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muscular inhibition

Yinhua Ni, Tao Wu, Luna Yang, Yang Xu, Tsuguhito Ota, Zhengwei Fu
Oxidative stress caused free radical and mitochondrial damage plays a critical role in the progression of aging and age-related damage at the cellular and tissue levels. Antioxidant supplementation has received growing attention and the effects of antioxidant on aging are increasingly assessed in both animal and human studies. However, additional and more promising treatments that contribute to the expansion of anti-aging therapies are needed. Astaxanthin, a super antioxidant carotenoid and free radical scavenger, inhibits lipid peroxidation more potently than vitamin E...
March 10, 2018: Endocrine Journal
Scott K Ferguson, Julie W Harral, David I Pak, Katherine M Redinius, Kurt R Stenmark, Dominik J Schaer, Paul W Buehler, David C Irwin
Free hemoglobin (Hb) associated with hemolysis extravasates into vascular tissue and depletes nitric oxide (NO), which leads to impaired vascular function and could impair skeletal muscle metabolic control during exercise. We tested the hypothesis that: 1) free Hb would extravasate into skeletal muscle tissue, reducing the contracting skeletal muscle O2 delivery/O2 utilization ratio (microvascular PO2 , PO2 mv) to a similar extent as that observed following NO synthase (NOS) blockade, and 2) that the Hb scavenging protein haptoglobin (Hp) would prevent Hb extravasation and inhibit these skeletal muscle tissue effects...
March 8, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Yat Hei Leung, Francois Belanger, Jennifer Lu, Jacques Turgeon, Veronique Michaud
BACKGROUND: Drug-induced myopathy is a serious side effect that often requires removal of a medication from a drug regimen. For most drugs, the underlying mechanism of drug-induced myopathy remains unclear. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) mediate L-lactic acid transport, and inhibition of MCTs may potentially lead to perturbation of L-lactic acid accumulation and muscular disorders. Therefore, we hypothesized that L-lactic acid transport may be involved in the development of drug-induced myopathy...
March 7, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Hsien-Chun Chiu, Chen-Yuan Chiu, Rong-Sen Yang, Ding-Cheng Chan, Shing-Hwa Liu, Chih-Kang Chiang
BACKGROUND: A global consensus on the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function in humans refers as sarcopenia and cachexia including diabetes, obesity, renal failure, and osteoporosis. Despite a current improvement of sarcopenia or cachexia with exercise training and supportive therapies, alternative and specific managements are needed to discover for whom are unable or unwilling to embark on these treatments. Alendronate is a widely used drug for osteoporosis in the elderly and postmenopausal women...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Kanza Benomar, Stéphanie Espiard, Camille Loyer, Arnaud Jannin, Marie-Christine Vantyghem
Natriuretic peptides are a group of hormones including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), C type (CNP), urodilatin and guanilyn. ANP (half-life: 2-4 min), is secreted by the atrium, BNP (half-life: 20 min) by the ventricle, CNP by the vascular endothelium, urodilatin by the kidney and guanylin by the intestine. These natriuretic peptides prevent water and salt retention through renal action, vasodilatation and hormonal inhibition of aldosterone, vasopressin and cortisol. These peptides also have a recently demonstrated metabolic effect through an increase of lipolysis, thermogenesis, beta cell proliferation and muscular sensitivity to insulin...
