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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070865/sphingosine-1-phosphate-pretreatment-amends-hypoxia-induced-metabolic-dysfunction-and-impairment-of-myogenic-potential-in-differentiating-c2c12-myoblasts-by-stimulating-viability-calcium-homeostasis-and-energy-generation
#1
Babita Rahar, Sonam Chawla, Sanjay Pandey, Anant Narayan Bhatt, Shweta Saxena
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has a role in transpiration in patho-physiological signaling in skeletal muscles. The present study evaluated the pre-conditioning efficacy of S1P in facilitating differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts under a normoxic/hypoxic cell culture environment. Under normoxia, exogenous S1P significantly promoted C2C12 differentiation as evident from morphometric descriptors and differentiation markers of the mature myotubes, but it could facilitate only partial recovery from hypoxia-induced compromised differentiation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063504/the-metabolite-beta-aminoisobutyric-acid-and-physical-inactivity-among-hemodialysis-patients
#2
Alessio Molfino, Maria Ida Amabile, Thomas Ammann, Alessio Farcomeni, Luana Lionetto, Maurizio Simmaco, Silvia Lai, Alessandro Laviano, Filippo Rossi Fanelli, Maria Grazia Chiappini, Maurizio Muscaritoli
OBJECTIVE: Physical inactivity is frequent in patients on hemodialysis (HD), and represents a reliable predictor of morbidity and mortality. Beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) is a contraction-induced myokine, the plasma levels of which increase with exercise and are inversely associated with metabolic risk factors. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether physical inactivity and clinical parameters relate to plasma BAIBA levels in this patient population. METHODS: Adult patients on HD were included, and the presence of physical inactivity was assessed...
February 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042053/potential-role-for-the-vdr-agonist-elocalcitol-in-metabolic-control-evidences-in-human-skeletal-muscle-cells
#3
Cristina Antinozzi, Clarissa Corinaldesi, Carla Giordano, Annalinda Pisano, Bruna Cerbelli, Silvia Migliaccio, Luigi Di Luigi, Katia Stefanantoni, Gabriella Barbara Vannelli, Salvatore Minisola, Guido Valesini, Valeria Riccieri, Andrea Lenzi, Clara Crescioli
Vitamin D plays a pivotal role to maintain skeletal muscle integrity and health. Vitamin D deficiency characterizes inflammatory myopathy (IM) and diabetes, often overlapping diseases involving skeletal muscle damage. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists likely exert beneficial effects in both IM and metabolic disturbances. We aim to evaluate in vitro the effect of elocalcitol, a non-hypercalcemic VDR agonist, on the biomolecular metabolic machinery of human skeletal muscle cells (Hfsmc), vs. insulin (I). We analyzed GLUT4, Flotillin-1, Caveolin-3 and Caveolin-1 cell expression/localization; mTOR, AKT, ERK and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation; IL-6 myokine release; VDR expression...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028076/inorganic-nitrate-mimics-exercise-stimulated-muscular-fiber-type-switching-and-myokine-and-gaba-release
#4
Lee D Roberts, Tom Ashmore, Ben D McNally, Steven A Murfitt, Bernadette O Fernandez, Martin Feelisch, Ross Lindsay, Mario Siervo, Elizabeth A Williams, Andrew J Murray, Julian L Griffin
Exercise is an effective intervention for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle combines multiple signals contributing to the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health. Inorganic nitrate increases exercise efficiency, tolerance and performance. The transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ coactivator1α (PGC1α) coordinates the exercise-stimulated skeletal muscle fiber-type switch from glycolytic fast-twitch (type IIb) to oxidative slow-twitch (type I) and intermediate (type IIa) fibers; an effect reversed in insulin resistance and diabetes...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025491/metabolic-adaptation-in-obesity-and-type-ii-diabetes-myokines-adipokines-and-hepatokines
