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Biomechanic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055245/biomechanical-analysis-of-an-interference-screw-and-a-novel-twist-lock-screw-design-for-bone-graft-fixation
#1
S Asnis, J Mullen, P D Asnis, N Sgaglione, T LaPorta, D A Grande, N O Chahine
BACKGROUND: Malpositioning of an anterior cruciate ligament graft during reconstruction can occur during screw fixation. The purpose of this study is to compare the fixation biomechanics of a conventional interference screw with a novel Twist Lock Screw, a rectangular shaped locking screw that is designed to address limitations of graft positioning and tensioning. METHODS: Synthetic bone (10, 15, 20lb per cubic foot) were used simulating soft, moderate, and dense cancellous bone...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055138/effects-of-a-bone-graft-substitute-consisting-of-porous-gradient-ha-zro2-and-gelatin-chitosan-slow-release-hydrogel-containing-bmp-2-and-bmscs-on-lumbar-vertebral-defect-repair-in-rhesus-monkey
#2
Rong-Xue Shao, Ren-Fu Quan, Tuo Wang, Wei-Bin Du, Gao-Yong Jia, Dong Wang, Long-Bao Lv, Cai-Yin Xu, Xi-Cheng Wei, Jin-Fu Wang, Di-Sheng Yang
Dense biomaterial plays an important role in bone replacement. However, it fails to induce bone-cell migration into graft material. In the present study, a novel bone-graft substitute (BGS) consisting of porous gradient HA/ZrO2 composite (PGHC) and gelatin/chitosan slow-release hydrogel containing BMP-2 and BMSCs was designed and prepared to repair lumbar vertebral defects. The morphological characteristics of the BGS evaluated by scanning electron microscope showed that it had a three-dimensional network structure with uniformly distributed chitosan microspheres on the surfaces of the graft material and the interior of the pores...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055136/the-rhinoceros-among-serpents-comparative-anatomy-and-experimental-biophysics-of-calabar-burrowing-python-calabaria-reinhardtii-skin
#3
Dawei Han, Bruce A Young
The Calabar burrowing python (Calabaria reinhardtii) has a unique combination of marked thickness of the integumentary layers, a highly organized lamellate arrangement of the dermal collagen bundles, and a reduction in the size of the interscale hinge region of the integument. Biomechanical testing demonstrates that the skin of C. reinhardtii is more resistant to penetration than the skin of other snakes. The laminar arrangement of the collagen bundles provides for penetrative resistance, even while maintaining the flexibility characteristic of snake skin...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055127/shoe-floor-interactions-in-human-walking-with-slips-modeling-and-experiments
#4
Mitja Trkov, Jingang Yi, Tao Liu, Kang Li
Shoe-floor interactions play a crucial role in determining the possibility of potential slip and fall during human walking. Biomechanical and tribological parameters influence the friction characteristics between the shoe sole and the floor and the existing work mainly focus on experimental studies. In this paper, we present modeling, analysis, and experiments to understand slip and force distributions between the shoe sole and floor surface during human walking. We present results for both soft and hard sole material...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054843/contribution-of-extra-cardiac-cells-in-murine-heart-valves-is-age-dependent
#5
Lindsey J Anstine, Tori E Horne, Edwin M Horwitz, Joy Lincoln
BACKGROUND: Heart valves are dynamic structures that open and close over 100 000 times a day to maintain unidirectional blood flow during the cardiac cycle. Function is largely achieved by highly organized layers of extracellular matrix that provide the necessary biomechanical properties. Homeostasis of valve extracellular matrix is mediated by valve endothelial and interstitial cell populations, and although the embryonic origins of these cells are known, it is not clear how they are maintained after birth...
