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Jonne Doorduin, Joeke L Nollet, Lisanne H Roesthuis, Hieronymus W H van Hees, Laurent J Brochard, Christer A Sinderby, Johannes G van der Hoeven, Leo M A Heunks
RATIONALE: Controlled mechanical ventilation is used to deliver lung-protective ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Despite recognized benefits, such as preserved diaphragm activity, partial support ventilation modes may be incompatible with lung-protective ventilation due to high tidal volume and high transpulmonary pressure. As an alternative to high dose sedatives and controlled mechanical ventilation, pharmacologically induced neuromechanical uncoupling of the diaphragm should facilitate lung-protective ventilation under partial support modes...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
E K Greska, N Cortes, S I Ringleb, J A Onate, B L Van Lunen
Previous studies have shown conflicting information regarding leg dominance as an etiological factor for the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. It remains unclear if lower extremity neuromechanical limb asymmetries exist in experienced athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate lower extremity neuromechanical effects of leg dominance in female collegiate soccer athletes during an unanticipated side-step cutting task. Twenty female collegiate soccer players completed an unanticipated side-step cutting task, using their dominant and non-dominant legs...
October 17, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Xiao-Su Hu, Clayton A Fisher, Stephanie M Munz, Rebecca L Toback, Thiago D Nascimento, Emily L Bellile, Laura Rozek, Avraham Eisbruch, Francis P Worden, Theodora E Danciu, Alexandre F DaSilva
Patients with head and neck cancer often experience a significant decrease in their quality of life during chemoradiotherapy (CRT) due to treatment-related pain, which is frequently classified as severe. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a method of non-invasive brain stimulation that has been frequently used in experimental and clinical pain studies. In this pilot study, we investigated the clinical impact and central mechanisms of twenty primary motor cortex (M1) stimulation sessions with tDCS during 7 weeks of CRT for head and neck cancer...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Hiroyuki Oda, Kanae Sano, Yoko Kunimasa, Paavo V Komi, Masaki Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Patients who have had an Achilles tendon (AT) rupture repaired are potentially at higher risk for re-rupture than those without previous rupture. Little attention has been given to the neuromechanical modulation of muscle-tendon interaction and muscle activation profiles during human dynamic movements after AT rupture repair. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine muscle-tendon behavior and muscle activation during bilateral hopping. METHODS: We enrolled nine subjects who had undergone surgical repair of unilateral AT rupture within the past 1-2 years...
October 3, 2016: Sports Medicine
Charles P Gabel, Natalie Rando, Markus Melloh
To ascertain the effectiveness of slacklining as a supplementary therapy for elderly stroke patients who are functionally non-progressing. This case study involved an 18-mo prospective observation of the management of an 87-year-old female stroke-patient of the left hemisphere with reduced balance, reduced lower limb muscular activation, hypertonia, and concurrent postural deficits. This entailed the initial acute care phase through to discharge to home and 18-mo final status in her original independent living setting...
August 18, 2016: World Journal of Orthopedics
Christopher M Laine, Akira Nagamori, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
Voluntary control of force is always marked by some degree of error and unsteadiness. Both neural and mechanical factors contribute to these fluctuations, but how they interact to produce them is poorly understood. In this study, we identify and characterize a previously undescribed neuromechanical interaction where the dynamics of voluntary force production suffice to generate involuntary tremor. Specifically, participants were asked to produce isometric force with the index finger and use visual feedback to track a sinusoidal target spanning 5-9% of each individual's maximal voluntary force level...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Dario J Villarreal, David Quintero, Robert D Gregg
Bipedal locomotion is a popular area of study across multiple fields (e.g., biomechanics, neuroscience and robotics). Different hypotheses and models have tried explaining how humans achieve stable locomotion. Perturbations that produce shifts in the nominal periodic orbit of the joint kinematics during locomotion could inform about the manner in which the human neuromechanics represent the phase of gait. Ideally, this type of perturbation would modify the progression of the human subject through the gait cycle without deviating from the nominal kinematic orbits of the leg joints...
2016: IEEE Access: Practical Innovations, Open Solutions
Rajashree Ranjita, Alex Hankey, H R Nagendra, Soubhagylaxmi Mohanty
BACKGROUND: Coal mine dust exposure causes chronic airflow limitation in coal miners resulting in dyspnea, fatigue, and eventually chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Yoga can alleviate dyspnea in COPD by improving ventilatory mechanics, reducing central neural drive, and partially restoring neuromechanical coupling of the respiratory system. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of Integrated Approach of Yoga Therapy (IAYT) in the management of dyspnea and fatigue in coal miners with COPD...
