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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810660/recent-advancements-in-understanding-mammalian-o-mannosylation
#1
M Osman Sheikh, Stephanie M Halmo, Lance Wells
The post-translational glycosylation of select proteins by O-linked mannose (O-mannose or O-man) is a conserved modification from yeast to humans and has been shown to be necessary for proper development and growth. The most well studied O-mannosylated mammalian protein is α-dystroglycan (α-DG). Hypoglycosylation of α-DG results in varying severities of congenital muscular dystrophies, cancer progression and metastasis, and inhibited entry and infection of certain arenaviruses. Defects in the gene products responsible for post-translational modification of α-DG, primarily glycosyltransferases, are the basis for these diseases...
September 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808928/regulation-of-survival-motor-neuron-protein-by-the-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-pathway-in-mouse-spinal-cord-motoneurons
#2
Saravanan Arumugam, Stefka Mincheva-Tasheva, Ambika Periyakaruppiah, Sandra de la Fuente, Rosa M Soler, Ana Garcera
Survival motor neuron (SMN) protein deficiency causes the genetic neuromuscular disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), characterized by spinal cord motoneuron degeneration. Since SMN protein level is critical to disease onset and severity, analysis of the mechanisms involved in SMN stability is one of the central goals of SMA research. Here, we describe the role of several members of the NF-κB pathway in regulating SMN in motoneurons. NF-κB is one of the main regulators of motoneuron survival and pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB pathway activity also induces mouse survival motor neuron (Smn) protein decrease...
August 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808653/acyl-coa-synthetase-5-promotes-the-growth-and-invasion-of-colorectal-cancer-cells
#3
Shihua Ding, Shaohui Tang, Min Wang, Donghai Wu, Haijian Guo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acyl-CoA synthetase 5 (ACS5) has been reported to be associated with the development of various cancers, but the role of it in colorectal cancer (CRC) is not well understood. The present study aimed to explore the potential role of ACS5 in the development and progression of CRC. METHODS: ACS5 expression in CRC tissues and CRC cell lines was examined, and its clinical significance was analyzed. The role of ACS5 in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion was examined in vitro...
2017: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796387/ulinastatin-inhibited-sepsis-induced-spinal-inflammation-to-alleviate-peripheral-neuromuscular-dysfunction-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-neuromyopathy
#4
Fei Xie, Su Min, Jingyuan Chen, Jun Yang, Xin Wang
Sepsis initiates a neuroinflammatory cascade that contributes to spinal cord inflammation and behavioral impairment, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important mediator of this cascade. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that ulinastatin (ULI) inhibits sepsis-induced spinal inflammation to alleviate peripheral neuromuscular dysfunction through the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway. Muscular function, spinal cord water content, and cytokine levels of spinal cord were tested in TLR4-inhibited rats subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790171/the-ror1-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-plays-a-critical-role-in-regulating-satellite-cell-proliferation-during-regeneration-of-injured-muscle
#5
Koki Kamizaki, Ryosuke Doi, Makoto Hayashi, Takeshi Saji, Motoi Kanagawa, Tatsushi Toda, So-Ichiro Fukada, Hsin-Yi Henry Ho, Michael Eldon Greenberg, Mitsuharu Endo, Yasuhiro Minami
The Ror family receptor tyrosine kinases, Ror1 and Ror2 play important roles in regulating developmental morphogenesis and tissue- and organogenesis, but their roles in tissue regeneration in adult animals remains largely unknown. In this study, we examined the expression and function of Ror1 and Ror2 during skeletal muscle regeneration. Using an in vivo skeletal muscle injury model, we show that expression of Ror1 and Ror2 in skeletal muscles is induced transiently by the inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, after injury, and that inhibition of TNF-α and IL-1β by neutralizing antibodies suppresses expression of Ror1 and Ror2 in injured muscles...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780350/effect-of-elovl3-expression-on-bovine-skeletal-muscle-derived-satellite-cell-differentiation
#6
Dan Liu, Jia-Hui Xu, Hui-Li Tong, Shu-Feng Li, Yun-Qin Yan
ELOVL3 is involved in elongating saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, and is a critical enzyme for lipid accumulation in brown adipocytes during the early phase of tissue recruitment. In addition, ELOVL3 is related to increased fatty acid oxidation in brown adipocytes. However, the potential functions of ELOVL3 in bovine cells remain unclear. Herein, we aimed to elucidate the effect of the ELOVL3 on the differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs). Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses were used for elucidating ELOVL3 expression pattern in bovine MDSCs during differentiation in vitro...
