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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135640/neuromechanical-considerations-for-postconcussion-musculoskeletal-injury-risk-management
#1
Gary B Wilkerson, Dustin R Grooms, Shellie N Acocello
Recent epidemiological studies have documented increased susceptibility to musculoskeletal injury after sport-related concussion, which raises questions about the adequacy of current clinical practices to ensure safe return to sport. A growing body of evidence derived from advanced neuroimaging and neurological assessment methods strongly suggests that mild traumatic brain injury has long-lasting adverse effects that persist beyond resolution of clinical symptoms. Plausible interrelationships among postconcussion changes in brain structure and function support the rationale for specific methods of clinical assessment and training to target the interaction of cognitive and motor function for reduction of musculoskeletal injury risk after concussion...
November 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081743/the-propagation-of-movement-variability-in-time-a-methodological-approach-for-discrete-movements-with-multiple-degrees-of-freedom
#2
Melanie Krüger, Andreas Straube, Thomas Eggert
In recent years, theory-building in motor neuroscience and our understanding of the synergistic control of the redundant human motor system has significantly profited from the emergence of a range of different mathematical approaches to analyze the structure of movement variability. Approaches such as the Uncontrolled Manifold method or the Noise-Tolerance-Covariance decomposition method allow to detect and interpret changes in movement coordination due to e.g., learning, external task constraints or disease, by analyzing the structure of within-subject, inter-trial movement variability...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044165/in-vivo-neuromechanics-decoding-causal-motor-neuron-behavior-with-resulting-musculoskeletal-function
#3
Massimo Sartori, Utku Ş Yavuz, Dario Farina
Human motor function emerges from the interaction between the neuromuscular and the musculoskeletal systems. Despite the knowledge of the mechanisms underlying neural and mechanical functions, there is no relevant understanding of the neuro-mechanical interplay in the neuro-musculo-skeletal system. This currently represents the major challenge to the understanding of human movement. We address this challenge by proposing a paradigm for investigating spinal motor neuron contribution to skeletal joint mechanical function in the intact human in vivo...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023731/physiological-tremor-increases-when-skeletal-muscle-is-shortened-implications-for-fusimotor-control
#4
Kian Jalaleddini, Akira Nagamori, Christopher M Laine, Mahsa A Golkar, Robert E Kearney, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
KEY POINTS: In tonic, isometric, plantarflexion contractions, physiological tremor increases as the ankle joint becomes plantarflexed. Modulation of physiological tremor as a function of muscle stretch differs from that of the stretch reflex amplitude. Amplitude of physiological tremor may be altered as a function of reflex pathway gains. Healthy humans likely increase their γ-static fusimotor drive when muscles shorten. Quantification of physiological tremor by manipulation of joint angle may be a useful experimental probe of afferent gains and/or the integrity of automatic fusimotor control...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017508/on-neuromechanical-approaches-for-the-study-of-biological-and-robotic-grasp-and-manipulation
#5
REVIEW
Francisco J Valero-Cuevas, Marco Santello
Biological and robotic grasp and manipulation are undeniably similar at the level of mechanical task performance. However, their underlying fundamental biological vs. engineering mechanisms are, by definition, dramatically different and can even be antithetical. Even our approach to each is diametrically opposite: inductive science for the study of biological systems vs. engineering synthesis for the design and construction of robotic systems. The past 20 years have seen several conceptual advances in both fields and the quest to unify them...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974932/movement-complexity-and-neuromechanical-factors-affect-the-entropic-half-life-of-myoelectric-signals
#6
Emma F Hodson-Tole, James M Wakeling
Appropriate neuromuscular functioning is essential for survival and features underpinning motor control are present in myoelectric signals recorded from skeletal muscles. One approach to quantify control processes related to function is to assess signal variability using measures such as Sample Entropy. Here we developed a theoretical framework to simulate the effect of variability in burst duration, activation duty cycle, and intensity on the Entropic Half-Life (EnHL) in myoelectric signals. EnHLs were predicted to be <40 ms, and to vary with fluctuations in myoelectric signal amplitude and activation duty cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970792/parkinson-disease-detection-from-speech-articulation-neuromechanics
#7
Pedro Gómez-Vilda, Jiri Mekyska, José M Ferrández, Daniel Palacios-Alonso, Andrés Gómez-Rodellar, Victoria Rodellar-Biarge, Zoltan Galaz, Zdenek Smekal, Ilona Eliasova, Milena Kostalova, Irena Rektorova
Aim: The research described is intended to give a description of articulation dynamics as a correlate of the kinematic behavior of the jaw-tongue biomechanical system, encoded as a probability distribution of an absolute joint velocity. This distribution may be used in detecting and grading speech from patients affected by neurodegenerative illnesses, as Parkinson Disease. Hypothesis: The work hypothesis is that the probability density function of the absolute joint velocity includes information on the stability of phonation when applied to sustained vowels, as well as on fluency if applied to connected speech...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902682/the-influence-of-foot-strike-technique-on-the-neuromechanical-function-of-the-foot
#8
Luke A Kelly, Dominic J Farris, Glen A Lichtwark, Andrew G Cresswell
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of foot-strike technique on longitudinal arch mechanics and intrinsic foot muscle function during running. METHODS: 13 healthy participants ran barefoot on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.8ms with a forefoot (FFS) and rear-foot (RFS, habitual) running technique, while kinetic, kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) data from the intrinsic foot muscles were collected simultaneously. The longitudinal arch was modeled as a single "mid-foot" joint representing motion of the rear-foot (calcaneus) relative to the forefoot (metatarsals)...
