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neuromechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094764/neuromorphic-meets-neuromechanics-part-ii-the-role-of-fusimotor-drive
#1
Kian Jalaleddini, Chuanxin Niu, Suraj Chakravarthi Raja, Won Joon Sohn, Gerald Loeb, Terence Sanger, Francisco Valero-Cuevas
OBJECTIVE: We studied the fundamentals of muscle afferentation by building a neuro-mechano-morphic system actuating a cadaveric finger. This system is a faithful implementation of the stretch reflex circuitry. It allowed the systematic exploration of the effects of different fusimotor drives to the muscle spindle on the closed-loop stretch reflex response. APPROACH: As in Part I of this work, sensory neurons conveyed proprioceptive information from muscle spindles (with static and dynamic fusimotor drive) to populations of ��-motor neurons (with recruitment and rate coding properties)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004255/robustness-flexibility-and-sensitivity-in-a-multifunctional-motor-control-model
#2
David N Lyttle, Jeffrey P Gill, Kendrick M Shaw, Peter J Thomas, Hillel J Chiel
Motor systems must adapt to perturbations and changing conditions both within and outside the body. We refer to the ability of a system to maintain performance despite perturbations as "robustness," and the ability of a system to deploy alternative strategies that improve fitness as "flexibility." Different classes of pattern-generating circuits yield dynamics with differential sensitivities to perturbations and parameter variation. Depending on the task and the type of perturbation, high sensitivity can either facilitate or hinder robustness and flexibility...
December 21, 2016: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992539/kinetics-and-muscle-activity-patterns-during-unweighting-and-reloading-transition-phases-in-running
#3
Patrick Sainton, Caroline Nicol, Jan Cabri, Joëlle Barthèlemy-Montfort, Pascale Chavet
Amongst reduced gravity simulators, the lower body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmill is emerging as an innovative tool for both rehabilitation and fundamental research purposes as it allows running while experiencing reduced vertical ground reaction forces. The appropriate use of such a treadmill requires an improved understanding of the associated neuromechanical changes. This study concentrates on the runner's adjustments to LBPP-induced unweighting and reloading during running. Nine healthy males performed two running series of nine minutes at natural speed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884349/endotoxemia-accelerates-diaphragm-dysfunction-in-ventilated-rabbits
#4
Yi Yang, Tao Yu, Chun Pan, Federico Longhini, Ling Liu, Yingzi Huang, Fengmei Guo, Haibo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Ventilators may induce diaphragm dysfunction, and most of the septic population who are admitted to the intensive care unit require mechanical ventilation. However, there is no evidence that sepsis accelerates the onset of ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction or affects the microcirculation. Our study investigated whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia accelerated diaphragm dysfunction in ventilated rabbits by evaluating microcirculation, lipid accumulation, and diaphragm contractility...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796733/nonspecific-periaqueductal-gray-lesions-on-t2wi-in-episodic-migraine
#5
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengqi Liu, Shuangfeng Liu, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: The specific periaqueductal gray (PAG) lesions with migraine-like headache were easily identified on conventional MR images in clinical practice, and the aim of this study is to investigate the nonspecific periaqueductal gray (PAG) lesions in episodic migraine (EM) patients based on T2 weighted imaging (T2WI). METHODS: T2WI images were obtained from 18 EM patients and 18 normal controls (NC) on 3.0 T MR system. The images were observed by two experienced radiologists, and the lesions were identified on T2WI by consensus by 2 experienced neuroradiologists blinded to the patient identity...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748627/partial-neuromuscular-blockade-during-partial-ventilatory-support-in-sedated-patients-with-high-tidal-volumes
#6
Jonne Doorduin, Joeke L Nollet, Lisanne H Roesthuis, Hieronymus W H van Hees, Laurent J Brochard, Christer A Sinderby, Johannes G van der Hoeven, Leo M A Heunks
RATIONALE: Controlled mechanical ventilation is used to deliver lung-protective ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Despite recognized benefits, such as preserved diaphragm activity, partial support ventilation modes may be incompatible with lung-protective ventilation due to high tidal volume and high transpulmonary pressure. As an alternative to high dose sedatives and controlled mechanical ventilation, pharmacologically induced neuromechanical uncoupling of the diaphragm should facilitate lung-protective ventilation under partial support modes...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747935/biomechanical-differences-related-to-leg-dominance-were-not-found-during-a-cutting-task
#7
E K Greska, N Cortes, S I Ringleb, J A Onate, B L Van Lunen
Previous studies have shown conflicting information regarding leg dominance as an etiological factor for the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. It remains unclear if lower extremity neuromechanical limb asymmetries exist in experienced athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate lower extremity neuromechanical effects of leg dominance in female collegiate soccer athletes during an unanticipated side-step cutting task. Twenty female collegiate soccer players completed an unanticipated side-step cutting task, using their dominant and non-dominant legs...