August 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763302/intramuscularly-injected-neurotropin-reduced-muscular-mechanical-hyperalgesia-induced-by-repeated-cold-stress-in-rats
#7
Teruaki Nasu, Shiori Murase, Yoshiko Takeda-Uchimura, Kazue Mizumura
An extract of rabbit skin inflamed by inoculation with the vaccinia virus, neurotropin [by intravenous, oral, and intramuscular (i.m.) administration], has been used in China and Japan for the treatment of chronic pain. In this study, we investigated the analgesic mechanism of i.m. neurotropin. Rats were exposed to repeated cold stress, and muscular mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated by measuring the withdrawal threshold of the gastrocnemius muscle using Randall-Selitto apparatus. I.m. but not subcutaneous, neurotropin dose dependently reduced the repeated cold stress-induced muscular mechanical hyperalgesia for 3 h, but it had no effect in normal rats...
July 31, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755286/assessment-of-arsenic-trioxide-toxicity-on-cock-muscular-tissue-alterations-of-oxidative-damage-parameters-inflammatory-cytokines-and-heat-shock-proteins
#8
Si-Wen Li, Ying Guo, Ying He, Xiao Sun, Hong-Jing Zhao, Yu Wang, Ya-Jun Wang, Ming-Wei Xing
To evaluate the toxicity of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) in the muscular tissues (wing, thigh and pectoral) of birds, 72 one-day-old Hy-line cocks were selected and randomly divided into four groups. They were fed either a commercial diet or an arsenic-supplemented diet containing 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg As2O3. The experiment lasted for 90 days and the samples of muscular tissues were collected at 30, 60 and 90 days. The results showed that As2O3 exposure significantly lowered the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) and inhibition ability of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents...
July 28, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745314/a-muscle-specific-protein-myoferlin-modulates-il-6-stat3-signaling-by-chaperoning-activated-stat3-to-nucleus
#9
A Yadav, B Kumar, J C Lang, T N Teknos, P Kumar
Myoferlin, a member of ferlin family of proteins, was first discovered as a candidate gene for muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy. Recently, myoferlin was shown to be also expressed in endothelial and cancer cells where it was shown to modulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR)-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling by enhancing their stability and recycling. Based on these reports, we hypothesized that myoferlin might be regulating IL-6 signaling by modulating IL-6R stabilization and recycling...
July 24, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728573/splicing-arrays-reveal-novel-rbm10-targets-including-smn2-pre-mrna
#10
Leslie C Sutherland, Philippe Thibault, Mathieu Durand, Elvy Lapointe, Jose M Knee, Ariane Beauvais, Irina Kalatskaya, Sarah C Hunt, Julie J Loiselle, Justin G Roy, Sarah J Tessier, Gustavo Ybazeta, Lincoln Stein, Rashmi Kothary, Roscoe Klinck, Benoit Chabot
BACKGROUND: RBM10 is an RNA binding protein involved in message stabilization and alternative splicing regulation. The objective of the research described herein was to identify novel targets of RBM10-regulated splicing. To accomplish this, we downregulated RBM10 in human cell lines, using small interfering RNAs, then monitored alternative splicing, using a reverse transcription-PCR screening platform. RESULTS: RBM10 knockdown (KD) provoked alterations in splicing events in 10-20% of the pre-mRNAs, most of which had not been previously identified as RBM10 targets...
