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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282755/the-acute-effects-of-an-intense-stretch-shortening-cycle-fatigue-protocol-on-the-neuromechanical-parameters-of-lower-limbs-in-men-and-prepubescent-boys
#1
Savvas Lazaridis, Dimitrios A Patikas, Eleni Bassa, Themistoklis Tsatalas, Konstantinos Hatzikotoulas, Christos Ftikas, Christos Kotzamanidis
The study examined the differences between boys and adults after an intense stretch-shortening cycle fatigue protocol on neuromechanical parameters of the lower limb. Thirteen boys (9-11 years old) and 13 adult men (22-28 years old) were tested for maximal isometric voluntary knee extension torque and drop jump (DJ) performance from 30 cm before and immediately after a fatigue protocol, consisted of 10 × 10 maximum effort vertical jumps. Three-dimensional kinematics, kinetics and electromyographic (EMG) parameters of the lower extremities muscles were recorded during DJs before and after the fatigue test...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280881/tryptophan-depletion-affects-compulsive-behaviour-in-rats-strain-dependent-effects-and-associated-neuromechanisms
#2
A Merchán, S V Navarro, A B Klein, S Aznar, L Campa, C Suñol, M Moreno, P Flores
RATIONALE: Compulsive behaviour, present in different psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia and drug abuse, is associated with altered levels of monoamines, particularly serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) and its receptor system. OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated whether 5-HT manipulation, through a tryptophan (TRP) depletion by diet in Wistar and Lister Hooded rats, modulates compulsive drinking in schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) and locomotor activity in the open-field test...
March 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279574/activity-patterns-of-extrinsic-finger-flexors-and-extensors-during-movements-of-instructed-and-non-instructed-fingers
#3
Nathalie van Beek, Dick F Stegeman, Josien C van den Noort, DirkJan H E J Veeger, Huub Maas
The fingers of the human hand cannot be controlled fully independently. This phenomenon may have a neurological as well as a mechanical basis. Despite previous studies, the neuromechanics of finger movements are not fully understood. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the activation and coactivation patterns of finger specific flexor and extensor muscle regions during instructed single finger flexion and (2) to determine the relationship between enslaved finger movements and respective finger muscle activation...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269975/effects-of-detraining-on-neuromuscular-performance-in-a-selected-group-of-elite-women-pole-vaulters-a-case-study
#4
Irineu Loturco, Lucas A Pereira, Ronaldo Kobal, Henrique C Martins, Katia Kitamura, Cesar C Abad, Fabio Y Nakamura
The aim of this paper was to determine the effects of 28 days of inactivity on neuromuscular performance of elite women pole-vaulters. Four athletes undertook measurements of rate of force development (RFD), unloaded and loaded vertical jump tests, drop jumps and a 45 m sprint test before and after a transition period of planned inactivity. The RFD, the ability to accelerate over very short distances (5 m) and sprinting capacity improved after training cessation. Acceleration over longer distances (5-45 m) was impaired, while unloaded and loaded vertical jump tests suffered trivial to small changes...
April 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268271/a-model-based-exploration-of-the-role-of-pattern-generating-circuits-during-locomotor-adaptation
#5
Ali Marjaninejad, James M Finley
In this study, we used a model-based approach to explore the potential contributions of central pattern generating circuits (CPGs) during adaptation to external perturbations during locomotion. We constructed a neuromechanical modeled of locomotion using a reduced-phase CPG controller and an inverted pendulum mechanical model. Two different forms of locomotor adaptation were examined in this study: split-belt treadmill adaptation and adaptation to a unilateral, elastic force field. For each simulation, we first examined the effects of phase resetting and varying the model's initial conditions on the resulting adaptation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259465/contribution-of-muscle-short-range-stiffness-to-initial-changes-in-joint-kinetics-and-kinematics-during-perturbations-to-standing-balance-a-simulation-study
#6
Friedl De Groote, Jessica L Allen, Lena H Ting
Simulating realistic musculoskeletal dynamics is critical to understanding neural control of muscle activity evoked in sensorimotor feedback responses that have inherent neural transmission delays. Thus, the initial mechanical response of muscles to perturbations in the absence of any change in muscle activity determines which corrective neural responses are required to stabilize body posture. Muscle short-range stiffness, a history-dependent property of muscle that causes a rapid and transient rise in muscle force upon stretch, likely affects musculoskeletal dynamics in the initial mechanical response to perturbations...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226428/a-model-based-exploration-of-the-role-of-pattern-generating-circuits-during-locomotor-adaptation
#7
Ali Marjaninejad, James M Finley, Ali Marjaninejad, James M Finley, Ali Marjaninejad, James M Finley
In this study, we used a model-based approach to explore the potential contributions of central pattern generating circuits (CPGs) during adaptation to external perturbations during locomotion. We constructed a neuromechanical modeled of locomotion using a reduced-phase CPG controller and an inverted pendulum mechanical model. Two different forms of locomotor adaptation were examined in this study: split-belt treadmill adaptation and adaptation to a unilateral, elastic force field. For each simulation, we first examined the effects of phase resetting and varying the model's initial conditions on the resulting adaptation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224266/design-process-and-tools-for-dynamic-neuromechanical-models-and-robot-controllers
#8
Nicholas S Szczecinski, Alexander J Hunt, Roger D Quinn
We present a serial design process with associated tools to select parameter values for a posture and locomotion controller for simulation of a robot. The controller is constructed from dynamic neuron and synapse models and simulated with the open-source neuromechanical simulator AnimatLab 2. Each joint has a central pattern generator (CPG), whose neurons possess persistent sodium channels. The CPG rhythmically inhibits motor neurons that control the servomotor's velocity. Sensory information coordinates the joints in the leg into a cohesive stepping motion...
