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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679933/slip-avoidance-strategies-in-children-with-bilateral-spastic-cerebral-palsy-and-crouch-gait
#1
Ana Francisca Rozin Kleiner, Ilaria Pacifici, Claudia Condoluci, Chiarella Sforza, Manuela Galli
BACKGROUND: A slip occurs when the required friction (RCOF) to prevent slipping at the foot/floor interfaces exceeds the available friction. The RCOF is dependent upon the biomechanics features of individuals and their gait. On the other hand, the available friction depends on environmental features. Once individuals with crouch gait have their biomechanics of gait completely altered, how do they interact with a supporting surface? The aim was to quantify the RCOF in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (BSCP) and crouch gait...
April 11, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679921/electromyographic-and-biomechanical-analysis-of-step-negotiation-in-charcot-marie-tooth-subjects-whose-level-walk-is-not-impaired
#2
Tiziana Lencioni, Giuseppe Piscosquito, Marco Rabuffetti, Enrica Di Sipio, Manuela Diverio, Isabella Moroni, Luca Padua, Emanuela Pagliano, Angelo Schenone, Davide Pareyson, Maurizio Ferrarin
BACKGROUND: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) is a slowly progressive disease characterized by muscular weakness and wasting with a length-dependent pattern. Mildly affected CMT subjects showed slight alteration of walking compared to healthy subjects (HS). RESEARCH QUESTION: To investigate the biomechanics of step negotiation, a task that requires greater muscle strength and balance control compared to level walking, in CMT subjects without primary locomotor deficits (foot drop and push off deficit) during walking...
April 13, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679732/inter-site-variability-of-the-osteocyte-lacunar-network-in-the-cortical-bone-underpins-fracture-susceptibility-of-the-superolateral-femoral-neck
#3
Tim Rolvien, Annika Vom Scheidt, Kilian Stockhausen, Petar Milovanovic, Danijela Djonic, Jan Hubert, Thelonius Hawellek, Alexander Wacker, Volker Jebens, Klaus Püschel, Elizabeth A Zimmermann, Marija Djuric, Michael Amling, Björn Busse
BACKGROUND: The osteocytic lacunar network is considered to be an integral player in the regulation of bone homeostasis, and reduction in osteocytes is associated with reduced bone strength. Here, we analyzed site-specific patterns in osteocyte characteristics and matrix composition in the cortical compartment of the femoral neck to reveal structural basis of its fragility. METHODS: Cross-sections of the human femoral neck - one of the most common fracture sites - were acquired from 12 female cadavers (age 34-86 years) and analyzed with backscattered scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution micro-computed tomography (μ-CT)...
April 18, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679551/histological-and-mechanical-evaluation-of-antifreeze-peptide-afp1m-cryopreserved-skin-grafts-post-transplantation-in-a-rat-model
#4
S M Ibrahim, O H Kareem, K M Saffanah, A A Adamu, M S Khan, M B A Rahman, M M Noordin, M Y Loqman
The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of Afp1m as a cryopreservative agent for skin by examining the transplanted skin histological architecture and mechanical properties following subzero cryopreservation. Thirty four (34) rats with an average weight of 208 ± 31 g (mean ± SD), were used. Twenty four (n = 24) rats were equally divided into four groups: (i) immediate non-cryopreserved skin autografts (onto same site), (ii) immediate non-cryopreserved skin autografts (onto different sites), (iii) skin autografts cryopreserved with glycerol for 72 h and (iv) skin autografts cryopreserved with Afp1m for 72 h at -4 °C...
April 18, 2018: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679256/biomechanical-features-of-six-design-of-the-delta-external-fixator-for-treating-pilon-fracture-a-finite-element-study
#5
Muhammad Hanif Ramlee, Mohd Ayub Sulong, Evelyn Garcia-Nieto, Daniel Angure Penaranda, Antonio Ros Felip, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir
Pilon fractures can be caused by high-energy vertical forces which may result in long-term patient immobilization. Many experts in orthopedic surgery recommend the use of a Delta external fixator for type III Pilon fracture treatment. This device can promote immediate healing of fractured bone, minimizing the rate of complications as well as allowing early mobilization. The characteristics of different types of the Delta frame have not been demonstrated yet. By using the finite element method, this study was conducted to determine the biomechanical characteristics of six different configurations (Model 1 until Model 6)...
