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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822738/a-study-of-the-damage-behaviour-of-porcine-intervertebral-discs-in-a-bioreactor-environment
#1
M Azarnoosh, M Stoffel, B Markert
The intervertebral discs are cartilaginous, articulating structures that lie between vertebral bodies, allowing flexibility, transmission, modification, and also distribution of the forces to the spinal column. Disc degeneration is characterised by progressive loss of disc height and exaggerated radial bulging. Therefore, the spine becomes shorter, stiffer, and less mobile. In the last several decades, there is a strong need for a tissue engineering strategy that alleviates pain and restores spine function by directly addressing the underlying biological causes of disc degeneration...
August 9, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822474/the-effect-of-augmented-feedback-and-expertise-on-spinal-manipulation-skills-an-experimental-study
#2
Mégane Pasquier, Charlène Cheron, Claude Dugas, Arnaud Lardon, Martin Descarreaux
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effect of augmented feedback and expertise on the performance and retention of basic motor learning spinal manipulation skills. METHODS: A total of 103 chiropractic students with various training expertise were recruited for the study. Participants were evaluated at baseline, immediately after trials of augmented feedback practice and 1 week later. During all 3 assessments, students were asked to perform several trials of the same spinal manipulation, for which the maximum preload force, onset of thrust, thrust duration, force and peak force, thrust duration, rate of force application, and any drop in preload force were calculated...
July 2017: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822473/influence-of-spinal-manipulative-therapy-force-magnitude-and-application-site-on-spinal-tissue-loading-a-biomechanical-robotic-serial-dissection-study-in-porcine-motion-segments
#3
Martha Funabashi, François Nougarou, Martin Descarreaux, Narasimha Prasad, Greg Kawchuk
OBJECTIVE: In order to define the relation between spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) input parameters and the distribution of load within spinal tissues, the aim of this study was to determine the influence of force magnitude and application site when SMT is applied to cadaveric spines. METHODS: In 10 porcine cadavers, a servo-controlled linear actuator motor provided a standardized SMT simulation using 3 different force magnitudes (100N, 300N, and 500N) to 2 different cutaneous locations: L3/L4 facet joint (FJ), and L4 transverse processes (TVP)...
July 2017: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822328/the-effects-of-haptic-input-on-biomechanical-and-neurophysiological-parameters-of-walking-a-scoping-review
#4
REVIEW
Alison R Oates, Laura Hauck, Renato Moraes, Kathryn M Sibley
Walking is an important component of daily life requiring sensorimotor integration to be successful. Adding haptic input via light touch or anchors has been shown to improve standing balance; however, the effect of adding haptic input on walking is not clear. This scoping review systematically summarizes the current evidence regarding the addition of haptic input on walking in adults. Following an established protocol, relevant studies were identified using indexed data bases (Medline, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Google Scholar) and hand searches of published review articles on related topics...
August 9, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822316/improved-middle-ear-soft-tissue-visualization-using-synchrotron-radiation-phase-contrast-imaging
#5
Mai Elfarnawany, Seyed Alireza Rohani, Soroush Ghomashchi, Daniel G Allen, Ning Zhu, Sumit K Agrawal, Hanif M Ladak
High resolution images are used as a basis for finite-element modeling of the middle-ear structures to study their biomechanical function. Commonly used imaging techniques such as micro-computed tomography (CT) and optical microscopy require extensive sample preparation, processing or staining using contrast agents to achieve sufficient soft-tissue contrast. We compare imaging of middle-ear structures in unstained, non-decalcified human temporal bones using conventional absorption-contrast micro-CT and using synchrotron radiation phase-contrast imaging (SR-PCI)...
August 5, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822222/biomechanical-comparison-of-a-novel-monocortical-and-two-common-bicortical-external-fixation-systems-regarding-rigidity-and-dynamic-stability
#6
Patrick A Varady, Markus Greinwald, Peter Augat
AIM: To biomechanically compare a monocortical single frame external fixator (Orthofix UNYCO) with two bicortical fixator systems (dual frame: Stryker Hoffmann and single frame: Synthes LEF) with respect to system rigidity and stability under cyclic loading. METHODS: The fixator systems were assessed for axial rigidity under loads which would occur clinically during fixator application and dynamic stability (cyclic fatigue) under loads which would occur in the first week postoperatively...
August 19, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822139/confocal-raman-mapping-of-collagen-cross-link-and-crystallinity-of-human-dentin-enamel-junction
#7
Amel Slimani, Fares Nouioua, Alban Desoutter, Bernard Levallois, Frédéric J G Cuisinier, Hervé Tassery, Elodie Terrer, Hamideh Salehi
The separation zone between enamel and dentin [dentin-enamel junction (DEJ)] with different properties in biomechanical composition has an important role in preventing crack propagation from enamel to dentin. The understanding of the chemical structure (inorganic and organic components), physical properties, and chemical composition of the human DEJ could benefit biomimetic materials in dentistry. Spatial distribution of calcium phosphate crystallinity and the collagen crosslinks near DEJ were studied using confocal Raman microscopy and calculated by different methods...
