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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351049/macular-edema-of-choroidal-origin
#1
Gisèle Soubrane
Macular edema is most often clinically defined as an accumulation of serous fluid within the neurosensory retina with increased thickness of the central retina. In exudative age-related macular degeneration the leakage of fluid from the choroidal new vessels may be the origin of macular edema. Their abnormal permeability and the inflammatory reaction are mechanisms involved in this accumulation of fluid, which occurs in all layers. Cystoid macular edema is more often associated with subepithelial occult choroidal neovascularization (CNV) than it is with pre-epithelial classic CNV...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350947/traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-repair-and-regeneration
#2
Christopher S Ahuja, Satoshi Nori, Lindsay Tetreault, Jefferson Wilson, Brian Kwon, James Harrop, David Choi, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCI) have devastating consequences for the physical, financial, and psychosocial well-being of patients and their caregivers. Expediently delivering interventions during the early postinjury period can have a tremendous impact on long-term functional recovery. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: This is largely due to the unique pathophysiology of SCI where the initial traumatic insult (primary injury) is followed by a progressive secondary injury cascade characterized by ischemia, proapoptotic signaling, and peripheral inflammatory cell infiltration...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350871/oxygen-tension-regulates-the-mirna-profile-and-bioactivity-of-exosomes-released-from-extravillous-trophoblast-cells-liquid-biopsies-for-monitoring-complications-of-pregnancy
#3
Grace Truong, Dominic Guanzon, Vyjayanthi Kinhal, Omar Elfeky, Andrew Lai, Sherri Longo, Zarin Nuzhat, Carlos Palma, Katherin Scholz-Romero, Ramkumar Menon, Ben W Mol, Gregory E Rice, Carlos Salomon
Our understanding of how cells communicate has undergone a paradigm shift since the recent recognition of the role of exosomes in intercellular signaling. In this study, we investigated whether oxygen tension alters the exosome release and miRNA profile from extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells, modifying their bioactivity on endothelial cells (EC). Furthermore, we have established the exosomal miRNA profile at early gestation in women who develop pre-eclampsia (PE) and spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB). HTR-8/SVneo cells were used as an EVT model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350860/uniquely-altered-transcripts-are-associated-with-immune-preservation-in-hiv-infection
#4
Michelle Zanoni, Ítalo Karmann Aventurato, James Hunter, Maria Cecilia Araripe Sucupira, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz
The mechanisms underlying host HIV control hold much promise in the search for a functional HIV cure. We investigated the host genomic signatures in elite controllers or rapid progressors following recent infection and the correlates of immune reconstitution during combination antiretroviral therapy. We characterized the HIV-specific longitudinal host transcriptional response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elite controllers, rapid progressors, immune responders and non-responders using a RT-qPCR array in a cohort of recently HIV-infected Brazilian individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350851/alcohol-related-changes-in-the-intestinal-microbiome-influence-neutrophil-infiltration-inflammation-and-steatosis-in-early-alcoholic-hepatitis-in-mice
#5
Patrick P Lowe, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Aditya Ambade, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Doyle V Ward, Gyongyi Szabo
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-induced intestinal dysbiosis disrupts homeostatic gut-liver axis function and is essential in the development of alcoholic liver disease. Here, we investigate changes in enteric microbiome composition in a model of early alcoholic steatohepatitis and dissect the pathogenic role of intestinal microbes in alcohol-induced liver pathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wild type mice received a 10-day diet that was either 5% alcohol-containing or an isocaloric control diet plus a single binge...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350667/acellular-hypothermic-extracorporeal-perfusion-extends-allowable-ischemia-time-in-a-porcine-whole-limb-replantation-model
#6
Maximilian Kueckelhaus, Alexander Dermietzel, Muayyad Alhefzi, Mario A Aycart, Sebastian Fischer, Nicco Krezdorn, Luccie Wo, Omar H Maarouf, Leonardo V Riella, Reza Abdi, Ericka M Bueno, Bohdan Pomahac
BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges in traumatic amputation is the need to keep ischemia time brief (4 to 6 hours) to avoid ischemic damage and enable successful replantation. The current inability to meet this challenge often leads to traumatic limb loss, which has a considerable detrimental impact on the quality of life of patients. METHODS: The authors' team built a portable extracorporeal membrane oxygenator device for the perfusion of amputated extremities with oxygenated acellular solution under controlled parameters...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346799/activation-of-macrophages-by-lipopolysaccharide-for-assessing-the-immunomodulatory-property-of-biomaterials
#7
Shengwei Han, Zetao Chen, Pingping Han, Qingang Hu, Yin Xiao
The design paradigm of biomaterials has been changed to ones with favorable immunomodulatory effects, indicating the importance of accurately evaluating the immunomodulatory properties of biomaterials. Among all the immune cells macrophages receive most attention, due to their plasticity and multiple roles in the materials and host interactions, and thereby become model immune cells for the evaluation of immunomodulatory properties of biomaterials in many studies. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a polysaccharide in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, elicit strong immune responses, which was often applied to activate macrophages, resulting in a proinflammatory M1 phenotype, and the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6...