April 21, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679209/quadriceps-tendon-autograft-medial-patellofemoral-ligament-reconstruction
#6
REVIEW
Christian Fink, Robert Steensen, Peter Gföller, Robert Lawton
PURPOSE: Critically evaluate the published literature related to quadriceps tendon (QT) medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. RECENT FINDINGS: Hamstring tendon (HT) MPFL reconstruction techniques have been shown to successfully restore patella stability, but complications including patella fracture are reported. Quadriceps tendon (QT) reconstruction techniques with an intact graft pedicle on the patella side have the advantage that patella bone tunnel drilling and fixation are no longer needed, reducing risk of patella fracture...
April 20, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679109/parallel-versus-orthogonal-plate-osteosynthesis-of-adult-distal-humerus-fractures-a-meta-analysis-of-biomechanical-studies
#7
Chien-An Shih, Wei-Ren Su, Wei-Chin Lin, Tai-Wei Tai
PURPOSE: There are two widely used distal humerus fracture (DHF) fixation methods with either orthogonal or parallel double-plate osteosynthesis. However, biomechanical studies have shown inconsistent results on which technique is more effective. We performed a meta-analysis to compare these two fixation methods for adult DHF fixation. METHODS: We searched the literature for entries discussing the biomechanical testing of orthogonal and parallel fixation techniques for DHFs...
April 20, 2018: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678714/transmuscle-ultrasonography-in-the-placement-of-thoracolumbar-pedicle-screws-a-cadaveric-study
#8
Cheng-Long Xie, Qi-Shan Huang, Long Wu, Lei Xu, Hai-Cheng Dou, Xiang-Yang Wang, Zhong-Ke Lin
BACKGROUND: Transpedicular screws fixation has a biomechanical advantage of improving fusion rates. In the posterior thoracolumbar immobilization, a large number of screws cause perforation to pedicle or vertebra body. Techniques as radiograph and CT were used to minimize this complication. However, ultrasound in detecting the pedicle breach during the placement of the screw in unknown. Our goal is to evaluate the sensitivity of ultrasound for detecting the breaches. METHODS: A B-type transducer was used for scanning 216 Titanium pins inserted into the cadaveric pedicle...
April 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678397/varus-posteromedial-rotatory-instability-a-biomechanical-analysis-of-posterior-bundle-of-the-medial-ulnar-collateral-ligament-reconstruction
#9
Matthew J Gluck, Christina M Beck, Elan J Golan, Philip Nasser, Dave R Shukla, Michael R Hausman
BACKGROUND: Recently, there has been growing interest in the involvement of the posterior bundle of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (pMUCL) in varus posteromedial rotatory instability (PMRI). Varus PMRI has been observed clinically, but the degree of involvement of the pMUCL remains unclear. This study assessed the degree to which the pMUCL is involved in stabilizing the elbow and the feasibility of a pMUCL reconstruction to restore stability. METHODS: Movements simulating PMRI were performed in 8 cadaveric elbows...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678367/a-biomechanical-evaluation-of-different-fixation-strategies-for-posterolateral-fragments-in-tibial-plateau-fractures-and-introduction-of-the-magic-screw
#10
Hui Sun, Qi-Fang He, Bin-Bin Zhang, Yi Zhu, Wei Zhang, Yi-Min Chai
BACKGROUND: Posterior plate fixation is biomechanically the strongest fixation method for posterolateral column fracture (PLCF) of the tibial plateau; however, there are inherent deficiencies and risks of a posterior approach. Thus, the 'magic screw' was proposed to enhance fixation stability of the lateral rafting plate used for PLCF. The purpose of this study was to re-examine and compare the stability of different fixation methods for PLCF. METHODS: Synthetic tibiae models were used to simulate posterolateral split fractures...
