic (C8), capric (C10) and lauric (C12) acids. A porcine in vitro model using the porcine cell line IPEC-J2 was used to test the effects of MCFAs on structural and immunological traits without and with a concomitant challenge with E. coli or S. Enteritidis...
October 2016: Cytotechnology
Mark F McCarty, James J DiNicolantonio
Recently, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) containing a large fraction of lauric acid (LA) (C12)-about 30%-have been introduced commercially for use in salad oils and in cooking applications. As compared to the long-chain fatty acids found in other cooking oils, the medium-chain fats in MCTs are far less likely to be stored in adipose tissue, do not give rise to 'ectopic fat' metabolites that promote insulin resistance and inflammation, and may be less likely to activate macrophages. When ingested, medium-chain fatty acids are rapidly oxidised in hepatic mitochondria; the resulting glut of acetyl-coenzyme A drives ketone body production and also provokes a thermogenic response...
2016: Open Heart
Kyung-Min Park, Min Joo Lee, Su-Kyung Jo, Seung Jun Choi, JaeHwan Lee, Pahn-Shick Chang
The interfacial characteristics and antioxidant activities of erythorbyl laurate were investigated to provide information on practical applications as a multi-functional food additive. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of erythorbyl laurate was 0.101mM and its foam stability was three times (half-life 24.33±0.94h) higher than that of Tween 20 (8.00±1.63h). In free radical scavenging assay, the negligible decrease in EC50 of erythorbyl laurate compared to erythorbic acid manifested that C-5 selective esterification of erythorbic acid with an acyl group (lauric acid) did not reduce the inherent antioxidant activity of the donor (erythorbic acid)...
January 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Adriana Idalina Torcato de Oliveira, Talal Suleiman Mahmoud, Guilherme Nobre L do Nascimento, Juliana Fonseca Moreira da Silva, Raphael Sanzio Pimenta, Paula Benevides de Morais
Babaçu (A. speciosa), Buriti (M. flexuosa), and Macaúba (A. aculeata) are palm trees typical of the ecotone area between Cerrado and the Amazon rainforest. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the extracts prepared from the leaves of those palms as well as determine their chemical compositions. The ethanol extracts were prepared in a Soxhlet apparatus and tested by disk diffusion and agar dilution technique against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Candida parapsilosis...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
Kangzi Ren, Buddhi P Lamsal
The synthesis of glucose esters with palmitic acid, lauric acid and hexanoic acid using lipase enzyme was studied and their emulsion functionality in oil-in-water system were compared. Reactions at 3:1M ratio of fatty acids-to-glucose had the highest conversion percentages (over 90% for each of the fatty acid). Initial conversion rate increased as substrate solubility increased. Ester bond formation was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance technique that the chemical shifts of glucose H-6 and α-carbon protons of fatty acids in the ester molecules shifted to the higher fields...
January 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
I Revilla, O Escuredo, M I González-Martín, C Palacios
The aim of the present work was to determine the fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin composition and the season of ewe's milk production using NIR spectroscopy. 219 ewe's milk samples from different breeds and feeding regimes were taken each month over one year. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography, and retinol and α-, and γ-tocopherol by liquid chromatography. The results showed that the quantification was more accurate for the milk dried on paper, except for vitamins. Calibration statistical descriptors on milk dried on paper were good for capric, lauric, myristic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids, and acceptable for caprilic, undecanoic, 9c, 11tCLA, ΣCLA, PUFA, ω3, ω6, retinol and α-tocopherol...
January 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Qiumin Ma, Yue Zhang, Faith Critzer, P Michael Davidson, Qixin Zhong
Cantaloupes are susceptible to microbiological contamination in pre- or postharvest environments. Novel intervention strategies, such as antimicrobial coatings, are needed to improve the microbiological safety of cantaloupes. The objective of this study was to prepare whole cantaloupes coated with mixtures containing chitosan, lauric arginate (LAE), cinnamon oil (CO), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and determine survival characteristics of inoculated foodborne pathogens during storage as well as cantaloupe quality attributes...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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