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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346825/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-articular-cartilage-within-the-knee
#1
Erin C Argentieri, Alissa J Burge, Hollis G Potter
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides an effective and noninvasive means by which to evaluate articular cartilage within the knee. Existing techniques can be utilized to detect and monitor longitudinal changes in cartilage status due to injury or progression of degenerative disease. Quantitative MRI (qMRI) techniques can provide a metric by which to evaluate the efficacy of cartilage repair techniques and offer insight into the composition of cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. In this review, we provide background on MR signal generation and decay, the utility of morphologic MRI assessment, and qMRI techniques for the biochemical assessment of cartilage (dGEMRIC, T2, T2*, T1ρ, sodium, gagCEST)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346513/pancancer-analysis-identifies-prognostic-high-apobec1-expression-level-implicated-in-cancer-in-frame-insertions-and-deletions
#2
Ahmadreza Niavarani, Asieh Shahrabi Farahani, Maryam Sharafkhah, Minoo Rassoulzadegan
Genome insertions and deletions (indels) show tremendous functional impacts despite they are much less common than single nucleotide variants, which are at the center of studies assessing cancer mutational signatures. We studied 8,891 tumor samples of 32 types from The Cancer Genome Atlas in order to explore those genes which are potentially implicated in cancer indels. Survival analysis identified in-frame indels as the most important variants predicting adverse outcome. Transcriptome-wide association study identified 16 genes overexpressed in both tumor samples and tumor types with high number of in-frame indels, of whom four (APOBEC1, BCL2L15, FOXL1, and PDX1) were identified with gene products distributed within the nucleus...
January 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346331/growth-hormone-gh-and-cardiovascular-system
#3
REVIEW
Diego Caicedo, Oscar Díaz, Pablo Devesa, Jesús Devesa
This review describes the positive effects of growth hormone (GH) on the cardiovascular system. We analyze why the vascular endothelium is a real internal secretion gland, whose inflammation is the first step for developing atherosclerosis, as well as the mechanisms by which GH acts on vessels improving oxidative stress imbalance and endothelial dysfunction. We also report how GH acts on coronary arterial disease and heart failure, and on peripheral arterial disease, inducing a neovascularization process that finally increases flow in ischemic tissues...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345399/glycine-improves-the-remodeling-process-of-tenocytes-in-vitro
#4
Cristiano Pedrozo Vieira, Manuela Viola, Giane Daniela Carneiro, Maria Luisa D'Angelo, Cristina Pontes Vicente, Alberto Passi, Edson Rosa Pimentel
Tendinitis changes the biochemical and morphological properties of the tendon, promoting an increase of activity of metalloproteinases and disorganization of collagen bundles. Tenocytes the primary cells in tendon, are scattered throughout the collagenic fibres, and are responsible of tendon remodeling and tissue repair in pathological condition. In vivo, glycine, component of the typical Gly-X-Y collagen tripeptide, showed beneficial effects in biochemical and biomechanical properties of Achilles tendon with tendinitis...
January 18, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345324/autocrine-signals-increase-ovine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-migration-through-aquaporin-1-and-cxcr4-overexpression
#5
Alessandra Pelagalli, Anna Nardelli, Enrico Lucarelli, Antonella Zannetti, Arturo Brunetti
Sheep is a relevant large animal model that is frequently used to test innovative tissue engineering (TE) approaches especially for bone reconstruction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used in TE applications because they represent key component of adult tissue repair. Importantly, MSCs from different species show similar characteristics, which facilitated their application in translational studies using animal models. Nowadays, many researches are focusing on the use of ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSCs) in orthopedic preclinical settings for regenerative medicine purposes...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345317/an-orientation-independent-dic-microscope-allows-high-resolution-imaging-of-epithelial-cell-migration-and-wound-healing-in-a-cnidarian-model
#6
J E Malamy, M Shribak
Epithelial cell dynamics can be difficult to study in intact animals or tissues. Here we use the medusa form of the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica, which is covered with a monolayer of epithelial cells, to test the efficacy of an orientation-independent differential interference contrast microscope for in vivo imaging of wound healing. Orientation-independent differential interference contrast provides an unprecedented resolution phase image of epithelial cells closing a wound in a live, nontransgenic animal model...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345200/distinct-niches-within-the-extracellular-matrix-dictate-fibroblast-function-in-cell-free-3d-lung-tissue-cultures
#7
Gerald Burgstaller, Arunima Sengupta, Sarah Vierkotten, Gerhard Preissler, Michael Lindner, Jürgen Behr, Melanie Königshoff, Oliver Eickelberg
Instructive cues from the extracellular matrix (ECM) and their functional interplay with cells play pivotal roles for development, tissue repair, and disease. However, the precise nature of this interplay remains elusive. We used an innovative 3D cell culture ECM model by decellularizing ex vivo lung tissue scaffolds (d3D-LTCs) derived from diseased and healthy mouse lungs, which widely mimics the native (patho)physiological in vivo microenvironment. We successfully repopulated all d3D-LTCs with primary human and murine fibroblasts...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345045/the-in-vitro-release-of-cytokines-and-growth-factors-from-fibrin-membranes-produced-through-horizontal-centrifugation
#8
E S Lourenço, C F A B Mourão, P E C Leite, J M Granjeiro, M D Calasans-Maia, G G Alves
Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) membranes are biomaterials widely used for therapeutic purposes, and canonically produced through the processing of peripheral blood with fixed-angle rotor centrifuges. In this work, we evaluate the in vitro stability and release of cytokines and growth factors when these biomaterials are produced with a horizontal swing-out clinical centrifuge. Membranes produced from the blood of 14 donors were morphologically evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, and their stability was assessed by photographic recording after incubation in culture medium for up to 28 days...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344827/molecular-imaging-of-cardiac-remodelling-after-myocardial-infarction
#9
REVIEW
Daniel Curley, Begoña Lavin Plaza, Ajay M Shah, René M Botnar
Myocardial infarction and subsequent heart failure is a major health burden associated with significant mortality and morbidity in western societies. The ability of cardiac tissue to recover after myocardial infarction is affected by numerous complex cellular and molecular pathways. Unbalance or failure of these pathways can lead to adverse remodelling of the heart and poor prognosis. Current clinical cardiac imaging modalities assess anatomy, perfusion, function, and viability of the myocardium, yet do not offer any insight into the specific molecular pathways involved in the repair process...
