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Jonne Doorduin, Lisanne H Roesthuis, Diana Jansen, Johannes G van der Hoeven, Hieronymus W H van Hees, Leo M A Heunks
BACKGROUND: Respiratory muscle weakness in critically ill patients is associated with difficulty in weaning from mechanical ventilation. Previous studies have mainly focused on inspiratory muscle activity during weaning; expiratory muscle activity is less well understood. The current study describes expiratory muscle activity during weaning, including tonic diaphragm activity. The authors hypothesized that expiratory muscle effort is greater in patients who fail to wean compared to those who wean successfully...
May 16, 2018: Anesthesiology
Cédric Y M Morio, Alexis Herbaut
Although shoe friction has been widely studied in occupational ergonomics, information was lacking about friction in sport shoes. The purpose of the study was to examine the neuromechanical adaptations to different shoe-surface interface in an aerobic-gym specific movement. Sixteen females performed 10 change of direction movements in two shoe conditions differing by their outsoles (ethyl-vinyl-acetate: EVA and rubber: RB) to ensure significant differences in mechanical coefficients of friction (EVA = 0...
May 4, 2018: Human Movement Science
Ritwika Mukherjee, Samuel Vaughn, Barry A Trimmer
Because soft animals are deformable their locomotion is particularly affected by external forces and they are expected to face challenges controlling movements in different environments and orientations. We have used the caterpillar Manduca sexta to study neuromechanical strategies of soft-bodied scansorial locomotion. Manduca locomotion critically depends on the timing of proleg grip release which is mediated by the principle planta retractor muscle and its single motoneuron, PPR. During upright crawling, PPR firing frequency increases approximately 0...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
C Fieseler, J Kunert-Graf, J N Kutz
We develop a biophysically realistic model of the nematode C. elegans that includes: (i) its muscle structure and activation, (ii) key connectomic activation circuitry, and (iii) a weighted and time-dynamic proprioception. In combination, we show that these model components can reproduce the complex waveforms exhibited in C. elegans locomotive behaviors, chiefly omega turns. This is achieved via weighted, time-dependent suppression of the proprioceptive signal. Though speculative, such dynamics are biologically plausible due to the presence of neuromodulators which have recently been experimentally implicated in the escape response, which includes an omega turn...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Girisaran Gangatharan, Sylvie Schneider-Maunoury, Marie Anne Breau
Neuronal circuits, the functional building blocks of the nervous system, assemble during development through a series of dynamic processes including the migration of neurons to their final position, the growth and navigation of axons and their synaptic connection with target cells. While the role of chemical cues in guiding neuronal migration and axonal development has been extensively analysed, the contribution of mechanical inputs, such as forces and stiffness, has received far less attention. In this article, we review the in vitro and more recent in vivo studies supporting the notion that mechanical signals are critical for multiple aspects of neuronal circuit assembly, from the emergence of axons to the formation of functional synapses...
April 26, 2018: Biology of the Cell
Niall Davis, Eoghan Cunnane, John Mulvihill, Mark Quinlan, Damien Bolton, Michael Walsh, Greg Jack
BACKGROUND: The urinary bladder and urethra comprise the lower urinary tracts. Pathological conditions that affect both structures necessitate reconstructive urological intervention with autologous tissue sources that cause neuromechanical and metabolic complications. Stem-cell therapies may offer an attractive alternative as they can replicate important host derived cellular functions such as mitosis, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview on the application of stem cell therapies for regenerating the lower urinary tracts and to discuss factors that need to be addressed before stem-cells can be reliably introduced into clinical urological practice...
April 25, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Cezar Octavian Morosanu, Razvan Lucian Jurca, Larisa Simonca, Roxana Flavia Ilies, Remus Moldovan, Ioan Stefan Florian, Gabriela Adriana Filip
Cerebral hemispherectomy is a neurosurgical procedure that involves surgically removing one hemisphere of the brain, used as a therapeutic option in severe cases of intractable epilepsy. Several animal models have contributed to our understanding of the underlying neuromechanisms. The review was based on a PubMed search using the terms "hemispherectomy" and "mouse" or "rat" or "rodent", with no limitation of year of study or language. We identified a series of elements that were collected and analyzed that add up to our contemporary knowledge of this procedure...