October 17, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729853/feasibility-of-non-invasive-brain-modulation-for-management-of-pain-related-to-chemoradiotherapy-in-patients-with-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer
#8
Xiao-Su Hu, Clayton A Fisher, Stephanie M Munz, Rebecca L Toback, Thiago D Nascimento, Emily L Bellile, Laura Rozek, Avraham Eisbruch, Francis P Worden, Theodora E Danciu, Alexandre F DaSilva
Patients with head and neck cancer often experience a significant decrease in their quality of life during chemoradiotherapy (CRT) due to treatment-related pain, which is frequently classified as severe. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a method of non-invasive brain stimulation that has been frequently used in experimental and clinical pain studies. In this pilot study, we investigated the clinical impact and central mechanisms of twenty primary motor cortex (M1) stimulation sessions with tDCS during 7 weeks of CRT for head and neck cancer...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699696/neuromechanical-modulation-of-the-achilles-tendon-during-bilateral-hopping-in-patients-with-unilateral-achilles-tendon-rupture-over-1-year-after-surgical-repair
#9
Hiroyuki Oda, Kanae Sano, Yoko Kunimasa, Paavo V Komi, Masaki Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Patients who have had an Achilles tendon (AT) rupture repaired are potentially at higher risk for re-rupture than those without previous rupture. Little attention has been given to the neuromechanical modulation of muscle-tendon interaction and muscle activation profiles during human dynamic movements after AT rupture repair. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine muscle-tendon behavior and muscle activation during bilateral hopping. METHODS: We enrolled nine subjects who had undergone surgical repair of unilateral AT rupture within the past 1-2 years...
October 3, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622153/slacklining-and-stroke-a-rehabilitation-case-study-considering-balance-and-lower-limb-weakness
#10
Charles P Gabel, Natalie Rando, Markus Melloh
To ascertain the effectiveness of slacklining as a supplementary therapy for elderly stroke patients who are functionally non-progressing. This case study involved an 18-mo prospective observation of the management of an 87-year-old female stroke-patient of the left hemisphere with reduced balance, reduced lower limb muscular activation, hypertonia, and concurrent postural deficits. This entailed the initial acute care phase through to discharge to home and 18-mo final status in her original independent living setting...
August 18, 2016: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594832/the-dynamics-of-voluntary-force-production-in-afferented-muscle-influence-involuntary-tremor
#11
Christopher M Laine, Akira Nagamori, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
Voluntary control of force is always marked by some degree of error and unsteadiness. Both neural and mechanical factors contribute to these fluctuations, but how they interact to produce them is poorly understood. In this study, we identify and characterize a previously undescribed neuromechanical interaction where the dynamics of voluntary force production suffice to generate involuntary tremor. Specifically, participants were asked to produce isometric force with the index finger and use visual feedback to track a sinusoidal target spanning 5-9% of each individual's maximal voluntary force level...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570719/a-perturbation-mechanism-for-investigations-of-phase-dependent-behavior-in-human-locomotion
#12
Dario J Villarreal, David Quintero, Robert D Gregg
Bipedal locomotion is a popular area of study across multiple fields (e.g., biomechanics, neuroscience and robotics). Different hypotheses and models have tried explaining how humans achieve stable locomotion. Perturbations that produce shifts in the nominal periodic orbit of the joint kinematics during locomotion could inform about the manner in which the human neuromechanics represent the phase of gait. Ideally, this type of perturbation would modify the progression of the human subject through the gait cycle without deviating from the nominal kinematic orbits of the leg joints...