February 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220377/altered-functional-connectivity-architecture-of-the-brain-in-medication-overuse-headache-using-resting-state-fmri
#9
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengqi Liu, Zhao Dong, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: Functional connectivity density (FCD) could identify the abnormal intrinsic and spontaneous activity over the whole brain, and a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) could further reveal the altered functional network with the identified brain regions. This may be an effective assessment strategy for headache research. This study is to investigate the RSFC architecture changes of the brain in the patients with medication overuse headache (MOH) using FCD and RSFC methods...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116559/altered-functional-connectivity-of-amygdala-underlying-the-neuromechanism-of-migraine-pathogenesis
#10
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengqi Liu, Zhao Dong, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: The amygdala is a large grey matter complex in the limbic system, and it may contribute in the neurolimbic pain network in migraine. However, the detailed neuromechanism remained to be elucidated. The objective of this study is to investigate the amygdala structural and functional changes in migraine and to elucidate the mechanism of neurolimbic pain-modulating in the migraine pathogenesis. METHODS: Conventional MRI, 3D structure images and resting state functional MRI were performed in 18 normal controls (NC), 18 patients with episodic migraine (EM), and 16 patients with chronic migraine (CM)...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113200/design-and-characterization-of-an-exoskeleton-for-perturbing-the-knee-during-gait
#11
Michael R Tucker, Camila Shirota, Olivier Lambercy, James Sulzer, Roger Gassert
OBJECTIVE: An improved understanding of mechanical impedance modulation in human joints would provide insights about the neuromechanics underlying functional movements. Experimental estimation of impedance requires specialized tools with highly reproducible perturbation dynamics and reliable measurement capabilities. This paper presents the design and mechanical characterization of the ETH Knee Perturbator: an actuated exoskeleton for perturbing the knee during gait. METHODS: A novel wearable perturbation device was developed based on specific experimental objectives...
January 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094764/neuromorphic-meets-neuromechanics-part-ii-the-role-of-fusimotor-drive
#12
Kian Jalaleddini, Chuanxin Minos Niu, Suraj Chakravarthi Raja, Won Joon Sohn, Gerald E Loeb, Terence D Sanger, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
OBJECTIVE: We studied the fundamentals of muscle afferentation by building a Neuro-mechano-morphic system actuating a cadaveric finger. This system is a faithful implementation of the stretch reflex circuitry. It allowed the systematic exploration of the effects of different fusimotor drives to the muscle spindle on the closed-loop stretch reflex response. APPROACH: As in Part I of this work, sensory neurons conveyed proprioceptive information from muscle spindles (with static and dynamic fusimotor drive) to populations of α-motor neurons (with recruitment and rate coding properties)...
April 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004255/robustness-flexibility-and-sensitivity-in-a-multifunctional-motor-control-model
#13
David N Lyttle, Jeffrey P Gill, Kendrick M Shaw, Peter J Thomas, Hillel J Chiel
Motor systems must adapt to perturbations and changing conditions both within and outside the body. We refer to the ability of a system to maintain performance despite perturbations as "robustness," and the ability of a system to deploy alternative strategies that improve fitness as "flexibility." Different classes of pattern-generating circuits yield dynamics with differential sensitivities to perturbations and parameter variation. Depending on the task and the type of perturbation, high sensitivity can either facilitate or hinder robustness and flexibility...
