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Mohsen Abedi, Majid M Moghaddam, Davoud Fallah
Since the past decade, rehabilitation robots have become common technologies for recovering gait ability after a stroke. Nevertheless, it is believed that these robots can be further enhanced. Hence, several researches are making progress in optimizing gait rehabilitation robots. However, most of these researches have only assessed the robots and their controllers in improving spatiotemporal and kinetic features of walking. There are not many researchers have focused on the robots' controllers' effects on the central nervous or neuromuscular systems...
March 5, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Mu Qiao, Jody A Feld, Jason R Franz
BACKGROUND: Older adults are more susceptible to balance perturbations during walking than young adults. However, we lack an individual joint-level understanding of how aging affects the neuromechanical strategies used to accommodate balance perturbations. RESEARCH QUESTION: We investigated gait phase-dependence in and aging effects on leg joint kinematic variability during walking with balance perturbations. We hypothesized that leg joint variability would: 1) vary across the gait cycle and 2) increase with balance perturbations...
February 21, 2018: Gait & Posture
Yun Li, Shengpei Wang, Chuxiong Pan, Fushan Xue, Junfang Xian, Yaqi Huang, Xiaoyi Wang, Tianzuo Li, Huiguang He
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of general anesthesia (GA) has been explored for hundreds of years, but unclear. Previous studies indicated a possible correlation between NREM sleep and GA. The purpose of this study is to compare them by in vivo human brain function to probe the neuromechanism of consciousness, so as to find out a clue to GA mechanism. METHODS: 24 healthy participants were equally assigned to sleep or propofol sedation group by sleeping ability. EEG and Ramsay Sedation Scale were applied to determine sleep stage and sedation depth respectively...
2018: PloS One
Philippe Paquette, Youssef El Khamlichi, Martin Lamontagne, Johanne Higgins, Dany H Gagnon
Background: Quantitative ultrasound imaging is gaining popularity in research and clinical settings to measure the neuromechanical properties of the peripheral nerves such as their capability to glide in response to body segment movement. Increasing evidence suggests that impaired median nerve longitudinal excursion is associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. To date, psychometric properties of longitudinal nerve excursion measurements using quantitative ultrasound imaging have not been extensively investigated...
August 2017: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
Rongrong Bian, Yuqun Zhang, Yuan Yang, Yingying Yin, Xiaoxin Zhao, Huanxin Chen, Yonggui Yuan
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairments are common in asthma, which is a serious global health problem characterized by chronic airway inflammation. However, the underlying neuromechanism is still unclear. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate the neuromechanism underlying cognitive impairments of asthma. We hypothesized that asthma patients exhibit altered white matter (WM) microstructures, which may contribute to their cognitive impairments. STUDY TYPE: Case-control study...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Michele R Schaeffer, Christopher J Ryerson, Andrew H Ramsook, Yannick Molgat-Seon, Sabrina S Wilkie, Satvir S Dhillon, Reid A Mitchell, A William Sheel, Nasreen Khalil, Pat G Camp, Jordan A Guenette
Our understanding of the mechanisms of dyspnoea in fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) is incomplete. The aims of this study were two-fold: 1) to determine whether dyspnoea intensity is better predicted by neural respiratory drive (NRD) or neuromechanical uncoupling (NMU) of the respiratory system in fibrotic ILD, and 2) to examine the effect of breathing 60% oxygen on NRD, NMU and dyspnoea ratings.Fourteen patients with fibrotic ILD were included. Visit 1 comprised a familiarisation incremental cycle exercise test, Visit 2 comprised a normoxic incremental cycling test to address Aim 1, and Visits 3 and 4 consisted of constant-load cycling while breathing room air or 60% oxygen to address Aim 2...
January 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Seungmoon Song, Hartmut Geyer
Healthy elderly people walk slower and energetically less efficiently than young adults. This decline in walking performance lowers the quality of life for a growing aging population, and understanding its physiological origin is critical for devising interventions that can delay or revert it. However, the origin of the decline in walking performance remains unknown, as aging produces a range of physiological changes whose individual effects on gait are difficult to separate in experiments with human subjects...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
N F Davis, E M Cunnane, M R Quinlan, J J Mulvihill, N Lawrentschuk, D M Bolton, M T Walsh
Autologous gastrointestinal tissue is the gold standard biomaterial for urinary tract reconstruction despite its long-term neuromechanical and metabolic complications. Regenerative biomaterials have been proposed as alternatives; however many are limited by a poor host derived regenerative response and deficient supportive elements for effective tissue regeneration in vivo. Urological biomaterials are sub-classified into xenogenic extracellular matrices (ECMs) or synthetic polymers. ECMs are decellularised, biocompatible, biodegradable biomaterials derived from animal organs...
January 17, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Y Zhang, Y L Li, J L Cheng, A K Dong, K Xu, Y L Li
Objective: To explore the neuromechanism of nicotine smoking, we use independent component analysis (ICA) of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the differences of functional connectivity of resting-state networks (RSN) in chronic smokers. Methods: Forty-five chronic smokers and thirty-four age and gender matched normal nonsmoking controls experienced resting-state fMRI scanning in 3.0T MRI scanner.Differences of the function connection in each RSN between chronic smokers group and nonsmoking controls group were analyzed by SPM software which was based on Matlab platform...
December 19, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Akira Nagamori, Christopher M Laine, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
Involuntary force variability below 15 Hz arises from, and is influenced by, many factors including descending neural drive, proprioceptive feedback, and mechanical properties of muscles and tendons. However, their potential interactions that give rise to the well-structured spectrum of involuntary force variability are not well understood due to a lack of experimental techniques. Here, we investigated the generation, modulation, and interactions among different sources of force variability using a physiologically-grounded closed-loop simulation of an afferented muscle model...