October 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054746/the-influence-of-cadence-and-shoes-on-patellofemoral-joint-kinetics-in-runners-with-patellofemoral-pain
#6
Jason Bonacci, Michelle Hall, Aaron Fox, Natalie Saunders, Tristan Shipsides, Bill Vicenzino
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of a combination of a minimalist shoe and increased cadence on measures of patellofemoral joint loading during running in individuals with patellofemoral pain. DESIGN: Within-participant repeated measures with four conditions presented in random order: (1) control shoe at preferred cadence; (2) control shoe with +10% cadence; (3) minimalist shoe at preferred cadence; (4) minimalist shoe with +10% cadence. METHODS: Fifteen recreational runners with patellofemoral pain ran on an instrumented treadmill while three-dimensional motion capture data were acquired...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054302/monitoring-the-biomechanical-and-physiological-effects-of-postural-changes-during-leisure-chair-sitting
#7
Peter R Worsley, Dan Rebolledo, Sally Webb, Silvia Caggiari, Dan L Bader
BACKGROUND: Individuals with limited mobility can spend prolonged periods in leisure chairs, increasing their risk of developing a seated acquired pressure ulcer. The present study aims to use objective measures of posture and tissue viability to identify the associated risks of leisure chair related pressure ulcers. METHODS: Healthy participants (n = 13) were recruited to sit on a leisure chair with either a viscoelastic foam or air cushion. Participants were asked to adopt four different postures for a period of 10 min followed by a 10 min refractory period...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Viability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054263/nmsbuilder-freeware-to-create-subject-specific-musculoskeletal-models-for-opensim
#8
Giordano Valente, Gianluigi Crimi, Nicola Vanella, Enrico Schileo, Fulvia Taddei
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Musculoskeletal modeling and simulations of movement have been increasingly used in orthopedic and neurological scenarios, with increased attention to subject-specific applications. In general, musculoskeletal modeling applications have been facilitated by the development of dedicated software tools; however, subject-specific studies have been limited also by time-consuming modeling workflows and high skilled expertise required. In addition, no reference tools exist to standardize the process of musculoskeletal model creation and make it more efficient...
December 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053925/mesenchymal-stem-cell-secretome-improves-tendon-cell-viability-in-vitro-and-tendon-bone-healing-in-vivo-when-a-tissue-engineering-strategy-is-used-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-massive-rotator-cuff-tear
#9
Nuno Sevivas, Fábio Gabriel Teixeira, Raquel Portugal, Bruno Direito-Santos, João Espregueira-Mendes, Filipe J Oliveira, Rui F Silva, Nuno Sousa, Wan Ting Sow, Nguyen Luong, Kee Woei Ng, António J Salgado
BACKGROUND: Massive rotator cuff tears (MRCTs) represent a major clinical concern, especially when degeneration and chronicity are involved, which highly compromise healing capacity. PURPOSE: To study the effect of the secretome of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on tendon cells (TCs) followed by the combination of these activated TCs with an electrospun keratin-based scaffold to develop a tissue engineering strategy to improve tendon-bone interface (TBi) healing in a chronic MRCT rat model...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053719/total-disc-replacement-using-tissue-engineered-intervertebral-discs-in-the-canine-cervical-spine
#10
Yu Moriguchi, Jorge Mojica-Santiago, Peter Grunert, Brenton Pennicooke, Connor Berlin, Thamina Khair, Rodrigo Navarro-Ramirez, Rodolfo J Ricart Arbona, Joseph Nguyen, Roger Härtl, Lawrence J Bonassar
The most common reason that adults in the United States see their physician is lower back or neck pain secondary to degenerative disc disease. To date, approaches to treat degenerative disc disease are confined to purely mechanical devices designed to either eliminate or enable flexibility of the diseased motion segment. Tissue engineered intervertebral discs (TE-IVDs) have been proposed as an alternative approach and have shown promise in replacing native IVD in the rodent tail spine. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of our TE-IVDs in the canine cervical spine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053542/biomechanical-comparison-of-intrapelvic-and-extrapelvic-fixation-for-acetabular-fractures-involving-the-quadrilateral-plate
#11
Gregory J Gillispie, Sharon N Babcock, Kyle P McNamara, Michaela E Dimoff, Arun Aneja, Philip J Brown, Eben A Carroll
OBJECTIVES: Elderly patients represent the fastest growing and most difficult to treat population sustaining acetabular fractures. When treated surgically, isolated extrapelvic or combined intrapelvic-extrapelvic constructs may be used. No biomechanical or clinical study has compared the merits of these 2 techniques in cadaveric models. This research aims to biomechanically quantify the additional benefit of intrapelvic fixation to a standard extrapelvic fixation construct. METHODS: Ten cadaveric pelves underwent standardized anterior column and quadrilateral plate fracture creation...