August 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821242/methodological-factors-affecting-joint-moments-estimation-in-clinical-gait-analysis-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Valentina Camomilla, Andrea Cereatti, Andrea Giovanni Cutti, Silvia Fantozzi, Rita Stagni, Giuseppe Vannozzi
Quantitative gait analysis can provide a description of joint kinematics and dynamics, and it is recognized as a clinically useful tool for functional assessment, diagnosis and intervention planning. Clinically interpretable parameters are estimated from quantitative measures (i.e. ground reaction forces, skin marker trajectories, etc.) through biomechanical modelling. In particular, the estimation of joint moments during motion is grounded on several modelling assumptions: (1) body segmental and joint kinematics is derived from the trajectories of markers and by modelling the human body as a kinematic chain; (2) joint resultant (net) loads are, usually, derived from force plate measurements through a model of segmental dynamics...
August 18, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819758/an-in-silico-biomechanical-analysis-of-the-stent-esophagus-interaction
#9
Mathias Peirlinck, Nic Debusschere, Francesco Iannaccone, Peter D Siersema, Benedict Verhegghe, Patrick Segers, Matthieu De Beule
Despite all technological innovations in esophageal stent design over the past 20 years, the association between the stent design's mechanical behavior and its effect on the clinical outcome has not yet been thoroughly explored. A parametric numerical model of a commercially available esophageal bioresorbable polymeric braided wire stent is set up, accounting for stent design aspects such as braiding angle, strut material, wire thickness, degradation and friction between the wires comprising a predictive tool on the device's mechanical behavior...
August 17, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819695/theoretical-modeling-of-mechanical-homeostasis-of-a-mammalian-cell-under-gravity-directed-vector
#10
Lüwen Zhou, Chen Zhang, Fan Zhang, Shouqin Lü, Shujin Sun, Dongyuan Lü, Mian Long
Translocation of dense nucleus along gravity vector initiates mechanical remodeling of a eukaryotic cell. In our previous experiments, we quantified the impact of gravity vector on cell remodeling by placing an MC3T3-E1 cell onto upward (U)-, downward (D)-, or edge-on (E)- orientated substrate. Our experimental data demonstrate that orientation dependence of nucleus longitudinal translocation is positively correlated with cytoskeletal (CSK) remodeling of their expressions and structures and also is associated with rearrangement of focal adhesion complex (FAC)...
August 17, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818642/the-expression-of-endogenous-hydrogen-sulfide-signal-during-distraction-osteogenesis-in-a-rabbit-model
#11
X-W Jiang, Y Zhang, Y-Z Cheng, X-S Fan, X Deng, H-Y Peng
The hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signal system plays an important role in bone metabolism. However, the role of endogenous H2S during distraction osteogenesis (DO) remains unclear. Sixty-two male New Zealand White rabbits were subjected to right mandibular DO. Before distraction, the animals were divided randomly into two groups: group A, 0.5mm twice/day for 10 days; group B, 1.25mm twice/day for 4 days. Plasma and distraction gap tissue were harvested to determine the H2S signal. The osteogenesis effect was also evaluated...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818258/imaging-of-high-risk-carotid-plaques-ultrasound
#12
Rafael S Cires-Drouet, Mahvash Mozafarian, Amir Ali, Siddhartha Sikdar, Brajesh K Lal
Duplex ultrasonography has a well-established role in the assessment of the degree of stenosis caused by carotid atherosclerosis. This assessment is derived from Doppler velocity changes induced by the narrowing lumen of the artery. New research into the mechanisms for plaque rupture and atheroembolic stroke indicates that the degree of narrowing is an imperfect predictor of stroke risk, and that other factors, such as plaque composition and remodeling and biomechanical forces acting on the plaque, can play a role...
March 2017: Seminars in Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818107/patellofemoral-kinematics-in-dogs-with-cranial-cruciate-ligament-insufficiency-an-in-vivo-fluoroscopic-analysis-during-walking
#13
Stanley E Kim, Geoffrey J Zann, Selena Tinga, Erica J Moore, Antonio Pozzi, Scott A Banks
BACKGROUND: Complete rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) in dogs causes profound disturbance to stifle joint biomechanics. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) insufficiency on patellofemoral (PF) kinematics in dogs during walking. Ten client-owned dogs (20-40 kg) with natural unilateral complete CrCL rupture were included. Dogs underwent computed tomographic scans to create digital bone-models of the patella and femur...