#5
REVIEW
Kyoung-Jin Oh, Da Som Lee, Won Kon Kim, Baek Soo Han, Sang Chul Lee, Kwang-Hee Bae
Obesity and type II diabetes are characterized by insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. A high caloric intake combined with a sedentary lifestyle is the leading cause of these conditions. Whole-body insulin resistance and its improvement are the result of the combined actions of each insulin-sensitive organ. Among the fundamental molecular mechanisms by which each organ is able to communicate and engage in cross-talk are cytokines or peptides which stem from secretory organs. Recently, it was reported that several cytokines or peptides are secreted from muscle (myokines), adipose tissue (adipokines) and liver (hepatokines) in response to certain nutrition and/or physical activity conditions...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996694/no-effect-of-acute-and-chronic-supramaximal-exercise-on-circulating-levels-of-the-myokine-sparc
#6
Preeyaphorn Songsorn, José Ruffino, Niels B J Vollaard
Myokines may play a role in the health benefits of regular physical activity. Secreted protein acidic rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a pleiotropic myokine that has been shown to be released into the bloodstream by skeletal muscle in response to aerobic exercise. As there is evidence suggesting that SPARC release may be linked to glycogen breakdown and activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, we hypothesised that brief supramaximal exercise may also be associated with increased serum SPARC levels...
December 20, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989699/kalirin-a-gef-for-rac1-plays-an-important-role-in-fstl-1-mediated-glucose-uptake-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#7
Hye Jeong Lee, Jung Ok Lee, Yong Woo Lee, Shin Ae Kim, Sun Hwa Park, Hyeon Soo Kim
Follistatin-like 1 (FSTL-1) is a novel myokine; however, little is known about its metabolic role. Here, FSTL-1 stimulated glucose uptake in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells. FSTL-1 increased intracellular calcium concentration. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) inhibition blocked FSTL-1-induced AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake. In addition, FSTL-1 stimulated the phosphorylation of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), a small GTPase Rac1 downstream protein...
October 29, 2016: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986127/irisin-and-myostatin-levels-in-patients-with-graves-disease
#8
Mehmet Muhittin Yalcin, Mujde Akturk, Yusuf Tohma, Ethem Turgay Cerit, Alev Eroglu Altinova, Emre Arslan, Ilhan Yetkin, Fusun Balos Toruner
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Skeletal muscle system, which is one of the primary targets for thyroid hormones, has an important role in energy metabolism. Some myokines such as irisin and myostatin have considerable effects on energy metabolism in addition to the musculoskeletal system. Our aim was to investigate circulating irisin and myostatin levels in patients with Graves' Disease (GD). METHODS: This study included 41 patients with GD who were in overt hyperthyroid status and 44 healthy subjects...
August 2016: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919728/voluntary-running-improves-depressive-behaviours-and-the-structure-of-the-hippocampus-in-rats-a-possible-impact-of-myokines
#9
Magda A Eldomiaty, Shaima M Almasry, Maha K Desouky, Sami A Algaidi
This study investigated the impact of voluntary exercise on depressive behaviours, serum and hippocampal levels of myokines, and histopathological features of hippocampal formation in rats. Depressed rats were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 3 weeks. Locomotor activity was assessed by a forced swimming test and the myokine levels in sera and hippocampal homogenates were measured using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. Brain sections were analysed for hippocampal structure and neuronal counts. Voluntary running produced significant increase in the distance moved by rats and significant decrease in immobility duration...