2018: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
Gary B Wilkerson, Dustin C Nabhan, Chad J Prusmack, William J Moreau
PURPOSE: Assessment of various indices of neuromechanical responsiveness for association with concussion history. METHODS: An observational cohort study included 48 elite athletes (34 males: 23.8 ±4.4 years; 14 females: 25.4 ±4.5 years) who performed visuomotor reaction time (VMRT) tests involving rapid manual contact with illuminated target buttons that included 2 dual-task conditions: 1) simultaneous oral recitation of scrolling text (VMRT+ST) and 2) simultaneous verbal responses to identify the right or left direction indicated by the center arrow of the Eriksen flanker test (VMRT+FT)...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Asbjørn Klomp, Erwin de Vlugt, Jurriaan H de Groot, Carel G M Meskers, J Hans Arendzen, Frans C T van der Helm
The dynamic behavior of the wrist joint is governed by nonlinear properties, yet applied mathematical models, used to describe the measured input-output (perturbation-response) relationship, are commonly linear. Consequently, the linearly estimated model parameters will depend on properties of the applied perturbation properties (such perturbation amplitude and velocity). We aimed to systematically address the effects of perturbation velocity on linearly estimated neuromechanical parameters. Using a single axis manipulator ramp and hold perturbations were applied to the wrist joint...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Yury Ivanenko, Victor S Gurfinkel
From ancient Greece to nowadays, research on posture control was guided and shaped by many concepts. Equilibrium control is often considered part of postural control. However, two different levels have become increasingly apparent in the postural control system, one level sets a distribution of tonic muscle activity ("posture") and the other is assigned to compensate for internal or external perturbations ("equilibrium"). While the two levels are inherently interrelated, both neurophysiological and functional considerations point toward distinct neuromuscular underpinnings...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Nick Gravish, George V Lauder
For centuries, designers and engineers have looked to biology for inspiration. Biologically inspired robots are just one example of the application of knowledge of the natural world to engineering problems. However, recent work by biologists and interdisciplinary teams have flipped this approach, using robots and physical models to set the course for experiments on biological systems and to generate new hypotheses for biological research. We call this approach robotics-inspired biology; it involves performing experiments on robotic systems aimed at the discovery of new biological phenomena or generation of new hypotheses about how organisms function that can then be tested on living organisms...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Mohsen Abedi, Majid M Moghaddam, Davoud Fallah
Since the past decade, rehabilitation robots have become common technologies for recovering gait ability after a stroke. Nevertheless, it is believed that these robots can be further enhanced. Hence, several researches are making progress in optimizing gait rehabilitation robots. However, most of these researches have only assessed the robots and their controllers in improving spatiotemporal and kinetic features of walking. There are not many researchers have focused on the robots' controllers' effects on the central nervous or neuromuscular systems...
May 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Mu Qiao, Jody A Feld, Jason R Franz
BACKGROUND: Older adults are more susceptible to balance perturbations during walking than young adults. However, we lack an individual joint-level understanding of how aging affects the neuromechanical strategies used to accommodate balance perturbations. RESEARCH QUESTION: We investigated gait phase-dependence in and aging effects on leg joint kinematic variability during walking with balance perturbations. We hypothesized that leg joint variability would: 1) vary across the gait cycle and 2) increase with balance perturbations...
February 21, 2018: Gait & Posture
Yun Li, Shengpei Wang, Chuxiong Pan, Fushan Xue, Junfang Xian, Yaqi Huang, Xiaoyi Wang, Tianzuo Li, Huiguang He
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of general anesthesia (GA) has been explored for hundreds of years, but unclear. Previous studies indicated a possible correlation between NREM sleep and GA. The purpose of this study is to compare them by in vivo human brain function to probe the neuromechanism of consciousness, so as to find out a clue to GA mechanism. METHODS: 24 healthy participants were equally assigned to sleep or propofol sedation group by sleeping ability. EEG and Ramsay Sedation Scale were applied to determine sleep stage and sedation depth respectively...
