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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777879/sarcopenia-in-hiding-the-risk-and-consequence-of-underestimating-muscle-dysfunction-in-nash
#1
Rahima A Bhanji, Praveena Narayanan, Alina M Allen, Harmeet Malhi, Kymberly D Watt
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Up to one third of individuals with NAFLD will develop non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is associated with progression to cirrhosis and is rapidly becoming the leading indication for liver transplantation. Sarcopenia is defined as a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and function. It is seen in up to 60% of patients with end-stage liver disease and portends a poor prognosis...
August 4, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771499/irisin-regulates-cardiac-physiology-in-zebrafish
#2
Lakshminarasimhan Sundarrajan, Chanel Yeung, Logan Hahn, Lynn P Weber, Suraj Unniappan
Irisin is a myokine encoded in its precursor fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5). It is abundantly expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle, and is secreted upon the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1 alpha). We aimed to study the role of irisin on cardiac function and muscle protein regulation in zebrafish. Western blot analyses detected the presence of irisin protein (23 kDa) in zebrafish heart and skeletal muscle, and irisin immunoreactivity was detected in both tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759938/irisin-and-testosterone-in-men-with-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Zdravko Kamenov, Yavor Assyov, Petya Angelova, Antoaneta Gateva, Adelina Tsakova
The beneficial effects of testosterone on the metabolism and body composition of men are well established but the exact mechanisms of these effects are not clearly understood. A potential explanation might lie in the hormones, secreted from skeletal muscles, named "myokines". One such myokine, irisin, has been shown to also have potential beneficial metabolic effects. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the association of serum testosterone with circulating serum irisin levels in men with metabolic syndrome...
July 31, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759185/serum-fgf21-in-girls-with-anorexia-nervosa-comparison-to-normal-weight-and-obese-female-adolescents
#4
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hepatokine, myokine and adipokine of a potent influence to energy homeostasis. Data according its serum concentrations in AN are contradictory. OBJECTIVES: Analysis of serum FGF21 in girls with acute anorexia nervosa and comparison the results with normal weight and obese female adolescents considering their nutritional status, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Serum FGF21 concentrations were evaluated using commercially available ELISA kit in 32 Polish girls with restrictive AN (AN), 29 girls with obesity (O) and 21 healthy controls (C)...
July 31, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744117/alteration-of-the-irisin-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-axis-contributes-to-disturbance-of-mood-in-copd-patients
#5
Csaba Papp, Krisztian Pak, Tamas Erdei, Bela Juhasz, Ildiko Seres, Anita Szentpéteri, Laszlo Kardos, Maria Szilasi, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Judit Zsuga
COPD is accompanied by limited physical activity, worse quality of life, and increased prevalence of depression. A possible link between COPD and depression may be irisin, a myokine, expression of which in the skeletal muscle and brain positively correlates with physical activity. Irisin enhances the synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin involved in reward-related processes. Thus, we hypothesized that mood disturbances accompanying COPD are reflected by the changes in the irisin-BDNF axis...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733331/n-glycosylation-is-required-for-fdnc5-stabilization-and-irisin-secretion
#6
Yong Wei Nie, Dong Jun Liu
Irisin, a myokine derived from extracellular domain of FNDC5, has been shown to mediate thermogenesis of white adipose tissue. Biochemical data has shown that N-glycosylation of FNDC5 was unlikely to affect ligand or receptor activation of irisin. The N-glycosylation of FNDC5 remains poorly understood. Here, we analyze N-glycosylation sites of FNDC5 and find that two potential N-glycosylation sites (Asn36 and Asn81) could indeed be occupied by N-glycan. We further show that the lack of N-glycosylation decreases the secretion of irisin, which is relevant to the instability of FNDC5 and the deficiency of cleavage of signal peptide...
July 21, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732566/association-of-circulating-irisin-levels-with-metabolic-and-metabolite-profiles-of-korean-adolescents
#7
Han Byul Jang, Hyo-Jin Kim, Jae Heon Kang, Sang Ick Park, Kyung Hee Park, Hye-Ja Lee
CONTEXT: Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, has been suggested to regulate energy metabolism. OBJECTIVE: We studied the relationship between circulating irisin and metabolic and metabolite profiles of Korean adolescents, and investigated the effects of physical activity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) on irisin levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the Korean Children-Adolescents Study. Our cross-sectional study included 618 adolescents (370 normal-weight and 248 obese adolescents; 316 boys and 302 girls) aged 12-15years...