December 2, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911383/parallel-measurement-of-circadian-clock-gene-expression-and-hormone-secretion-in-human-primary-cell-cultures
#10
Volodymyr Petrenko, Camille Saini, Laurent Perrin, Charna Dibner
Circadian clocks are functional in all light-sensitive organisms, allowing for an adaptation to the external world by anticipating daily environmental changes. Considerable progress in our understanding of the tight connection between the circadian clock and most aspects of physiology has been made in the field over the last decade. However, unraveling the molecular basis that underlies the function of the circadian oscillator in humans stays of highest technical challenge. Here, we provide a detailed description of an experimental approach for long-term (2-5 days) bioluminescence recording and outflow medium collection in cultured human primary cells...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901337/the-effect-of-exercise-induced-weight-loss-on-myokines-and-adipokines-in-overweight-sedentary-females-steps-aerobics-vs-jogging-walking-exercises
#11
Halil Duzova, Esin Gullu, Guner Cicek, Burcu K Koksal, Basak Kayhan, Abdullah Gullu, Ibrahim Sahin
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to verify effects of step-aerobic exercise (SAE) and jogging-walking exercise (JWE) program on myokines and adipokines levels in overweight sedentary females. METHODS: Volunteer subjects (n=25) were assigned to two exercise groups: steps aerobics and jogging-walking. The exercise program given to them was for five days a week and for twelve weeks period. Serum samples were collected from venous blood before and immediately after cardio-respiratory fitness test (CRF) by Bruce protocol and stored at -80 C until they were assayed before 12 weeks exercise program...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895105/robot-assisted-mechanical-therapy-attenuates-stroke-induced-limb-skeletal-muscle-injury
#12
Chandan K Sen, Savita Khanna, Hallie Harris, Richard Stewart, Maria Balch, Mallory Heigel, Seth Teplitsky, Surya Gnyawali, Cameron Rink
The efficacy and optimization of poststroke physical therapy paradigms is challenged in part by a lack of objective tools available to researchers for systematic preclinical testing. This work represents a maiden effort to develop a robot-assisted mechanical therapy (RAMT) device to objectively address the significance of mechanical physiotherapy on poststroke outcomes. Wistar rats were subjected to right hemisphere middle-cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion. After 24 h, rats were split into control (RAMT(-)) or RAMT(+) groups (30 min daily RAMT over the stroke-affected gastrocnemius) and were followed up to poststroke d 14...
November 28, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875543/irisin-ameliorates-hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced-injury-through-modulation-of-histone-deacetylase-4
#13
Yu Tina Zhao, Hao Wang, Shouyan Zhang, Jianfeng Du, Shougang Zhuang, Ting C Zhao
Irisin is a recently identified myokine which brings increases in energy expenditure and contributes to the beneficial effects of exercise through the browning of white adipose tissues. However, its effects in the heart remains unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of irisin on hypoxia/reoxygenation injury and its relationship with HDAC4. Wild type and stable HDAC4-overexpression cells were generated from H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. HDAC4 overexpression cells and wild type H9c2 cells were exposed to 24 hours of hypoxia followed by one hour of reoxygenation in vitro in the presence or absence of irisin (5 ng/ml)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834140/hypoxic-exercise-training-promotes-apelin-apj-expression-in-skeletal-muscles-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#14
Weixiu Ji, Lijing Gong, Jianxiong Wang, Hui He, Ying Zhang
Apelin, an endogenous ligand of the G-protein-coupled receptor APJ, is a novel myokine and may play a key role in regulating energy metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic exposure, exercise, and hypoxic exercise training on the expression of apelin and APJ in skeletal muscle of obese mice. 60 two-month old C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups: 10 in normal diet group (N) and 50 in the high fat diet (HFD) groups. After two months of feeding, the HFD mice whose body weight 20% higher than the average weight of N group were selected as obese mice and were further allocated into four groups: Control (C), Exercise (E), Hypoxia (H), and Exercise plus Hypoxia (E+H), at 8-9 mice/group...
November 11, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830278/molecular-communication-from-skeletal-muscle-to-bone-a-review-for-muscle-derived-myokines-regulating-bone-metabolism
#15
REVIEW
Baosheng Guo, Zong-Kang Zhang, Chao Liang, Jie Li, Jin Liu, Aiping Lu, Bao-Ting Zhang, Ge Zhang
Besides the mechanical loading-dependent paradigm, skeletal muscle also serves as an endocrine organ capable of secreting cytokines to modulate bone metabolism. In this review, we focused on reviewing the myokines involved in communication from skeletal muscle to bone, i.e. (1) myostatin and myostatin-binding proteins including follistatin and decorin, (2) interleukins including interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-7 (IL-7) and interleukin-15 (IL-15), (3) insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its binding proteins, (4) other myokines including PGC-1α-irisin system and osteoglycin (OGN)...