February 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992539/kinetics-and-muscle-activity-patterns-during-unweighting-and-reloading-transition-phases-in-running
#14
Patrick Sainton, Caroline Nicol, Jan Cabri, Joëlle Barthèlemy-Montfort, Pascale Chavet
Amongst reduced gravity simulators, the lower body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmill is emerging as an innovative tool for both rehabilitation and fundamental research purposes as it allows running while experiencing reduced vertical ground reaction forces. The appropriate use of such a treadmill requires an improved understanding of the associated neuromechanical changes. This study concentrates on the runner's adjustments to LBPP-induced unweighting and reloading during running. Nine healthy males performed two running series of nine minutes at natural speed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884349/endotoxemia-accelerates-diaphragm-dysfunction-in-ventilated-rabbits
#15
Yi Yang, Tao Yu, Chun Pan, Federico Longhini, Ling Liu, Yingzi Huang, Fengmei Guo, Haibo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Ventilators may induce diaphragm dysfunction, and most of the septic population who are admitted to the intensive care unit require mechanical ventilation. However, there is no evidence that sepsis accelerates the onset of ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction or affects the microcirculation. Our study investigated whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia accelerated diaphragm dysfunction in ventilated rabbits by evaluating microcirculation, lipid accumulation, and diaphragm contractility...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796733/nonspecific-periaqueductal-gray-lesions-on-t2wi-in-episodic-migraine
#16
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengqi Liu, Shuangfeng Liu, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: The specific periaqueductal gray (PAG) lesions with migraine-like headache were easily identified on conventional MR images in clinical practice, and the aim of this study is to investigate the nonspecific periaqueductal gray (PAG) lesions in episodic migraine (EM) patients based on T2 weighted imaging (T2WI). METHODS: T2WI images were obtained from 18 EM patients and 18 normal controls (NC) on 3.0 T MR system. The images were observed by two experienced radiologists, and the lesions were identified on T2WI by consensus by 2 experienced neuroradiologists blinded to the patient identity...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748627/partial-neuromuscular-blockade-during-partial-ventilatory-support-in-sedated-patients-with-high-tidal-volumes
#17
Jonne Doorduin, Joeke L Nollet, Lisanne H Roesthuis, Hieronymus W H van Hees, Laurent J Brochard, Christer A Sinderby, Johannes G van der Hoeven, Leo M A Heunks
RATIONALE: Controlled mechanical ventilation is used to deliver lung-protective ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Despite recognized benefits, such as preserved diaphragm activity, partial support ventilation modes may be incompatible with lung-protective ventilation due to high tidal volume and high transpulmonary pressure. As an alternative to high dose sedatives and controlled mechanical ventilation, pharmacologically induced neuromechanical uncoupling of the diaphragm should facilitate lung-protective ventilation under partial support modes...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747935/biomechanical-differences-related-to-leg-dominance-were-not-found-during-a-cutting-task
#18
E K Greska, N Cortes, S I Ringleb, J A Onate, B L Van Lunen
Previous studies have shown conflicting information regarding leg dominance as an etiological factor for the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. It remains unclear if lower extremity neuromechanical limb asymmetries exist in experienced athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate lower extremity neuromechanical effects of leg dominance in female collegiate soccer athletes during an unanticipated side-step cutting task. Twenty female collegiate soccer players completed an unanticipated side-step cutting task, using their dominant and non-dominant legs...
October 17, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729853/feasibility-of-non-invasive-brain-modulation-for-management-of-pain-related-to-chemoradiotherapy-in-patients-with-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer
#19
Xiao-Su Hu, Clayton A Fisher, Stephanie M Munz, Rebecca L Toback, Thiago D Nascimento, Emily L Bellile, Laura Rozek, Avraham Eisbruch, Francis P Worden, Theodora E Danciu, Alexandre F DaSilva
Patients with head and neck cancer often experience a significant decrease in their quality of life during chemoradiotherapy (CRT) due to treatment-related pain, which is frequently classified as severe. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a method of non-invasive brain stimulation that has been frequently used in experimental and clinical pain studies. In this pilot study, we investigated the clinical impact and central mechanisms of twenty primary motor cortex (M1) stimulation sessions with tDCS during 7 weeks of CRT for head and neck cancer...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699696/neuromechanical-modulation-of-the-achilles-tendon-during-bilateral-hopping-in-patients-with-unilateral-achilles-tendon-rupture-over-1-year-after-surgical-repair
#20
Hiroyuki Oda, Kanae Sano, Yoko Kunimasa, Paavo V Komi, Masaki Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Patients who have had an Achilles tendon (AT) rupture repaired are potentially at higher risk for re-rupture than those without previous rupture. Little attention has been given to the neuromechanical modulation of muscle-tendon interaction and muscle activation profiles during human dynamic movements after AT rupture repair. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine muscle-tendon behavior and muscle activation during bilateral hopping. METHODS: We enrolled nine subjects who had undergone surgical repair of unilateral AT rupture within the past 1-2 years...
October 3, 2016: Sports Medicine
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