February 26, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Shao-Yu Peng, Sheng-Wen S Shaw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current medical and stem-cell therapy for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and prenatal transplantation of amniotic fluid stem cells in the future. RECENT FINDINGS: SMA is an autosomal recessive inheritance of neurodegenerative disease, which is caused of the mutation in survival motor neuron. The severe-type SMA patients usually die from the respiratory failure within 2 years after birth. Recently, researchers had found that 3-methyladenine could inhibit the autophagy and had the capacity to reduce death of the neurons...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Banghong Jiang, Wenxuan Zu, Jing Xu, Zhuyou Xiong, Yichao Zhang, Song Gao, Shuxing Ge, Li Zhang
Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a neck deformity that involves shortening of sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) characterized by muscle atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. To investigate wheatear Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) has anti-fibrotic effects in CMT, we established acquired muscular torticollis that mimetics CMT in rabbit by intra-SCM injection of anhydrous alcohol. The treatment groups received BTA (2.5 units or 5 units) injection into the fibrotic SCM. The shortening and thickening of SCM were recorded by B-mode ultrasound...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yue Liu, Fang Lin, Yu Fu, Wenjia Chen, Wenxiu Liu, Jinyu Chi, Xiaohui Zhang, Xinhua Yin
AIM: Cortistatin (CST) is a newly discovered endogenous active peptide that exerts protective effects on the cardiovascular system. However, the relationship between CST and aortic calcification and the underlying mechanism remain obscure. Therefore, we investigated effects of CST on aortic calcification and its signaling pathways. METHODS: Calcium content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured using the o-cresolphthalein colorimetric method and ALP assay kit, respectively...
February 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Fernanda Bajanca, Laurence Vandel
Histone acetyl transferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDAC) control transcription during myogenesis. HDACs promote chromatin condensation, inhibiting gene transcription in muscle progenitor cells until myoblast differentiation is triggered and HDACs are released. HATs, namely CBP/p300, activate myogenic regulatory and elongation factors promoting myogenesis. HDAC inhibitors are known to improve regeneration in dystrophic muscles through follistatin upregulation. However, the potential of directly modulating HATs remains unexplored...
December 21, 2017: PLoS Currents
Robert N Judson, Marco Quarta, Menno J Oudhoff, Hesham Soliman, Lin Yi, Chih Kai Chang, Gloria Loi, Ryan Vander Werff, Alissa Cait, Mark Hamer, Justin Blonigan, Patrick Paine, Linda T N Doan, Elena Groppa, WenJun He, Le Su, Regan H Zhang, Peter Xu, Christine Eisner, Marcela Low, Ingrid Barta, Coral-Ann B Lewis, Colby Zaph, Mohammad M Karimi, Thomas A Rando, Fabio M Rossi
The development of cell therapy for repairing damaged or diseased skeletal muscle has been hindered by the inability to significantly expand immature, transplantable myogenic stem cells (MuSCs) in culture. To overcome this limitation, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms regulating the transition between activated, proliferating MuSCs and differentiation-primed, poorly engrafting progenitors is needed. Here, we show that methyltransferase Setd7 facilitates such transition by regulating the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in proliferating MuSCs...
February 1, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Lina Yan, Yaling Liu, Can Sun, Qian Zheng, Pengli Hao, Jingxu Zhai, Yuanyuan Liu
BACKGROUND Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive muscular dystrophy and paralysis; most ALS patients die from respiratory failure within 3 to 5 years, and there is currently no effective treatment. Some studies have indicated sex differences in the incidence of ALS, and evidence suggests a neuroprotective role for estrogen. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (hSOD1-G93A) transgenic mice to determine the effects of ovariotomy on the onset of disease and behavior; we also used Western blotting to measure the expression of aromatase and estrogen receptors, as well as the inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis markers, in the lumbar spinal cord to determine the mechanism of estrogen-mediated neuroprotection...
February 2, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Qilu Ye, Robert L Campbell, Peter L Davies
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2a arises from mutations in the Ca2+-activated intracellular cysteine protease calpain-3. This calpain isoform is abundant in skeletal muscle and differs from the main isoforms, calpain-1 and -2, in being a homodimer and having two short insertion sequences. The first of these, IS1, interrupts the protease core and must be cleaved for activation and substrate binding. Here, to learn how calpain-3 can be regulated and inhibited, we determined the structures of the calpain-3 protease core with IS1 present or proteolytically excised...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
James Anthony Loehr, Shang Wang, Tanya R Cully, Rituraj Pal, Irina V Larina, Kirill V Larin, George G Rodney
Skeletal muscle from mdx mice is characterized by increased Nox2 ROS, altered microtubule network, increased muscle stiffness, and decreased muscle/respiratory function. While microtubule de-tyrosination has been suggested to increase stiffness and Nox2 ROS production in isolated single myofibers, its role in altering tissue stiffness and muscle function has not been established. Because Nox2 ROS production is upregulated prior to microtubule network alterations and ROS affect microtubule formation, we investigated the role of Nox2 ROS in diaphragm tissue microtubule organization, stiffness and muscle/respiratory function...