January 8, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Zhiqiang Chen, Mengqi Liu, Huiguang He, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: Imaging studies have provided valuable information in understanding the headache neuromechanism for medication-overuse headache (MOH), and the aim of this study is to investigate altered texture features of MR structural images over the whole brain in MOH using a 3-dimentional texture analysis. METHODS: Brain three-dimensional T1-weighted structural images were obtained from 44 MOH patients and 32 normal controls (NC). The imaging processing included two steps: gray matter (gray images) segment and a 3-dimensional texture features mapping...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
Minlan Yuan, Hongru Zhu, Changjian Qiu, Yajing Meng, Yan Zhang, Zhengjia Ren, Yuchen Li, Cui Yuan, Meng Gao, Su Lui, Qiyong Gong, Wei Zhang
We aimed to investigate the recovery neuromechanism underlying the treatment efficacy in generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). We recruited fifteen patients with GSAD and nineteen healthy control (HC) participants, all of whom underwent a baseline resting-state fMRI scan. The GSAD patients underwent an additional fMRI scan after group cognitive behavior therapy (GCBT). Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and degree centrality (DC) measures were used to examine altered regional and integrated spontaneous brain activity in group comparisons...
December 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Luciana S Moreira, Leonardo A Elias, Adriane B Gomide, Marcus F Vieira, Waldemar N DO Amaral
PURPOSE: The present study aimed at investigating the control of upright quiet standing in pregnant women throughout pregnancy, and whether low-back pain exerts influence on this motor task. METHODS: Myoelectric signals from postural muscles and stabilometric data were collected from 15 non-pregnant and 15 pregnant women during upright quiet standing. Electromyogram envelopes and center of pressure metrics were evaluated in the control group, as well as in pregnant women in their first and third trimester of pregnancy...
2017: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
Zahra Khodadadi, Hamid R Kobravi, Milad F Majd
Stimulation of spinal sensorimotor circuits can improve motor control in animal models and humans with spinal cord injury (SCI). More recent evidence suggests that the stimulation increases the level of excitability in the spinal circuits, activates central pattern generators, and it is also able to recruit distinctive afferent pathways connected to specific sensorimotor circuits. In addition, the stimulation generates well-defined responses in leg muscles after each pulse. The problem is that in most of the neuromodulation devices, electrical stimulation parameters are regulated manually and stay constant during movement...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
P B Silva, A S Oliveira, N Mrachacz-Kersting, U G Kersting
Balance training programs have been shown to reduce ankle sprain injuries in sports, but little is known about the transfer from this training modality to motor coordination and ankle joint biomechanics in sport-specific movements. This study aimed to investigate the effects of wobble board training on motor coordination and ankle mechanics during early single-leg landing from a lateral jump. Twenty-two healthy men were randomly assigned to either a control or a training group, who engaged in 4 weeks of wobble board training...
March 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Anne Courbalay, Charles Tétreau, Arnaud Lardon, Thomas Deroche, Vincent Cantin, Martin Descarreaux
OBJECTIVES: The main goal of this study was to determine to what extent load expectations modulate neuromechanical adaptations in individuals with and without chronic low back pain (cLBP) when lifting and lowering various loads. The second goal was to assess the feasibility of a simple lifting protocol during which expectations about loads were manipulated. METHODS: Seventeen participants with cLBP and 18 participants without low back pain were asked to lift and lower boxes of mild to moderate loads...
October 2017: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Gary B Wilkerson, Dustin R Grooms, Shellie N Acocello
Recent epidemiological studies have documented increased susceptibility to musculoskeletal injury after sport-related concussion, which raises questions about the adequacy of current clinical practices to ensure safe return to sport. A growing body of evidence derived from advanced neuroimaging and neurological assessment methods strongly suggests that mild traumatic brain injury has long-lasting adverse effects that persist beyond resolution of clinical symptoms. Plausible interrelationships among postconcussion changes in brain structure and function support the rationale for specific methods of clinical assessment and training to target the interaction of cognitive and motor function for reduction of musculoskeletal injury risk after concussion...
November 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Melanie Krüger, Andreas Straube, Thomas Eggert
In recent years, theory-building in motor neuroscience and our understanding of the synergistic control of the redundant human motor system has significantly profited from the emergence of a range of different mathematical approaches to analyze the structure of movement variability. Approaches such as the Uncontrolled Manifold method or the Noise-Tolerance-Covariance decomposition method allow to detect and interpret changes in movement coordination due to e.g., learning, external task constraints or disease, by analyzing the structure of within-subject, inter-trial movement variability...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Massimo Sartori, Utku Ş Yavuz, Dario Farina
Human motor function emerges from the interaction between the neuromuscular and the musculoskeletal systems. Despite the knowledge of the mechanisms underlying neural and mechanical functions, there is no relevant understanding of the neuro-mechanical interplay in the neuro-musculo-skeletal system. This currently represents the major challenge to the understanding of human movement. We address this challenge by proposing a paradigm for investigating spinal motor neuron contribution to skeletal joint mechanical function in the intact human in vivo...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kian Jalaleddini, Akira Nagamori, Christopher M Laine, Mahsa A Golkar, Robert E Kearney, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
KEY POINTS: In tonic, isometric, plantarflexion contractions, physiological tremor increases as the ankle joint becomes plantarflexed. Modulation of physiological tremor as a function of muscle stretch differs from that of the stretch reflex amplitude. Amplitude of physiological tremor may be altered as a function of reflex pathway gains. Healthy humans likely increase their γ-static fusimotor drive when muscles shorten. Quantification of physiological tremor by manipulation of joint angle may be a useful experimental probe of afferent gains and/or the integrity of automatic fusimotor control...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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