November 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053084/intubation-biomechanics-validation-of-a-finite-element-model-of-cervical-spine-motion-during-endotracheal-intubation-in-intact-and-injured-conditions
#12
Benjamin C Gadomski, Snehal S Shetye, Bradley J Hindman, Franklin Dexter, Brandon G Santoni, Michael M Todd, Vincent C Traynelis, Robert P From, Ricardo B Fontes, Christian M Puttlitz
OBJECTIVE Because of limitations inherent to cadaver models of endotracheal intubation, the authors' group developed a finite element (FE) model of the human cervical spine and spinal cord. Their aims were to 1) compare FE model predictions of intervertebral motion during intubation with intervertebral motion measured in patients with intact cervical spines and in cadavers with spine injuries at C-2 and C3-4 and 2) estimate spinal cord strains during intubation under these conditions. METHODS The FE model was designed to replicate the properties of an intact (stable) spine in patients, C-2 injury (Type II odontoid fracture), and a severe C3-4 distractive-flexion injury from prior cadaver studies...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053076/protective-effect-of-biodegradable-nerve-conduit-against-peripheral-nerve-adhesion-after-neurolysis
#13
Kosuke Shintani, Takuya Uemura, Kiyohito Takamatsu, Takuya Yokoi, Ema Onode, Mitsuhiro Okada, Hiroaki Nakamura
OBJECTIVE Peripheral nerve adhesion caused by extraneural and intraneural scar formation after neurolysis leads to nerve dysfunction. The authors previously developed a novel very flexible biodegradable nerve conduit composed of poly(L-lactide) and poly(ε-caprolactone) for use in peripheral nerve regeneration. In the present study, they investigated the effect of protective nerve wrapping on preventing adhesion in a rat sciatic nerve adhesion model. METHODS Rat sciatic nerves were randomly assigned to one of the following four groups: a no-adhesion group, which involved neurolysis alone without an adhesion procedure; an adhesion group, in which the adhesion procedure was performed after neurolysis, but no treatment was subsequently administered; a nerve wrap group, in which the adhesion procedure was performed after neurolysis and protective nerve wrapping was then performed with the nerve conduit; and a hyaluronic acid (HA) group, in which the adhesion procedure was performed after neurolysis and nerve wrapping was then performed with a 1% sodium HA viscous solution...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053072/quantitative-assessment-of-changes-in-hemodynamics-of-the-internal-carotid-artery-after-bypass-surgery-for-moyamoya-disease
#14
Fengping Zhu, Yi Qian, Bin Xu, Yuxiang Gu, Kaavya Karunanithi, Wei Zhu, Liang Chen, Ying Mao, Michael K Morgan
OBJECTIVE Although intracranial vessel remodeling has been observed in moyamoya disease, concerns remain regarding the effect of bypass surgery on hemodynamic changes within the internal carotid artery (ICA). The authors aimed to quantify the surgical effect of bypass surgery on bilateral ICAs in moyamoya disease and to estimate pressure drop (PD) along the length of the ICA to predict surgical outcomes. METHODS Records of patients who underwent bypass surgery for treatment of moyamoya disease and in whom flow rates were obtained pre- and postsurgery by quantitative MR angiography were retrospectively reviewed...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052789/computational-analysis-of-pharyngeal-swallowing-mechanics-in-patients-with-motor-neuron-disease-a-pilot-investigation
#15
K L Garand, Ryan Schwertner, Amy Chen, William G Pearson
Swallowing impairment (dysphagia) is a common sequela in patients with motor neuron disease (MND). The purpose of this retrospective, observational pilot investigation was to characterize how pharyngeal swallowing mechanics are impacted in patients with MND using a comparison with healthy, non-dysphagic control group. Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) was used to determine covariate biomechanics of pharyngeal swallowing from videofluoroscopic assessment in 15 patients with MND and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
October 20, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052310/effect-of-functionalized-phema-micro-and-nano-particles-on-the-viscoelastic-properties-of-fibrin-agarose-biomaterials