September 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900151/in-situ-vocal-fold-properties-and-pitch-prediction-by-dynamic-actuation-of-the-songbird-syrinx
#9
Daniel N Düring, Benjamin J Knörlein, Coen P H Elemans
The biomechanics of sound production forms an integral part of the neuromechanical control loop of avian vocal motor control. However, we critically lack quantification of basic biomechanical parameters describing the vocal organ, the syrinx, such as material properties of syringeal elements, forces and torques exerted on, and motion of the syringeal skeleton during song. Here, we present a novel marker-based 3D stereoscopic imaging technique to reconstruct 3D motion of servo-controlled actuation of syringeal muscle insertions sites in vitro and focus on two muscles controlling sound pitch...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899913/central-chemoreflex-activation-induces-sympatho-excitation-without-altering-static-or-dynamic-baroreflex-function-in-normal-rats
#10
Keita Saku, Takeshi Tohyama, Masako Shinoda, Takuya Kishi, Kazuya Hosokawa, Takuya Nishikawa, Yasuhiro Oga, Takafumi Sakamoto, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Tadayoshi Miyamoto, Kenji Sunagawa
Central chemoreflex activation induces sympatho-excitation. However, how central chemoreflex interacts with baroreflex function remains unknown. This study aimed to examine the impact of central chemoreflex on the dynamic as well as static baroreflex functions under open-loop conditions. In 15 anesthetized, vagotomized Sprague-Dawley rats, we isolated bilateral carotid sinuses and controlled intra-sinus pressure (CSP). We then recorded sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) at the celiac ganglia, and activated central chemoreflex by a gas mixture containing various concentrations of CO2 Under the baroreflex open-loop condition (CSP = 100 mmHg), central chemoreflex activation linearly increased SNA and arterial pressure (AP)...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844723/cocontraction-measured-with-short-range-stiffness-was-higher-in-obstetric-brachial-plexus-lesions-patients-compared-to-healthy-subjects
#11
Galia V Anguelova, Erwin de Vlugt, Alistair N Vardy, Erik W van Zwet, J Gert van Dijk, Martijn J A Malessy, Jurriaan H de Groot
We suggest short range stiffness (SRS) at the elbow joint as an alternative diagnostic for EMG to assess cocontraction. Elbow SRS is compared between obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL) patients and healthy subjects (cross-sectional study design). Seven controls (median 28years) and five patients (median 31years) isometrically flexed and extended the elbow at rest and three additional torques [2.1,4.3,6.4Nm] while a fast stretch stimulus was applied. SRS was estimated in silico using a neuromechanical elbow model simulating the torque response from the imposed elbow angle...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816177/electrical-stimulation-of-gut-motility-guided-by-an-in-silico-model
#12
Bradley Brigham Barth, Craig S Henriquez, Warren M Grill, Xiling Shen
OBJECTIVE: Neuromodulation of the central and peripheral nervous systems is becoming increasingly important for treating a diverse set of diseases-ranging from Parkinson's Disease and epilepsy to chronic pain. However, neuromodulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has achieved relatively limited success in treating functional GI disorders, which affect a significant population, because the effects of stimulation on the enteric nervous system (ENS) and gut motility are not well understood...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811169/tissue-engineered-extracellular-matrices-ecms-in-urology-evolution-and-future-directions
#13
REVIEW
N F Davis, E M Cunnane, F J O'Brien, J J Mulvihill, M T Walsh
Autologous gastrointestinal tissue has remained the gold-standard reconstructive biomaterial in urology for >100 years. Mucus-secreting epithelium is associated with lifelong metabolic and neuromechanical complications when implanted into the urinary tract. Therefore, the availability of biocompatible tissue-engineered biomaterials such as extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds may provide an attractive alternative for urologists. ECMs are decellularised, biodegradable membranes that have shown promise for repairing defective urinary tract segments in vitro and in vivo by inducing a host-derived tissue remodelling response after implantation...