August 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817976/an-open-source-model-and-solution-method-to-predict-co-contraction-in-the-finger
#14
Alexander R MacIntosh, Peter J Keir
A novel open-source biomechanical model of the index finger with an electromyography (EMG)-constrained static optimization solution method are developed with the goal of improving co-contraction estimates and providing means to assess tendon tension distribution through the finger. The Intrinsic model has four degrees of freedom and seven muscles (with a 14 component extensor mechanism). A novel plugin developed for the OpenSim modelling software applied the EMG-constrained static optimization solution method...
August 17, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817971/effects-of-solid-acellular-type-i-iii-collagen-biomaterials-on-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-chondrogenesis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#15
Liang Gao, Patrick Orth, Magali Cucchiarini, Henning Madry
Type-I/III collagen membranes are advocated for clinical use in articular cartilage repair as being able of inducing chondrogenesis, a technique termed autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC). Area covered: The current in vitro and translational in vivo evidence for chondrogenic effects of solid acellular type-I/III collagen biomaterials. Expert commentary: In vitro, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) adhere to the fibers of the type-I/III collagen membrane. No in vitro study provides evidence that a type-I/III collagen matrix alone may induce chondrogenesis...
August 18, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817961/evaluating-the-ergonomics-of-flexible-ureteroscopy
#16
Wesley Ludwig, Gyusung I Lee, Justin Bradley Ziemba, Joan S Ko, Brian Matlaga
INTRODUCTION: To date, the ergonomics of flexible ureteroscopy (URS) have not been well described. We performed a study to assess the biomechanical stresses on urologists performing URS and to investigate the effect of ureteroscope type on these parameters. METHODS: Electromyography (EMG) was used to quantify the activation level of muscle groups involved in URS. Surface EMG electrodes (Delsys, Boston, MA) were placed on the right and left thenar, flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU), biceps, triceps and deltoid...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817960/effectiveness-of-pedicle-screw-inclusion-at-the-fracture-level-in-short-segment-fixation-constructs-for-the-treatment-of-thoracolumbar-burst-fractures-a-computational-biomechanics-analysis
#17
Shady Elmasry, Shihab Asfour, Francesco Travascio
When treating thoracolumbar burst fractures (BF), short-segment posterior fixation (SSPF) represents a less invasive alternative to the traditional long-segment posterior fixation (LSPF) approach. However, hardware failure and loss of sagittal alignment have been reported in patients treated with SSPF. Including pedicle screws at the fracture level in SSPF constructs has been proposed to improve stiffness and reliability of the construct. Accordingly, the biomechanical performance of the proposed construct was compared to LSPF via a computational analysis...
August 17, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817244/key-developments-that-impacted-the-field-of-mechanobiology-and-mechanotransduction
#18
Michelle Wall, David Butler, Alicia El Haj, Josephine C Bodle, Elizabeth G Loboa, Albert J Banes
Advances in mechanobiology have evolved through insights from multiple disciplines including structural engineering, biomechanics, vascular biology, and orthopaedics. In this paper, we reviewed the impact of key reports related to the study of applied loads on tissues and cells and the resulting signal transduction pathways. We addressed how technology has helped advance the burgeoning field of mechanobiology (over 33,600 publications from 1970-2016). We analyzed the impact of critical ideas and then determined how these concepts influenced the mechanobiology field by looking at the citation frequency of these reports as well as tracking how the overall number of citations within the field changed over time...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817210/varus-knee-osteoarthritis-elevated-synovial-cd15-counts-correlate-with-inferior-biomechanical-properties-of-lateral-compartment-cartilage
#19
Ulrich Koller, Wenzel Waldstein, Veit Krenn, Reinhard Windhager, Friedrich Boettner
The study analyzed the influence of synovitis on the histological and biomechanical properties of lateral-compartment cartilage. In a prospective cohort study, 84 patients (100 knees) with varus deformity of the knee were included. Osteochondral samples from the distal lateral femur underwent biomechanical and histologic analysis. Synovial tissue was sampled for histological (chronic synovitis score) and immunohistochemical evaluation of the degree of synovitis. CD15 (neutrophils), Ki-67 (dividing cells) and CD68 (macrophages) were tested in all synovial samples...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817191/pullout-strength-of-2-0-mm-cancellous-and-cortical-screws-in-synthetic-bone
#20
John E Moser, Kevin A R Kunkel, Patrick D Gerard
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether 2.0 mm cancellous screws are superior to 2.0 mm cortical screws when inserted into cancellous and bicortical bone. STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical study. METHODS: The 2.0 mm cancellous screws and 2.0 mm cortical screws were inserted according to the recommended guidelines in synthetic cancellous and bicortical blocks. Fifteen screw-block constructs per group were tested to failure in axial pullout. Axial pullout strength and yield strength were calculated...
August 17, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
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