January 17, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344809/regeneration-of-functional-alveoli-by-adult-human-sox9-airway-basal-cell-transplantation
#10
Qiwang Ma, Yu Ma, Xiaotian Dai, Tao Ren, Yingjie Fu, Wenbin Liu, Yufei Han, Yingchuan Wu, Yu Cheng, Ting Zhang, Wei Zuo
Irreversible destruction of bronchi and alveoli can lead to multiple incurable lung diseases. Identifying lung stem/progenitor cells with regenerative capacity and utilizing them to reconstruct functional tissue is one of the biggest hopes to reverse the damage and cure such diseases. Here we showed that a rare population of SOX9+ basal cells (BCs) located at airway epithelium rugae can regenerate adult human lung. Human SOX9+ BCs can be readily isolated by bronchoscopic brushing and indefinitely expanded in feeder-free condition...
January 17, 2018: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344657/effects-of-hereditary-moderate-high-fat-diet-on-metabolic-performance-and-physical-endurance-capacity-in-c57bl-6-offspring
#11
Fang Liu, Guirong Zhang, Xue Sheng, Shang Liu, Meng Cui, Heyun Guo, Jianbin Xue, Lingyun Zhang
Obesity in pregnant women presents a risk to fetal health, leading to numerous metabolic syndromes and chronic inflammation risks. Previously, physical exercise was considered to be one of the primary treatments for obesity. However, the effect of fat consumption throughout the life cycle on physical endurance capacity remains unknown. A total of two groups of female mice (age, 6 weeks; C57BL/6J) were fed with a normal chow diet and a moderate high fat diet (MHFD), during pregnancy and lactation (8 weeks), with the offspring receiving the same diet as the mother...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343956/essential-oil-loaded-lipid-nanoparticles-for-wound-healing
#12
Francesca Saporito, Giuseppina Sandri, Maria Cristina Bonferoni, Silvia Rossi, Cinzia Boselli, Antonia Icaro Cornaglia, Barbara Mannucci, Pietro Grisoli, Barbara Vigani, Franca Ferrari
Chronic wounds and severe burns are diseases responsible for severe morbidity and even death. Wound repair is a crucial process and tissue regeneration enhancement and infection prevention are key factors to minimize pain, discomfort, and scar formation. The aim of this work was the development of lipid nanoparticles (solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers [NLC]), to be loaded with eucalyptus or rosemary essential oils and to be used, as medical devices, to enhance healing of skin wounds...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343633/hydrogel-biomaterials-and-their-therapeutic-potential-for-muscle-injuries-and-muscular-dystrophies
#13
REVIEW
Rachel Lev, Dror Seliktar
Muscular diseases such as muscular dystrophies and muscle injuries constitute a large group of ailments that manifest as muscle weakness, atrophy or fibrosis. Although cell therapy is a promising treatment option, the delivery and retention of cells in the muscle is difficult and prevents sustained regeneration needed for adequate functional improvements. Various types of biomaterials with different physical and chemical properties have been developed to improve the delivery of cells and/or growth factors for treating muscle injuries...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343476/role-of-macrophage-socs3-in-the-pathogenesis-of-aortic-dissection
#14
Satoko Ohno-Urabe, Hiroki Aoki, Michihide Nishihara, Aya Furusho, Saki Hirakata, Norifumi Nishida, Sohei Ito, Makiko Hayashi, Hideo Yasukawa, Tsutomu Imaizumi, Hidetoshi Akashi, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Yoshihiro Fukumoto
BACKGROUND: Aortic dissection (AD) is a life-threatening medical emergency caused by the abrupt destruction of the intimomedial layer of the aortic walls. Given that previous studies have reported the involvement of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in AD pathogenesis, we investigated the role of signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 signaling, a downstream pathway of interleukin-6 in macrophages in pathogenesis of AD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We characterized the pathological and molecular events triggered by aortic stress, which can lead to AD...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343288/changes-in-the-secretome-of-tri-dimensional-spheroid-cultured-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro-by-interleukin-1-priming
#15
Elena Redondo-Castro, Catriona J Cunningham, Jonjo Miller, Helena Brown, Stuart M Allan, Emmanuel Pinteaux
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the most promising candidates for the treatment of major neurological disorders. Desirable therapeutic properties of MSCs include reparative and regenerative potential but, despite their proven safety, the efficacy of MSCs remains controversial. Therefore, it is essential to optimise culture protocols to enhance the therapeutic potential of the MSC secretome. Here we aimed to: assess the increase in secretion of cytokines that may induce repair, regeneration, or immunomodulation when cultured in three dimensions; study the effect of interleukin (IL)-1 priming on two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cultures of MSC; and evaluate the potential use of the modified secretome using microglial-MSC co-cultures...