August 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732565/circulating-irisin-levels-are-lower-in-patients-with-either-stable-coronary-artery-disease-cad-or-myocardial-infarction-mi-versus-healthy-controls-whereas-follistatin-and-activin-a-levels-are-higher-and-can-discriminate-mi-from-cad-with-similar-to-ck-mb-accuracy
#8
Athanasios D Anastasilakis, Dimitrios Koulaxis, Nikoleta Kefala, Stergios A Polyzos, Jagriti Upadhyay, Eirini Pagkalidou, Fotios Economou, Chrysostomos D Anastasilakis, Christos S Mantzoros
BACKGROUND: Several myokines are produced by cardiac muscle. We investigated changes in myokine levels at the time of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and following reperfusion in relation to controls. METHODS: Patients with MI (MI Group, n=31) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were compared to patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) subjected to scheduled PCI (CAD Group, n=40) and controls with symptoms mimicking CAD without stenosis in angiography (Control Group, n=43)...
August 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732027/serum-irisin-and-myostatin-levels-after-2-weeks-of-high-altitude-climbing
#9
Ewa Śliwicka, Tomasz Cisoń, Zbigniew Kasprzak, Alicja Nowak, Łucja Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak
Exposure to high-altitude hypoxia causes physiological and metabolic adaptive changes by disturbing homeostasis. Hypoxia-related changes in skeletal muscle affect the closely interconnected energy and regeneration processes. The balance between protein synthesis and degradation in the skeletal muscle is regulated by several molecules such as myostatin, cytokines, vitamin D, and irisin. This study investigates changes in irisin and myostatin levels in male climbers after a 2-week high-altitude expedition, and their association with 25(OH)D and indices of inflammatory processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726981/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-factors-influencing-bovine-intramuscular-adipose-tissue-development-and-cellularity
#10
E Albrecht, L Schering, Y Liu, K Komolka, C Kühn, K Wimmers, T Gotoh, S Maak
Appearance, distribution, and amount of intramuscular fat (IMF), often referred to as marbling, are highly variable and depend on environmental and genetic factors. On the molecular level, the concerted action of several drivers, including hormones, receptors, transcription factors, etc., determines where clusters of adipocytes arise. Therefore, the aim of future studies remains to identify such factors as biological markers of IMF to increase the ability to identify animals that deposit IMF early in age to increase efficiency of high-quality meat production...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724742/the-myokine-irisin-is-released-in-response-to-saturated-fatty-acids-and-promotes-pancreatic-beta-cell-survival-and-insulin-secretion
#11
Annalisa Natalicchio, Nicola Marrano, Giuseppina Biondi, Rosaria Spagnuolo, Rossella Labarbuta, Immacolata Porreca, Angelo Cignarelli, Marco Bugliani, Piero Marchetti, Sebastio Perrini, Luigi Laviola, Francesco Giorgino
This study explored the role of irisin as a new pancreatic beta-cell secretagogue and survival factor and its potential role in the communication between skeletal muscle and pancreatic beta-cells under lipotoxic conditions. Recombinant irisin stimulated insulin biosynthesis and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in a PKA-dependent manner, and prevented saturated fatty acid-induced apoptosis in human and rat pancreatic beta-cells, as well as in human and murine pancreatic islets, via AKT/BCL2 signaling...
July 19, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721439/effects-of-insulin-and-exercise-training-on-fgf21-its-receptors-and-target-genes-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#12
Rikke Kruse, Sara G Vienberg, Birgitte F Vind, Birgitte Andersen, Kurt Højlund
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pharmacological doses of FGF21 improve glucose tolerance, lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in rodents. Induced expression and secretion of FGF21 from muscle may increase browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) in a myokine-like manner. Recent studies have reported that insulin and exercise increase FGF21 in plasma. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are potentially FGF21-resistant states, but to what extent FGF21 responses to insulin and exercise training are preserved, and whether FGF21, its receptors and target genes are altered, remains to be established...
July 18, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718417/exercise-and-the-hallmarks-of-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Ana Ruiz-Casado, Asunción Martín-Ruiz, Laura M Pérez, Mariano Provencio, Carmen Fiuza-Luces, Alejandro Lucia
A wealth of evidence supports an association between regular physical activity (PA) and decreased risk for cancer and cancer mortality. This is clearly an important issue given the growing worldwide incidence of both cancer and physical inactivity. Of further importance is unraveling the biological mechanisms that explain the potential preventive effects of PA against the development of cancer, as this might improve our understanding of cancer biology and assist researchers exploring novel treatment strategies...