March 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346561/reduced-intestinal-motility-mucosal-barrier-function-and-inflammation-in-aged-monkeys
#8
E L Mitchell, A T Davis, K Brass, M Dendinger, R Barner, R Gharaibeh, A A Fodor, K Kavanagh
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the general health and intestinal physiology of young and old non-human primates with comparable life histories and dietary environments. DESIGN: Vervet monkeys (Chlorcebus aethiops sabaeus) in stable and comparable social and nutritional environments were selected for evaluation. Health phenotype, circulating cytokines and biomarkers of microbial translocation (MT) were measured (n=26-44). Subsets of monkeys additionally had their intestinal motility, intestinal permeability, and fecal microbiomes characterized...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346545/aqueous-cytokine-levels-are-associated-with-reduced-macular-thickness-after-intravitreal-ranibizumab-for-diabetic-macular-edema
#9
Tomoyasu Shiraya, Satoshi Kato, Fumiyuki Araki, Takashi Ueta, Tempei Miyaji, Takuhiro Yamaguchi
PURPOSE: It is controversial whether the administration of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs for diabetic macular edema (DME) affects intraocular inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we measured cytokine concentration in aqueous humor before and after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR). The aim was to determine changes in cytokine concentration and their effects on DME reduction. METHODS: Twelve patients (13 eyes) with DME received two IVR (0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346529/human-amnion-epithelial-cells-modulate-the-inflammatory-response-to-ventilation-in-preterm-lambs
#10
Jacqueline M Melville, Courtney A McDonald, Robert J Bischof, Graeme R Polglase, Rebecca Lim, Euan M Wallace, Graham Jenkin, Timothy J Moss
Ventilation of preterm neonates causes pulmonary inflammation that can contribute to lung injury, propagate systemically and result in long-term disease. Modulation of this initial response may reduce lung injury and its sequelae. We aimed to determine the effect of human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) on immune activation and lung injury in preterm neonatal lambs. Preterm lambs received intratracheal hAECs (90x106) or vehicle, prior to 2 h of mechanical ventilation. Within 5 min of ventilation onset, lambs also received intravenous hAECs (90x106) or vehicle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346521/hiv-1-gp120-envelope-glycoprotein-determinants-for-cytokine-burst-in-human-monocytes
#11
Benoît Levast, Lucie Barblu, Mathieu Coutu, Jérémie Prévost, Nathalie Brassard, Adam Peres, Camille Stegen, Joaquín Madrenas, Daniel E Kaufmann, Andrés Finzi
The first step of HIV infection involves the interaction of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein to its receptor CD4, mainly expressed on CD4+ T cells. Besides its role on HIV-1 entry, the gp120 has been shown to be involved in the production of IL-1, IL-6, CCL20 and other innate response cytokines by bystander, uninfected CD4+ T cells and monocytes. However, the gp120 determinants involved in these functions are not completely understood. Whether signalling leading to cytokine production is due to CD4 or other receptors is still unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346507/olive-oil-bioactives-protect-pigs-against-experimentally-induced-chronic-inflammation-independently-of-alterations-in-gut-microbiota
#12
Martin Liehr, Alessandro Mereu, Jose Javier Pastor, Jose Carlos Quintela, Stefanie Staats, Gerald Rimbach, Ignacio Rodolfo Ipharraguerre
Subclinical chronic inflammation (SCI) is associated with impaired animal growth. Previous work has demonstrated that olive-derived plant bioactives exhibit anti-inflammatory properties that could possibly counteract the growth-depressing effects of SCI. To test this hypothesis and define the underlying mechanism, we conducted a 30-day study in which piglets fed an olive-oil bioactive extract (OBE) and their control counterparts (C+) were injected repeatedly during the last 10 days of the study with increasing doses of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce SCI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346430/il-17c-mediates-the-recruitment-of-tumor-associated-neutrophils-and-lung-tumor-growth
#13
C Jungnickel, L H Schmidt, L Bittigkoffer, L Wolf, A Wolf, F Ritzmann, A Kamyschnikow, C Herr, M D Menger, T Spieker, R Wiewrodt, R Bals, C Beisswenger
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer and an aberrant microbiota of the lung. Microbial colonization contributes to chronic neutrophilic inflammation in COPD. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is frequently found in lungs of stable COPD patients and is the major pathogen triggering exacerbations. The epithelial cytokine interleukin-17C (IL-17C) promotes the recruitment of neutrophils into inflamed tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function of IL-17C in the pulmonary tumor microenvironment...