January 30, 2018: ELife
Yusheng Cheng, Yan Gong, Shuai Qian, Yi Mou, Hanrui Li, Xijing Chen, Hui Kong, Weiping Xie, Hong Wang, Yihua Zhang, Zhangjian Huang
Given that the clinical therapeutic efficacy of oral-dosed bardoxolone methyl (1) and the selective vasodilatory effect caused by inhalation of nitric oxide (NO) on pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients, a new hybrid (CDDO-NO, 2) from 1 and NO donor isosorbide 5-mononitrate (3) was designed and synthesized. This hybrid could liberate 1 and NO in the lungs of rats after trachea injection. Significantly, 2 lowered mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), decreased right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), as well as attenuated pulmonary artery medial thickness (PAMT) and vascular muscularization in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rats...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Timothy J Suchomel, Sophia Nimphius, Christopher R Bellon, Michael H Stone
This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules...
January 25, 2018: Sports Medicine
Rui Chen, Daniel R Swale
A complete understanding of the physiological pathways critical for proper function of the insect nervous system is still lacking. The recent development of potent and selective small-molecule modulators of insect inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels has enabled the interrogation of the physiological role and toxicological potential of Kir channels within various insect tissue systems. Therefore, we aimed to highlight the physiological and functional role of neural Kir channels the central nervous system, muscular system, and neuromuscular system through pharmacological and genetic manipulations...
January 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Camilo Riquelme-Guzman, Osvaldo Contreras, Enrique Brandan
Fibrosis is a common feature of several chronic diseases, and is characterized by exacerbated accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of this condition is crucial for designing efficient treatments for those pathologies. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is a pleiotropic protein with strong pro-fibrotic activity. In this report, we present experimental evidence showing that ECM stimulates the synthesis of CTGF in response to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)...
December 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Cassidy Delaney, Laurie Sherlock, Susan Fisher, Joanne K Maltzahn, Clyde J Wright, Eva Nozik-Grayck
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicating bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) worsens clinical outcomes in former preterm infants. Increased serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) signaling plays a prominent role in PH pathogenesis and progression in adults. We hypothesized that increased 5-HT signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of neonatal PH complicating BPD and neonatal lung injury. Thus, we interrogated 5-HT signaling in neonatal mice exposed to bleomycin, previously demonstrated to induce PH and alveolar simplification...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Hirohumi Suzuki, Kentaro Yamada, Yasuhiro Matsuda, Minoru Onozuka, Toshiharu Yamamoto
In the present study, we investigated the distribution of CXCL14 immunoreactive endocrine cells and neurons in mouse alimentary tract by immunohistochemistry. CXCL14 immunoreactive endocrine cells were found as closed-type cells in the stomach and open-type cells in the small intestine. The immunostaining of these endocrine cells corresponded with that of the somatostatin-containing endocrine cells. Only a few CXCL14 immunoreactive endocrine cells were seen in the large intestine. CXCL14 immunoreactive fibers were observed in the muscular layer from the stomach to the rectum with most abundance in the rectum...
December 26, 2017: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
Binbin Sun, Zeyu Zhong, Fan Wang, Jiong Xu, Feng Xu, Weimin Kong, Zhaoli Ling, Nan Shu, Ying Li, Tong Wu, Mian Zhang, Liang Zhu, Xiaodong Liu, Li Liu
Skeletal muscle accounts for approximately 75% of glucose disposal in body and statins impair glucose metabolism. We aimed to investigate the effect of atorvastatin on glucose metabolism in C2C12 cells. Glucose metabolism and expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and hexokinase II (HXKII) were measured following incubation with atorvastatin or pravastatin. Roles of cholesterol in atorvastatin-induced glucose metabolism impairment were investigated via adding cholesterol or mevalonic acid and confirmed by cholesterol depletion with methyl-β-cyclodextrin...
January 12, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
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