2018: PloS One
Philippe Paquette, Youssef El Khamlichi, Martin Lamontagne, Johanne Higgins, Dany H Gagnon
Background: Quantitative ultrasound imaging is gaining popularity in research and clinical settings to measure the neuromechanical properties of the peripheral nerves such as their capability to glide in response to body segment movement. Increasing evidence suggests that impaired median nerve longitudinal excursion is associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. To date, psychometric properties of longitudinal nerve excursion measurements using quantitative ultrasound imaging have not been extensively investigated...
August 2017: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
Rongrong Bian, Yuqun Zhang, Yuan Yang, Yingying Yin, Xiaoxin Zhao, Huanxin Chen, Yonggui Yuan
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairments are common in asthma, which is a serious global health problem characterized by chronic airway inflammation. However, the underlying neuromechanism is still unclear. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate the neuromechanism underlying cognitive impairments of asthma. We hypothesized that asthma patients exhibit altered white matter (WM) microstructures, which may contribute to their cognitive impairments. STUDY TYPE: Case-control study...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Michele R Schaeffer, Christopher J Ryerson, Andrew H Ramsook, Yannick Molgat-Seon, Sabrina S Wilkie, Satvir S Dhillon, Reid A Mitchell, A William Sheel, Nasreen Khalil, Pat G Camp, Jordan A Guenette
Our understanding of the mechanisms of dyspnoea in fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) is incomplete. The aims of this study were two-fold: 1) to determine whether dyspnoea intensity is better predicted by neural respiratory drive (NRD) or neuromechanical uncoupling (NMU) of the respiratory system in fibrotic ILD, and 2) to examine the effect of breathing 60% oxygen on NRD, NMU and dyspnoea ratings.Fourteen patients with fibrotic ILD were included. Visit 1 comprised a familiarisation incremental cycle exercise test, Visit 2 comprised a normoxic incremental cycling test to address Aim 1, and Visits 3 and 4 consisted of constant-load cycling while breathing room air or 60% oxygen to address Aim 2...
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Seungmoon Song, Hartmut Geyer
Healthy elderly people walk slower and energetically less efficiently than young adults. This decline in walking performance lowers the quality of life for a growing aging population, and understanding its physiological origin is critical for devising interventions that can delay or revert it. However, the origin of the decline in walking performance remains unknown, as aging produces a range of physiological changes whose individual effects on gait are difficult to separate in experiments with human subjects...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
N F Davis, E M Cunnane, M R Quinlan, J J Mulvihill, N Lawrentschuk, D M Bolton, M T Walsh
Autologous gastrointestinal tissue is the gold standard biomaterial for urinary tract reconstruction despite its long-term neuromechanical and metabolic complications. Regenerative biomaterials have been proposed as alternatives; however many are limited by a poor host derived regenerative response and deficient supportive elements for effective tissue regeneration in vivo. Urological biomaterials are sub-classified into xenogenic extracellular matrices (ECMs) or synthetic polymers. ECMs are decellularised, biocompatible, biodegradable biomaterials derived from animal organs...
January 17, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Y Zhang, Y L Li, J L Cheng, A K Dong, K Xu, Y L Li
Objective: To explore the neuromechanism of nicotine smoking, we use independent component analysis (ICA) of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the differences of functional connectivity of resting-state networks (RSN) in chronic smokers. Methods: Forty-five chronic smokers and thirty-four age and gender matched normal nonsmoking controls experienced resting-state fMRI scanning in 3.0T MRI scanner.Differences of the function connection in each RSN between chronic smokers group and nonsmoking controls group were analyzed by SPM software which was based on Matlab platform...
December 19, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
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