March 27, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346427/mir-21-is-required-for-anti-tumor-immune-response-in-mice-an-implication-for-its-bi-directional-roles
#14
W He, C Wang, R Mu, P Liang, Z Huang, J Zhang, L Dong
Here we show that miR-21, a microRNA known for its oncogenic activity, is also essential for mediating immune responses against tumor. Knockout of miR-21 in mice slowed the proliferation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, reduced their cytokine production and accelerated the grafted tumor growth. Further investigations indicated that miR-21 could activate CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells via the PTEN/Akt pathway in response to stimulations. Taken together, these data suggest the key functions of miR-21 in mediating anti-tumor immune response and thereby uncover a bi-directional role of this traditionally known 'oncomiR' in tumorigenesis...
March 27, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346408/gut-microbial-metabolites-limit-the-frequency-of-autoimmune-t-cells-and-protect-against-type-1-diabetes
#15
Eliana Mariño, James L Richards, Keiran H McLeod, Dragana Stanley, Yu Anne Yap, Jacinta Knight, Craig McKenzie, Jan Kranich, Ana Carolina Oliveira, Fernando J Rossello, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Christian M Nefzger, Laurence Macia, Alison Thorburn, Alan G Baxter, Grant Morahan, Lee H Wong, Jose M Polo, Robert J Moore, Trevor J Lockett, Julie M Clarke, David L Topping, Leonard C Harrison, Charles R Mackay
Gut dysbiosis might underlie the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. In mice of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) strain, we found that key features of disease correlated inversely with blood and fecal concentrations of the microbial metabolites acetate and butyrate. We therefore fed NOD mice specialized diets designed to release large amounts of acetate or butyrate after bacterial fermentation in the colon. Each diet provided a high degree of protection from diabetes, even when administered after breakdown of immunotolerance...
March 27, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346398/sirtuin-1-sirt1-overexpression-in-baf3-cells-contributes-to-cell-proliferation-promotion-apoptosis-resistance-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-production
#16
Qian Wang, Chao Yan, Miaomiao Xin, Li Han, Yunqing Zhang, Mingshu Sun
BACKGROUND B lymphocyte hyperactivity is a main characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and B lymphocytes play a prominent pathogenic role in the development and progression of SLE. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) in B lymphocytes. MATERIAL AND METHODS Mouse B lymphocytes BaF3 was transfected with Sirt1 vector or shRNA against Sirt1. Then the transfected cells viability and apoptosis were respectively determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry. In addition, the mRNA levels of three pro-inflammatory cytokines and p53 were detected by RT-PCR...
March 27, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346354/anti-inflammatory-properties-of-irisin-mediator-of-physical-activity-are-connected-with-tlr4-myd88-signaling-pathway-activation
#17
Agnieszka Irena Mazur-Bialy, Ewa Pocheć, Marcin Zarawski
Irisin, an adipomiokine known as a mediator of physical activity, induces the browning of adipose tissue and it has potentially protective properties in the development of obesity-related states, such as insulin resistance, arteriosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes. Despite numerous studies conducted on this factor, still little is known about its impact on the functioning of immunocompetent cells, but its potential anti-inflammatory properties were previously suggested. In the current study we investigated the role of irisin (0-100 nM) in the downstream pathway activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in RAW 264...
March 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346317/the-csf-immune-response-in-hiv-1-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis-macrophage-activation-correlates-of-disease-severity-and-effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#18
James E Scriven, Lisa M Graham, Charlotte Schutz, Thomas J Scriba, Katalin A Wilkinson, Robert J Wilkinson, David R Boulware, Britta C Urban, Graeme Meintjes, David G Lalloo
BACKGROUND: Immune modulation may improve outcome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. Animal studies suggest alternatively activated macrophages are detrimental but human studies are limited. We performed a detailed assessment of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune response and examined immune correlates of disease severity and poor outcome, and the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODOLOGY: We enrolled persons ≥18 years with first episode of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346226/a-tlr9-dependent-checkpoint-governs-b-cell-responses-to-dna-containing-antigens
#19
Vishal J Sindhava, Michael A Oropallo, Krishna Moody, Martin Naradikian, Lauren E Higdon, Lin Zhou, Arpita Myles, Nathaniel Green, Kerstin Nündel, William Stohl, Amanda M Schmidt, Wei Cao, Stephanie Dorta-Estremera, Taku Kambayashi, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Michael P Cancro
Mature B cell pools retain a substantial proportion of polyreactive and self-reactive clonotypes, suggesting that activation checkpoints exist to reduce the initiation of autoreactive B cell responses. Here, we have described a relationship among the B cell receptor (BCR), TLR9, and cytokine signals that regulate B cell responses to DNA-containing antigens. In both mouse and human B cells, BCR ligands that deliver a TLR9 agonist induce an initial proliferative burst that is followed by apoptotic death. The latter mechanism involves p38-dependent G1 cell-cycle arrest and subsequent intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis and is shared by all preimmune murine B cell subsets and CD27- human B cells...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346187/re-the-role-of-th1-th2-cells-and-associated-cytokines-in-autoimmune-hepatitis
#20
Tunç Akkoç
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
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