January 17, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343270/isolation-and-characterization-of-olfactory-ecto-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-eight-mammalian-genera
#16
Antoine D Veron, Cécile Bienboire-Frosini, François Feron, Elisa Codecasa, Arnaud Deveze, Dany Royer, Paul Watelet, Pietro Asproni, Kevin Sadelli, Camille Chabaud, Jean-Claude Stamegna, Joël Fagot, Michel Khrestchatisky, Alessandro Cozzi, François S Roman, Patrick Pageat, Manuel Mengoli, Stéphane D Girard
BACKGROUND: Stem cell-based therapies are an attractive option to promote regeneration and repair defective tissues and organs. Thanks to their multipotency, high proliferation rate and the lack of major ethical limitations, "olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells" (OE-MSCs) have been described as a promising candidate to treat a variety of damaged tissues. Easily accessible in the nasal cavity of most mammals, these cells are highly suitable for autologous cell-based therapies and do not face issues associated with other stem cells...
January 17, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342466/deep-vein-thrombosis-a-rare-cause-of-acute-testicular-pain-case-report-literature-review
#17
Adrián Amador Robayna, Jonathan Rodríguez Talavera, Begoña Ballesta Martínez, Javier Falcón Barroso, Almudena Carrión Valencia, Nuria Orribo Morales, Melania Santacruz Pérez, Jesús Monllor Gisbert
INTRODUCTION: Thrombosis is defined as the formation of a clot in a blood vessel that obstructs the flow of blood to the peripheral tissues. The incidence of thromboembolic disease ranges from 0.7 to 1.2% within urology. CASE REPORT: A 40-year-old warehouse worker male presented to the emergency department with worsening of a month's lasting scrotal pain. Physical examination showed the presence of an enlarged and painful left testicle with no other findings. Right testicle, penis and abdominal examination showed no abnormalities whatsoever...
January 17, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342430/tissue-expander-stimulated-lengthening-of-arteries-for-the-treatment-of-midaortic-syndrome-in-children
#18
Heung Bae Kim, Gabriel J Ramos-Gonzalez, Khashayar Vakili, Deborah R Stein, Michael A Ferguson, Diego Porras, James E Lock, Gulraiz Chaudry, Ahmad Alomari, Steven J Fishman
BACKGROUND: Midaortic syndrome (MAS) is a rare condition characterized by stenosis of the abdominal aorta. Patients with disease refractory to medical management will usually require either endovascular therapy or surgery with use of prosthetic graft material for bypass or patch angioplasty. We report our early experience with a novel approach using a tissue expander (TE) to lengthen the normal native arteries in children with MAS, allowing primary aortic repair without the need for prosthetic graft material...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342064/minimally-manipulated-bone-marrow-concentrate-compared-with-microfracture-treatment-of-full-thickness-chondral-defects-a-one-year-study-in-an-equine-model
#19
Constance R Chu, Lisa A Fortier, Ashley Williams, Karin A Payne, Taralyn M McCarrel, Megan E Bowers, Diego Jaramillo
BACKGROUND: Microfracture is commonly performed for cartilage repair but usually results in fibrocartilage. Microfracture augmented by autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC) was previously shown to yield structurally superior cartilage repairs in an equine model compared with microfracture alone. The current study was performed to test the hypothesis that autologous BMC without concomitant microfracture improves cartilage repair compared with microfracture alone. METHODS: Autologous sternal bone marrow aspirate (BMA) was concentrated using a commercial system...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341600/combination-of-heparin-binding-peptide-and-heparin-cell-surface-coatings-for-mesenchymal-stem-cell-spheroid-assembly
#20
Jennifer Lei, William L Murphy, Johnna S Temenoff
Microtissues containing multiple cell types have been used in both in vitro models and in vivo tissue repair applications. However, to improve through-put, there is a need to develop a platform that supports self-assembly of a large number of 3D microtissues containing multiple cell types in a dynamic suspension system. Thus, the objective of this study was to exploit the binding interaction between the negatively charged glycosaminoglycan, heparin, and a known heparin binding peptide to establish a method that promotes assembly of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) spheroids into larger aggregates...
January 17, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
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