2016: IEEE Access: Practical Innovations, Open Solutions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545747/yoga-based-pulmonary-rehabilitation-for-the-management-of-dyspnea-in-coal-miners-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Rajashree Ranjita, Alex Hankey, H R Nagendra, Soubhagylaxmi Mohanty
BACKGROUND: Coal mine dust exposure causes chronic airflow limitation in coal miners resulting in dyspnea, fatigue, and eventually chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Yoga can alleviate dyspnea in COPD by improving ventilatory mechanics, reducing central neural drive, and partially restoring neuromechanical coupling of the respiratory system. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of Integrated Approach of Yoga Therapy (IAYT) in the management of dyspnea and fatigue in coal miners with COPD...
July 2016: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543251/hip-and-ankle-responses-for-reactive-balance-emerge-from-varying-priorities-to-reduce-effort-and-kinematic-excursion-a-simulation-study
#14
Chris S Versteeg, Lena H Ting, Jessica L Allen
Although standing balance is important in many daily activities, there has been little effort in developing detailed musculoskeletal models and simulations of balance control compared to other whole-body motor activities. Our objective was to develop a musculoskeletal model of human balance that can be used to predict movement patterns in reactive balance control. Similar to prior studies using torque-driven models, we investigated how movement patterns during a reactive balance response are affected by high-level task goals (e...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528779/flight-of-the-dragonflies-and-damselflies
#15
Richard J Bomphrey, Toshiyuki Nakata, Per Henningsson, Huai-Ti Lin
This work is a synthesis of our current understanding of the mechanics, aerodynamics and visually mediated control of dragonfly and damselfly flight, with the addition of new experimental and computational data in several key areas. These are: the diversity of dragonfly wing morphologies, the aerodynamics of gliding flight, force generation in flapping flight, aerodynamic efficiency, comparative flight performance and pursuit strategies during predatory and territorial flights. New data are set in context by brief reviews covering anatomy at several scales, insect aerodynamics, neuromechanics and behaviour...
September 26, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508258/single-leg-landing-neuromechanical-data-following-load-and-land-height-manipulations
#16
Andrew D Nordin, Janet S Dufek
Lower extremity sagittal kinematic and kinetic data are summarized alongside electrical muscle activities during single-leg landing trials completed in contrasting external load and landing height conditions. Nineteen subjects were analyzed during 9 landing trials in each of 6 experimental conditions computed as percentages of subject anthropometrics (bodyweight: BW and subject height: H; BW, BW+12.5%, BW+25%, and H12.5%, H25%). Twelve lower extremity variables (sagittal hip, knee, ankle angles and moments, vertical ground reaction force (GRFz), gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, vastus medials, medial gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles) were assessed using separate principal component analyses (PCA)...
September 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421291/neuromechanical-interactions-between-the-limbs-during-human-locomotion-an-evolutionary-perspective-with-translation-to-rehabilitation
#17
E Paul Zehr, Trevor S Barss, Katie Dragert, Alain Frigon, Erin V Vasudevan, Carlos Haridas, Sandra Hundza, Chelsea Kaupp, Taryn Klarner, Marc Klimstra, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Pamela M Loadman, Rinaldo A Mezzarane, Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Gregory E P Pearcey, Yao Sun
During bipedal locomotor activities, humans use elements of quadrupedal neuronal limb control. Evolutionary constraints can help inform the historical ancestry for preservation of these core control elements support transfer of the huge body of quadrupedal non-human animal literature to human rehabilitation. In particular, this has translational applications for neurological rehabilitation after neurotrauma where interlimb coordination is lost or compromised. The present state of the field supports including arm activity in addition to leg activity as a component of gait retraining after neurotrauma...
July 15, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27361696/altered-knee-neuromechanics-during-a-jump-task-in-ai-subjects-compared-to-copers-and-normals-3127-board-192-june-3-2-00-pm-3-30-pm
#18
Jordan Read, Hyunsoo Kim, S Jun Son, Matthew K Seeley, J Ty Hopkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27361235/frontal-hip-neuromechanic-alterations-during-a-jump-task-between-ankle-instability-copers-and-healthy-controls-2599-board-122-june-3-11-00-am-12-30-pm
#19
Phillip Hamilton, Hyunsoo Kim, S Jun Son, Matthew K Seeley, J Ty Hopkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27361229/altered-hip-neuromechanics-during-a-jump-task-between-ankle-insatbility-copers-and-healthy-controls-2593-board-116-june-3-11-00-am-12-30-pm
#20
Brian Wiseman, S Jun Son, Hyunsoo Kim, Matthew K Seeley, J Ty Hopkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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