April 17, 2018: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678191/a-biomechanical-analysis-of-triangular-medial-knee-reconstruction
#11
Xiaomeng Wang, Huixin Liu, Guman Duan, Yingzhen Niu, Chang Liu, Fei Wang
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare knee kinematics and stability following either triangular or anatomical reconstruction of the superficial medial collateral ligament (sMCL) and posterior oblique ligament (POL). METHODS: In a cadaveric model (12 knees), the stability and kinematics following two experimental sMCL and POL reconstructions were compared in sMCL- and POL-deficient knees versus normal knees. The first reconstruction was a triangular reconstruction of the sMCL and POL, while the second involved an anatomical reconstruction of the sMCL and POL...
April 20, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677281/biomechanical-effects-on-cervical-spinal-cord-and-nerve-root-following-laminoplasty-for-ossification-of-the-posterior-longitudinal-ligament-in-the-cervical-spine-a-comparison-between-open-door-and-double-door-laminoplasty-using-finite-element-analysis
#12
Batbayar Khuyagbaatar, Kyungsoo Kim, Tserenchimed Purevsuren, Sang-Hun Lee, Yoon Hyuk Kim
Many clinical case series have reported the predisposing factors for C5 palsy and have presented comparisons of the two types of laminoplasty. However, there have been no biomechanical studies focusing on cervical spinal cord and nerve root following laminoplasty. The purpose of this study is to investigate biomechanical changes in the spinal cord and nerve roots following the two most common types of laminoplasty, open-door and double-door laminoplasty, for cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL)...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677101/electromyographic-and-joint-kinematic-patterns-in-runner-s-dystonia
#13
Omar F Ahmad, Pritha Ghosh, Christopher Stanley, Barbara Karp, Mark Hallett, Codrin Lungu, Katharine Alter
Runner’s dystonia (RD) is a task-specific focal dystonia of the lower limbs that occurs when running. In this retrospective case series, we present surface electromyography (EMG) and joint kinematic data from thirteen patients with RD who underwent instrumented gait analysis (IGA) at the Functional and Biomechanics Laboratory at the National Institutes of Health. Four cases of RD are described in greater detail to demonstrate the potential utility of EMG with kinematic studies to identify dystonic muscle groups in RD...
April 20, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676682/growth-and-alignment-of-the-pediatric-subaxial-cervical-spine-following-rigid-instrumentation-and-fusion-a-multicenter-study-of-the-pediatric-craniocervical-society
#14
Hannah E Goldstein, Justin A Neira, Matei Banu, Philipp R Aldana, Bruno P Braga, Douglas L Brockmeyer, Michael L DiLuna, Daniel H Fulkerson, Todd C Hankinson, Andrew H Jea, Sean M Lew, David D Limbrick, Jonathan Martin, Joshua M Pahys, Luis F Rodriguez, Curtis J Rozzelle, Gerald F Tuite, Nicholas M Wetjen, Richard C E Anderson
OBJECTIVE The long-term effects of surgical fusion on the growing subaxial cervical spine are largely unknown. Recent cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that there is continued growth of the cervical spine through the teenage years. The purpose of this multicenter study was to determine the effects of rigid instrumentation and fusion on the growing subaxial cervical spine by investigating vertical growth, cervical alignment, cervical curvature, and adjacent-segment instability over time. METHODS A total of 15 centers participated in this multi-institutional retrospective study...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676570/caznos-nd-3-emits-tissue-penetrating-near-infrared-light-upon-force-loading
#15
Lejing Li, Lothar Wondraczek, Lihua Li, Yu Zhang, Ye Zhu, Mingying Peng, Chuanbin Mao
Mechanoluminescent (ML) materials are mechano-optical converters that can emit light under an external mechanical stimulus. All the existing ML materials can only emit light from near ultraviolet to red, which is outside the near-infrared (NIR) windows desired for biomechanical imaging. No studies have been done on doping rare earth (RE) ions with photoluminescence (PL) in the NIR region into a compound to form a ML material that emits NIR light in response to an external force. Here, we show that doping RE ions with a NIR PL into an inorganic compound does not usually result in the formation of a NIR ML material, which can only be achieved in the combination of Nd3+ ions and a CaZnOS compound among the combinations we studied...