July 20, 2017: BMC Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709001/ciliary-hedgehog-signaling-restricts-injury-induced-adipogenesis
#11
Daniel Kopinke, Elle C Roberson, Jeremy F Reiter
Injured skeletal muscle regenerates, but with age or in muscular dystrophies, muscle is replaced by fat. Upon injury, muscle-resident fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) proliferated and gave rise to adipocytes. These FAPs dynamically produced primary cilia, structures that transduce intercellular cues such as Hedgehog (Hh) signals. Genetically removing cilia from FAPs inhibited intramuscular adipogenesis, both after injury and in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Blocking FAP ciliation also enhanced myofiber regeneration after injury and reduced myofiber size decline in the muscular dystrophy model...
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706936/impact-of-the-host-on-toxoplasma-stage-differentiation
#12
REVIEW
Carsten G K Lüder, Taibur Rahman
The unicellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects warm-blooded animals and humans, and it is highly prevalent throughout the world. Infection of immunocompetent hosts is usually asymptomatic or benign but leads to long-term parasite persistence mainly within neural and muscular tissues. The transition from acute primary infection towards chronic toxoplasmosis is accompanied by a developmental switch from fast replicating and metabolically highly active tachyzoites to slow replicating and largely dormant bradyzoites within tissue cysts...
June 22, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702326/rev-erb-co-regulates-muscle-regeneration-via-tethered-interaction-with-the-nf-y-cistrome
#13
Ryan D Welch, Chun Guo, Monideepa Sengupta, Katherine J Carpenter, Natalie A Stephens, Stacy A Arnett, Marvin J Meyers, Lauren M Sparks, Steven R Smith, Jinsong Zhang, Thomas P Burris, Colin A Flaveny
OBJECTIVE: The loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength are a central feature of traumatic injury and degenerative myopathies. Unfortunately, pharmacological interventions typically fail to stem the long-term decline in quality of life. Reduced Rev-Erb-mediated gene suppression in cultured C2C12 myoblasts has been shown to stimulate myoblast differentiation. Yet the mechanisms that allow Rev-Erb to pleiotropically inhibit muscle differentiation are not well understood. In this study, we sought to elucidate the role of Rev-Erb in the regulation of muscle differentiation and regeneration in vivo...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687588/the-carotid-baroreflex-modifies-the-pressor-threshold-of-the-muscle-metaboreflex-in-humans
#14
Masashi Ichinose, Tomoko K Ichinose-Kuwahara, Kazuhito Watanabe, Narihiko Kondo, Takeshi Nishiyasu
The purpose of present study was to test our hypothesis that unloading the carotid baroreceptors alters the threshold and gain of the muscle metaboreflex in humans. Ten healthy subjects performed a static handgrip exercise at 50% of maximum voluntary contraction. Contraction was sustained for 15, 30, 45 and 60 s, and was followed by 3 min of forearm circulatory arrest, during which forearm muscular pH is known to decrease linearly with increasing contraction time. The carotid baroreceptors were unloaded by applying 0...