July 2016: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Chris S Versteeg, Lena H Ting, Jessica L Allen
Although standing balance is important in many daily activities, there has been little effort in developing detailed musculoskeletal models and simulations of balance control compared to other whole-body motor activities. Our objective was to develop a musculoskeletal model of human balance that can be used to predict movement patterns in reactive balance control. Similar to prior studies using torque-driven models, we investigated how movement patterns during a reactive balance response are affected by high-level task goals (e...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Richard J Bomphrey, Toshiyuki Nakata, Per Henningsson, Huai-Ti Lin
This work is a synthesis of our current understanding of the mechanics, aerodynamics and visually mediated control of dragonfly and damselfly flight, with the addition of new experimental and computational data in several key areas. These are: the diversity of dragonfly wing morphologies, the aerodynamics of gliding flight, force generation in flapping flight, aerodynamic efficiency, comparative flight performance and pursuit strategies during predatory and territorial flights. New data are set in context by brief reviews covering anatomy at several scales, insect aerodynamics, neuromechanics and behaviour...
September 26, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Andrew D Nordin, Janet S Dufek
Lower extremity sagittal kinematic and kinetic data are summarized alongside electrical muscle activities during single-leg landing trials completed in contrasting external load and landing height conditions. Nineteen subjects were analyzed during 9 landing trials in each of 6 experimental conditions computed as percentages of subject anthropometrics (bodyweight: BW and subject height: H; BW, BW+12.5%, BW+25%, and H12.5%, H25%). Twelve lower extremity variables (sagittal hip, knee, ankle angles and moments, vertical ground reaction force (GRFz), gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, vastus medials, medial gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles) were assessed using separate principal component analyses (PCA)...
September 2016: Data in Brief
E Paul Zehr, Trevor S Barss, Katie Dragert, Alain Frigon, Erin V Vasudevan, Carlos Haridas, Sandra Hundza, Chelsea Kaupp, Taryn Klarner, Marc Klimstra, Tomoyoshi Komiyama, Pamela M Loadman, Rinaldo A Mezzarane, Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Gregory E P Pearcey, Yao Sun
During bipedal locomotor activities, humans use elements of quadrupedal neuronal limb control. Evolutionary constraints can help inform the historical ancestry for preservation of these core control elements support transfer of the huge body of quadrupedal non-human animal literature to human rehabilitation. In particular, this has translational applications for neurological rehabilitation after neurotrauma where interlimb coordination is lost or compromised. The present state of the field supports including arm activity in addition to leg activity as a component of gait retraining after neurotrauma...
July 15, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Jordan Read, Hyunsoo Kim, S Jun Son, Matthew K Seeley, J Ty Hopkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Phillip Hamilton, Hyunsoo Kim, S Jun Son, Matthew K Seeley, J Ty Hopkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Brian Wiseman, S Jun Son, Hyunsoo Kim, Matthew K Seeley, J Ty Hopkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
S Jun Son, Hyunsoo Kim, Matthew K Seeley, J Ty Hopkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Matthew Gregory, S Jun Son, Hyunsoo Kim, Matthew K Seeley, J Ty Hopkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Andrew D Nordin, Janet S Dufek
Our purpose was to examine changes in single-leg landing biomechanics and movement control following alterations in mechanical task demands via external load and landing height. We examined lower-extremity kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic (EMG) adjustments, as well as changes in movement control from neuromechanical synergies using separate principal component analyses (PCA). Nineteen healthy volunteers (15M, 4F, age: 24.3±4.9y, mass: 78.5±14.7kg, height: 1.73±0.08m) were analyzed among 9 single-leg drop landing trials in each of 6 experimental conditions (3 load and 2 landing height) computed as percentages of subject bodyweight (BW, BW+12...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
Eduardo J Izquierdo, Randall D Beer
Brain, body and environment are in continuous dynamical interaction, and it is becoming increasingly clear that an animal's behavior must be understood as a product not only of its nervous system, but also of the ongoing feedback of this neural activity through the biomechanics of its body and the ecology of its environment. Modeling has an essential integrative role to play in such an understanding. But successful whole-animal modeling requires an animal for which detailed behavioral, biomechanical and neural information is available and a modeling methodology which can gracefully cope with the constantly changing balance of known and unknown biological constraints...
June 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Andrew D McClellan, Timothée Pale, J Alex Messina, Scott Buso, Ahmad Shebib
The spinal locomotor networks controlling swimming behavior in larval and adult lampreys may have some important differences. As an initial step in comparing the locomotor systems in lampreys, in larval animals the relative timing of locomotor movements and muscle burst activity were determined and compared to those previously published for adults. In addition, the kinematics for free swimming in larval and adult lampreys was compared in detail for the first time. First, for swimming in larval animals, the neuromechanical phase lag between the onsets or terminations of muscle burst activity and maximum concave curvature of the body increased with increasing distance along the body, similar to that previously shown in adults...
July 2016: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
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