November 9, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828992/relationship-between-irisin-concentration-and-serum-cytokines-in-mother-and-newborn
#16
Maria Hernandez-Trejo, Gerardo Garcia-Rivas, Alejandro Torres-Quintanilla, Estibalitz Laresgoiti-Servitje
INTRODUCTION: Irisin is considered to be a myokine and adipokine that may also participate in reproductive functions, as it increases significantly throughout pregnancy. However, the regulation of circulating irisin and its relationship with other cytokines has not been assessed thus far in pregnant women and their offspring. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in irisin and cytokine concentrations between women at the end of pregnancy and their offspring, as well as the relationship between maternal and newborn irisin and maternal and newborn biomarkers...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815563/association-of-serum-irisin-concentrations-with-presence-and-severity-of-coronary-artery-disease
#17
Wen Deng
BACKGROUND Irisin, an exercise-induced myokine, is closely correlated with obesity and body mass index. Obesity is one risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, the present study aimed to determine if serum irisin concentrations are correlated with the presence and severity of CAD. MATERIAL AND METHODS Serum irisin concentrations were determined in 350 patients with CAD and in 214 healthy subjects. The severity of CAD was assessed by coronary atherosclerosis index (CAI). RESULTS Serum irisin concentrations were significantly lower in CAD patients compared with healthy controls...
November 5, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808433/adaptation-of-exercise-induced-stress-in-well-trained-healthy-young-men
#18
Lonneke M JanssenDuijghuijsen, Jaap Keijer, Marco Mensink, Kaatje Lenaerts, Lars Ridder, Stefan Nierkens, Shirley W Kartaram, Martie C M Verschuren, Raymond H H Pieters, Richard Bas, Renger F Witkamp, Harry J Wichers, Klaske van Norren
What is the central question of this study? Exercise is known to induce stress-related physiological responses, such as changes in intestinal barrier function. Our aim was to determine the test-retest repeatability of these responses in well-trained individuals. What is the main finding and its importance? Responses to strenuous exercise, as indicated by stress-related markers such as intestinal integrity markers and myokines, showed high test-retest variation. Even in well-trained young men an adapted response is seen after a single repetition after 1 week...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795900/evaluation-of-cord-blood-irisin-levels-in-term-newborns-with-small-gestational-age-and-appropriate-gestational-age
#19
Esengul Keleş, Filiz Fatime Turan
BACKGROUND: Most recently, a novel myokine, named irisin, was identified in human that expressed by skeletal muscle after exercise. Irisin increases energy expenditure by turning white adipose tissue into brown adipose tissue. Thus improves carbohydrate homeostasis in humans. Irisin is considered as a potential biomarker for obesity and metabolic syndrome. In recent years, numerous studies have been conducted about irisin with adults, although number of studies with newborns is limited...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766246/effects-of-body-weight-reduction-on-serum-irisin-and-metabolic-parameters-in-obese-subjects
#20
Yaeko Fukushima, Satoshi Kurose, Hiromi Shinno, Ha Cao Thi Thu, Nana Takao, Hiromi Tsutsumi, Takaaki Hasegawa, Toshiaki Nakajima, Yutaka Kimura
BACKGROUND: Irisin is a myokine implicated in lipid and glucose metabolism. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of a body weight reduction on the serum irisin level and physical indicators in obese Japanese patients without diabetes. METHODS: The subjects were 22 patients (male/female, 5/17; age, 46.1±16.0 years; body mass index [BMI], 36.9±5.0 kg/m(2)) who completed a 6-month body weight reduction program at our clinic. The program included diet, exercise therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy...
October 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
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