April 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676227/chemically-modified-mrna-modified-rna-application-for-treatment-of-achilles-tendon-defects
#16
Elmar Herbst, Florian Imhoff, Peter Föhr, Stefan Milz, Christian Plank, Carsten Rudolph, Günther Hasenpusch, Johannes Geiger, Manish Aneja, Karoline Groth, Stephan Vogt, Andreas Imhoff, Andreas Schmitt
Different regenerative medicine approaches for tendon healing exist. Recently, especially gene therapy gained popularity. However, potential mutagenic and immunologic effects might prevent from translation to clinical research. Chemically modified mRNA (cmRNA) might bypass these limitations of gene therapy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the early healing properties of Achilles tendon defects in rats treated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) cmRNA. Forty male Lewis rats were used for the study and randomly assigned to the two study groups: 1) treatment with cmRNA coding for bFGF, 2) non-coding cmRNA control...
April 20, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675743/single-versus-double-bundle-pcl-reconstruction-scientific-rationale-and-clinical-evidence
#17
REVIEW
Christopher J Tucker, Patrick W Joyner, Nathan K Endres
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper is to review the biomechanical and clinical rationale for single-bundle versus double-bundle posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction. The primary question is whether there has been demonstrated any clear biomechanical or clinical superiority of a double-bundle reconstruction over a single-bundle reconstruction. RECENT FINDINGS: There is some recent evidence demonstrating biomechanical superiority of double-bundle versus single-bundle reconstruction; however, this is not definitive...
April 19, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675685/laplace-based-modeling-of-fiber-orientation-in-the-tongue
#18
Arnold D Gomez, Nahla Elsaid, Maureen L Stone, Jiachen Zhuo, Jerry L Prince
Mechanical modeling of tongue deformation plays a significant role in the study of breathing, swallowing, and speech production. In the absence of internal joints, fiber orientations determine the direction of sarcomeric contraction and have great influence over real and simulated tissue motion. However, subject-specific experimental observations of fiber distribution are difficult to obtain; thus, models of fiber distribution are generally used in mechanical simulations. This paper describes modeling of fiber distribution using solutions of Laplace equations and compares the effectiveness of this approach against tractography from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging...
April 19, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675516/biomechanical-effect-of-ferrule-on-incisors-restored-with-a-fiberglass-post-and-lithium-disilicate-ceramic-crown-after-thermal-cycling-and-fatigue-loading
#19
Andréa Dolores Correia Miranda Valdivia, Monise de Paula Rodrigues, Aline Aredes Bicalho, Bart Van Meerbeek, Jos Vander Sloten, Roberto Sales E Pessoa, Carlos José Soares
PURPOSE: To evaluate the biomechanics of endodontically treated incisors restored with a fiberglass post and a CAD/CAM lithium-disilicate ceramic crown with/without a ferrule after thermal and mechanical aging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty bovine incisors were divided into two groups (n = 10): 1. Fe, with a ferrule of 2 mm, and 2. NFe, without a ferrule. After endodontic treatment, the teeth were restored using a fiberglass post (Exacto 3, Angelus) and composite core (Tetric Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Adhesive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675392/efficacy-of-iontophoresis-assisted-epithelium-on-corneal-cross-linking-for-keratoconus
#20
REVIEW
Hong-Zhen Jia, Xiu-Jun Peng
Corneal cross-linking (CXL) is a noninvasive therapeutic procedure for keratoconus that is aimed at improving corneal biomechanical properties by induction of covalent cross-links between stromal proteins. It is accomplished by ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation of the cornea, which is first saturated with photosensitizing riboflavin. It has been shown that standard epithelium-off CXL (S-CXL) is efficacious, and it has been recommended as the standard of care procedure for keratoconus. However, epithelial removal leads to pain, transient vision loss, and a higher risk of corneal infection...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
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