August 12, 2017: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780167/emotion-related-brain-structures-associated-with-trait-creativity-in-middle-children
#14
Yunman Xia, Kaixiang Zhuang, Jiangzhou Sun, Qunlin Chen, Dongtao Wei, Wenjing Yang, Jiang Qiu
Middle childhood is an important period for individual trait shaping, during which children are likely to generate and own their distinct neuromechanism of creative-related traits. This study used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify the brain structures that underlie trait creativity (as measured by the Williams Creativity Aptitude Test) in a sample of typical developing children (aged 9-12, n=64). The results indicated that several emotion-related regions may relate to trait creativity in middle children...
September 29, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748830/a-neural-network-with-central-pattern-generators-entrained-by-sensory-feedback-controls-walking-of-a-bipedal-model
#15
Wei Li, Nicholas S Szczecinski, Roger D Quinn
A neuromechanical simulation of a planar, bipedal walking robot has been developed. It is constructed as a simplified, planar musculoskeletal model of the biomechanics of the human lower body. The controller consists of a dynamic neural network with central pattern generators (CPGs) entrained by force and movement sensory feedback to generate appropriate muscle forces for walking. The CPG model is a two-level architecture, which consists of separate rhythm generator and pattern formation networks. The biped model walks stably in the sagittal plane without inertial sensors or a centralized posture controller or a 'baby walker' to help overcome gravity...
October 16, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736516/weaker-functional-connectivity-strength-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Linlin Liu, Wanhu Li, Yang Zhang, Wen Qin, Shan Lu, Quan Zhang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is related to cognitive impairments and increased risk for dementia. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated T2DM-related brain structural and functional changes which are partly associated to the cognitive decline. However, few studies focused on the early neuroimaging findingsin T2DM patients. In this study, a data-driven whole-brain resting state functional connectivity strength (rsFCS) methodwas used to evaluate resting functional changes in 53 T2DM patients compared with 55 matched healthy controls (HCs), and to detect the associations between the rsFCSchanges and cognitive functions in T2DM patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653780/gait-training-for-chronic-ankle-instability-improves-neuromechanics-during-walking
#17
Mark A Feger, Joseph M Hart, Susan Saliba, Mark F Abel, Jay Hertel
A novel gait-training device has been shown to improve gait patterns while patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI) are using the device and our current objective was to analyze the effect of structured gait training with the device on plantar pressure and surface electromyography (sEMG) following repeated gait training sessions. Sixteen CAI patients participated. Plantar pressure and sEMG were collected simultaneously during walking pre- and post-gait training. Plantar pressure (pressure time integral, peak pressure, time to peak pressure, contact area, contact time, and center of pressure trajectory) of the entire foot and nine specific regions of the foot were recorded concurrently with sEMG root mean square amplitudes from the anterior tibialis, peroneus longus, medial gastrocnemius, and gluteus medius...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635907/-the-problem-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-in-asthmatic-patients
#18
E G Sheludko, D E Naumov, Yu M Perelman, V P Kolosov
Asthma and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are one of the most common chronic respiratory diseases. These have common risk factors that include obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and impaired nasal breathing (allergic rhinitis, sinusitis). At the same time, experimental evidence demonstrates common pathophysiological mechanisms of these diseases, such as involvement in the process of the respiratory tract, a systemic inflammatory response, and implementation of neuromechanical reflexes...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616042/cerebral-mechanism-of-puncturing-at-he-mu-point-combination-for-functional-dyspepsia-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-parallel-trial
#19
Shuai Yin, Yuan Chen, Du Lei, Rui-Rui Sun, Ting-Ting Ma, Pei-Min Feng, Zhao-Xuan He, Xue-Ling Suo, Pei-Hong Ma, Yu-Zhu Qu, Ke Qiu, Miao-Miao Jing, Qi-Yong Gong, Fan-Rong Liang, Jiao Chen, Fang Zeng
Acupuncture is widely used to treat functional dyspepsia with satisfactory outcomes. Combination of the He and Mu acupoints is commonly used and has a synergistic effect on functional dyspepsia; however, its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, a randomized controlled parallel clinical trial is currently underway at Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China. This trial is designed to explore the efficacy of and central responses to the He-Mu point combination in patients with functional dyspepsia using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611619/hammering-does-not-fit-fitts-law
#20
Tadej Petrič, Cole S Simpson, Aleš Ude, Auke J Ijspeert
While movement is essential to human wellbeing, we are still unable to reproduce the deftness and robustness of human movement in automatons or completely restore function to individuals with many types of motor impairment. To better understand how the human nervous system plans and controls movements, neuromechanists employ simple tasks such as upper extremity reaches and isometric force tasks. However, these simple tasks rarely consider impacts and may not capture aspects of motor control that arise from real-world complexity...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
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