July 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680390/the-role-of-the-heat-shock-protein-b8-hspb8-in-motoneuron-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Paola Rusmini, Riccardo Cristofani, Mariarita Galbiati, Maria E Cicardi, Marco Meroni, Veronica Ferrari, Giulia Vezzoli, Barbara Tedesco, Elio Messi, Margherita Piccolella, Serena Carra, Valeria Crippa, Angelo Poletti
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) are two motoneuron diseases (MNDs) characterized by aberrant protein behavior in affected cells. In familial ALS (fALS) and in SBMA specific gene mutations lead to the production of neurotoxic proteins or peptides prone to misfold, which then accumulate in form of aggregates. Notably, some of these proteins accumulate into aggregates also in sporadic ALS (sALS) even if not mutated. To prevent proteotoxic stresses detrimental to cells, misfolded and/or aggregated proteins must be rapidly removed by the protein quality control (PQC) system...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649046/transgenerational-endocrine-disruption-and-neurotoxicity-in-zebrafish-larvae-after-parental-exposure-to-binary-mixtures-of-decabromodiphenyl-ether-bde-209-and-lead
#16
Lianguo Chen, Xianfeng Wang, Xiaohua Zhang, Paul K S Lam, Yongyong Guo, James C W Lam, Bingsheng Zhou
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals are two key groups of electric and electronic equipment contaminants. Despite their co-occurrence in aquatic environments, their combined effects remain largely unknown, particularly under a chronic exposure regime. In the present study, adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of BDE-209 and lead (Pb), or their binary mixtures, for 3 months. After chronic parental exposure, increased transfer of BDE-209 and Pb to the offspring eggs was activated in the coexposure groups, with BDE-197 being the predominant PBDE congener, indicating the dynamic metabolism of BDE-209 in parental zebrafish...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639365/vascular-calcification-vitamin-k-and-warfarin-therapy-possible-or-plausible-connection
#17
Aino Siltari, Heikki Vapaatalo
Atherosclerosis is a pathological process underpinning many cardiovascular diseases; it is the main cause of global mortality. Atherosclerosis is characterized by an invasion of inflammatory cells, accumulation of lipids and the formation of fatty streaks (plaques) which subsequently allow accumulation of calcium and other minerals leading to a disturbance in the vascular endothelium and its regulatory role in arterial function. Vascular calcification is a different process, stringently regulated mainly by local factors, in which osteoblast-like cells accumulate in the muscular layer of arteries ultimately taking on the physiological appearance of bone...
June 21, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638346/micrornas-in-muscle-characterizing-the-powerlifter-phenotype
#18
Randall F D'Souza, Thomas Bjørnsen, Nina Zeng, Kirsten M M Aasen, Truls Raastad, David Cameron-Smith, Cameron J Mitchell
Powerlifters are the epitome of muscular adaptation and are able to generate extreme forces. The molecular mechanisms underpinning the significant capacity for force generation and hypertrophy are not fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRs) are short non-coding RNA sequences that control gene expression via promotion of transcript breakdown and/or translational inhibition. Differences in basal miR expression may partially account for phenotypic differences in muscle mass and function between powerlifters and untrained age-matched controls...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637335/astrocyte-produced-mir-146a-as-a-mediator-of-motor-neuron-loss-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#19
Samantha L Sison, Teresa N Patitucci, Emily R Seminary, Eric Villalon, Christian L Lorson, Allison D Ebert
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the leading genetic cause of infant mortality, is caused by loss of the survival motor neuron-1 (SMN1) gene, which leads to motor neuron loss, muscle atrophy, respiratory distress, and death. Motor neurons exhibit the most profound loss, but the mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis are not fully understood. Recent evidence suggests that motor neuron extrinsic influences, such as those arising from astrocytes, contribute to motor neuron malfunction and loss. Here we investigated both loss-of-function and toxic gain-of-function astrocyte mechanisms that could play a role in SMA pathology...
June 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623958/knockdown-of-subunit-3-of-the-cop9-signalosome-inhibits-c2c12-myoblast-differentiation-via-nf-kappab-signaling-pathway
#20
Mariam A Ba, Jeffrey Surina, Cherie A Singer, Maria L Valencik
BACKGROUND: The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a conserved protein complex composed of 8 subunits designated CSN1-CSN8. CSN3 represents the third subunit of the CSN and maintains the integrity of the complex. CSN3 binds to the striated muscle-specific β1D integrin tail, and its subcellular localization is altered in differentiated skeletal muscle cells. However, the role of CSN3 in skeletal muscle differentiation is unknown. The main goal of this study was to identify whether CSN3 participates in myoblast differentiation and the signalling mechanisms involved using C2C12 cells as a skeletal muscle cell model...
June 17, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
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