June 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687176/the-impact-of-a-single-bout-of-high-intensity-circuit-training-on-myokines-concentrations-and-cognitive-functions-in-women-of-different-age
#14
A Gmiat, K Micielska, M Kozłowska, D J Flis, M Smaruj, S Kujach, J Jaworska, P Lipińska, E Ziemann
The study aimed to assess effect of a single bout of high-intensity circuit training (HICT) on myokines concentration: interleukin-6 and irisin, inteleukin-10, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), heat shock proteins (HSP27, HSP70) and cognitive functions among women participated in HICT. It also attempted evaluating whether vitamin D could have modified the effect of HICT. Fourteen healthy, non-active women participating in the experiment were assigned to a young or middle-aged group. They performed a single session HICT using body weight as a resistance, based on the ACSM recommendations...
July 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669758/muscle-directs-diurnal-energy-homeostasis-through-a-myokine-dependent-hormone-module-in-drosophila
#15
Xiao Zhao, Jason Karpac
Inter-tissue communication is critical to control organismal energy homeostasis in response to temporal changes in feeding and activity or external challenges. Muscle is emerging as a key mediator of this homeostatic control through consumption of lipids, carbohydrates, and amino acids, as well as governing systemic signaling networks. However, it remains less clear how energy substrate usage tissues, such as muscle, communicate with energy substrate storage tissues in order to adapt with diurnal changes in energy supply and demand...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666854/small-interfering-rna-mediated-knockdown-of-irisin-suppresses-food-intake-and-modulates-appetite-regulatory-peptides-in-zebrafish
#16
Lakshminarasimhan Sundarrajan, Suraj Unniappan
Irisin is a myokine encoded in fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5). FNDC5 forms an integral part of the muscle post-exercise, and causes an increase in energy expenditure in mammals. Irisin is abundantly expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscles and is secreted upon activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1 alpha). Irisin regulates feeding behaviour and cardiovascular function in mammals. More recently, irisin has gained importance as a potential biomarker for myocardial infarction due to its abundance in cardiac muscle...
June 27, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614774/new-insight-into-the-direct-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-a-myokine-irisin-against-proinflammatory-activation-of-adipocytes-implication-for-exercise-in-obesity
#17
A I Mazur-Bialy, J Bilski, E Pochec, T Brzozowski
A biological activity of myokine irisin, has been intensively investigated in the context of a browning process occurring in white adipose tissue, but its role as a modulator of immune response has been little studied. The aim of our study was to determine the impact of irisin (0 - 100 nM) on pro-inflammatory activation of adipocyte 3T3 L1 cell line. Irisin reduced in a concentration-dependent manner the expression and activity of major proinflammatory cytokines, e.g. tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) expression and their secretion into cell medium...
April 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605657/muscle-as-a-paracrine-and-endocrine-organ
#18
REVIEW
Jimena Giudice, Joan M Taylor
Skeletal muscle cells are highly abundant and metabolically active and are known to 'communicate' their energy demands to other organs through active secretion. Muscle-derived secretory proteins include a variety of cytokines and peptides collectively referred to as 'myokines' that exert autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects. Analyses of the skeletal muscle secretome revealed that numerous myokines are secreted in response to contraction or strength training, and that these factors not only regulate energy demand but also contribute to the broad beneficial effects of exercise on cardiovascular, metabolic, and mental health...
June 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595527/creatine-supplementation-and-skeletal-muscle-metabolism-for-building-muscle-mass-review-of-the-potential-mechanisms-of-action
#19
Farnaz Farshidfar, Mark A Pinder, Semone B Myrie
Creatine, a very popular supplement among athletic populations, is of growing interest for clinical applications. Since over 90% of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, the effect of creatine supplementation on muscle metabolism is a widely studied area. While numerous studies over the past few decades have shown that creatine supplementation has many favorable effects on skeletal muscle physiology and metabolism, including enhancing muscle mass (growth/hypertrophy); the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood...
June 5, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588307/irisin-prevents-and-restores-bone-loss-and-muscle-atrophy-in-hind-limb-suspended-mice
#20
Graziana Colaianni, Teresa Mongelli, Concetta Cuscito, Paolo Pignataro, Luciana Lippo, Giovanna Spiro, Angela Notarnicola, Ilenia Severi, Giovanni Passeri, Giorgio Mori, Giacomina Brunetti, Biagio Moretti, Umberto Tarantino, Silvia C Colucci, Janne E Reseland, Roberto Vettor, Saverio Cinti, Maria Grano
We previously showed that Irisin, a myokine released from skeletal muscle after physical exercise, plays a central role in the control of bone mass. Here we report that treatment with recombinant Irisin prevented bone loss in hind-limb suspended mice when administered during suspension (preventive protocol) and induced recovery of bone mass when mice were injected after bone loss due to a suspension period of 4 weeks (curative protocol). MicroCT analysis of femurs showed that r-Irisin preserved both cortical and trabecular bone mineral density, and prevented a dramatic decrease of the trabecular bone volume fraction...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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