#16
Giuseppe Scionti, Laura Rodriguez-Arco, Modesto T Lopez-Lopez, Antonio L Medina-Castillo, Ingrid Garzón, Miguel Alaminos, Manuel Toledano, Raquel Osorio
Two types of PHEMA-based particles, exhibiting either carboxyl or tertiary ammine functional groups, were incorporated to fibrin-agarose hydrogels, and the effect of the addition of these synthetic particles on the viscoelastic and microstructural properties of the biomaterials was evaluated. Experimental results indicated that the incorporation of both types of polymeric particles to fibrin-agarose scaffolds was able to improve the biomechanical properties of the biomaterials under steady state and oscillatory shear stresses, resulting in scaffolds characterized by higher values of the storage, loss and shear moduli...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051544/estimating-prognosis-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-using-personalized-computational-heart-models
#17
Hao Gao, Kenneth Mangion, David Carrick, Dirk Husmeier, Xiaoyu Luo, Colin Berry
Biomechanical computational models have potential prognostic utility in patients after an acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In a proof-of-concept study, we defined two groups (1) an acute STEMI group (n = 6, 83% male, age 54 ± 12 years) complicated by left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction; (2) an age- and sex- matched hyper-control group (n = 6, 83% male, age 46 ± 14 years), no prior history of cardiovascular disease and normal systolic blood pressure (SBP < 130 mmHg)...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051535/the-biomechanical-origin-of-extreme-wing-allometry-in-hummingbirds
#18
Dimitri A Skandalis, Paolo S Segre, Joseph W Bahlman, Derrick J E Groom, Kenneth C Welch, Christopher C Witt, Jimmy A McGuire, Robert Dudley, David Lentink, Douglas L Altshuler
Flying animals of different masses vary widely in body proportions, but the functional implications of this variation are often unclear. We address this ambiguity by developing an integrative allometric approach, which we apply here to hummingbirds to examine how the physical environment, wing morphology and stroke kinematics have contributed to the evolution of their highly specialised flight. Surprisingly, hummingbirds maintain constant wing velocity despite an order of magnitude variation in body weight; increased weight is supported solely through disproportionate increases in wing area...
October 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051516/stromal-striae-a-new-insight-into-corneal-physiology-and-mechanics
#19
Kate Grieve, Djida Ghoubay, Cristina Georgeon, Gael Latour, Amir Nahas, Karsten Plamann, Caroline Crotti, Romain Bocheux, Marie Borderie, Thu-Mai Nguyen, Felipe Andreiuolo, Marie-Claire Schanne-Klein, Vincent Borderie
We uncover the significance of a previously unappreciated structural feature in corneal stroma, important to its biomechanics. Vogt striae are a known clinical indicator of keratoconus, and consist of dark, vertical lines crossing the corneal depth. However we detected stromal striae in most corneas, not only keratoconus. We observed striae with multiple imaging modalities in 82% of 118 human corneas, with pathology-specific differences. Striae generally depart from anchor points at Descemet's membrane in the posterior stroma obliquely in a V-shape, whereas in keratoconus, striae depart vertically from posterior toward anterior stroma...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051334/case-studies-in-physiology-the-biomechanics-of-the-fastest-sprinter-with-a-unilateral-transtibial-amputation
#20
Owen N Beck, Alena Marie Grabowski
People have debated whether athletes with transtibial amputations should compete with non-amputees in track events despite insufficient information regarding how the use of running-specific prostheses affects athletic performance. Thus, we sought to quantify the spatio-temporal variables, ground reaction forces, and spring-mass mechanics of the fastest athlete with a unilateral transtibial amputation using an RSP to reveal how he adapts his biomechanics to achieve elite running speeds. Accordingly, we measured ground reaction forces during treadmill running trials spanning 2...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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