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Red yeast rice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641460/variability-in-strength-of-red-yeast-rice-supplements-purchased-from-mainstream-retailers
#1
Pieter A Cohen, Bharathi Avula, Ikhlas A Khan
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has introduced manufacturing standards for dietary supplements, including red yeast rice, to assure their identity, purity, strength, and composition. One supplement commonly used to self-treat high cholesterol, red yeast rice, may contain monacolin K, an ingredient identical to prescription lovastatin. We examined whether FDA's manufacturing standards led to standard concentrations of the statin monacolin K in red yeast rice supplements. We analyzed 28 brands of red yeast rice supplements by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for monacolin K content...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617172/food-supplements-with-red-yeast-rice-more-regulations-are-needed
#2
Guy G De Backer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601545/red-yeast-rice-preparations-are-they-suitable-substitutions-for-statins
#3
REVIEW
Carlos A Dujovne
Red yeast rice, a commercially available food supplement known to reduce serum cholesterol, has been repeatedly advocated as alternative therapy for hypercholesterolemic patients that refuse statins, cannot tolerate statin therapy's side effects, or request a "naturopathic" medicine. Red yeast rice contains a fungus (Monascus purpureus), which was utilized in the original production of lovastatin (Mevacor TM), the first marketed pharmaceutical statin, and is chemically identical to such product. Their identical properties account for the similarity in therapeutic and side effects of red yeast rice and lovastatin...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579756/effect-of-a-food-supplement-containing-berberine-monacolin-k-hydroxytyrosol-and-coenzyme-q10-on-lipid-levels-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#4
Sergio D'Addato, Luciana Scandiani, Giuliana Mombelli, Francesca Focanti, Federica Pelacchi, Enrica Salvatori, Giorgio Di Loreto, Alessandro Comandini, Pamela Maffioli, Giuseppe Derosa
PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of the new food supplement, Body Lipid (BL), containing red yeast rice, berberine, coenzyme Q10 and hydroxytyrosol, to lower the LDL-C in patients with mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemia and to assess the overall safety profile of the product. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo and active comparator (the marketed Armolipid Plus(®) [AM]) controlled study, 158 hypercholesterolemic patients were randomized following a 4-week dietary run-in period...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555162/red-yeast-rice-protects-circulating-bone-marrow-derived-proangiogenic-cells-against-high-glucose-induced-senescence-and-oxidative-stress-the-role-of-heme-oxygenase-1
#5
Jung-Tung Liu, Huey-Yi Chen, Wen-Chi Chen, Kee-Ming Man, Yung-Hsiang Chen
The inflammation and oxidative stress of bone marrow-derived proangiogenic cells (PACs), also named endothelial progenitor cells, triggered by hyperglycemia contributes significantly to vascular dysfunction. There is supporting evidence that the consumption of red yeast rice (RYR; Monascus purpureus-fermented rice) reduces the vascular complications of diabetes; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of RYR extract in PACs, focusing particularly on the role of a potent antioxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551243/development-and-validation-of-a-robust-high-performance-liquid-chromatographic-method-for-the-analysis-of-monacolins-in-red-yeast-rice
#6
Mart Theunis, Tania Naessens, Veronique Verhoeven, Nina Hermans, Sandra Apers
A robust analytical method, using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection, was developed and validated for the quantification of monacolins in red yeast rice bulk products. Tests on the composition of the extraction solvent, extraction time and the number of repetitions of extraction were evaluated with the aim of complete extraction of the monacolins and minimal transitions between the monacolins during analysis. Monacolin K (acid form), monacolin K (lactone form) and minor monacolin peaks were separated on a C18 column (250×4...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521773/red-yeast-rice-induces-less-muscle-fatigue-symptom-than-simvastatin-in-dyslipidemic-patients-a-single-center-randomized-pilot-trial
#7
Yangjing Xue, Luyuan Tao, Shaoze Wu, Guoqiang Wang, Lu Qian, Jiwu Li, Lianming Liao, Jifei Tang, Kangting Ji
BACKGROUND: About 10-15% patients who take statins experience skeletal muscle problems. Red yeast rice has a good safety profile could provide a compromise therapeutic strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of red yeast rice, when compared to simvastatin, on the muscle fatigue symptom and the serum lipid level in dyslipidemic patients with low to moderate cardiovascular risk. METHODS: A total of 60 dyslipidemic patients with low to moderate cardiovascular risk were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either simvastatin (n = 33) or red yeast rice (n = 27) for 4 weeks...
May 18, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490066/the-physico-chemical-alteration-of-lovastatin-and-enhanced-antioxidant-effect-of-bacillus-subtilis-fermented-red-yeast-rice-product
#8
Sang Il Gum, Phuc Anh Nguyen, Jong Rok Lee, Yeong Hwan Han, Min Kyung Cho
Red yeast rice product (RYP) has been used as a food supplement because of its lipid lowering, and in food additives as a natural colorant. Lovastatin of RYP is a hypolipidemic commercial drug. To enhance the beneficial effects of RYP, we performed a bioconversion with Bacillus subtilis. This B. subtilis-fermentation process of RYP increased the ratio of the active open-hydroxyl acid form and the prodrug lactone form of lovastatin, which is a potent cholesterol synthesis inhibitor. 3(2H)-benzofuranone was newly produced in the fermented red yeast rice product (FRYP) as analyzed by GC-MS...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481231/zeolite-containing-mixture-supplementation-ameliorated-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis-in-mice-by-suppressing-the-inflammatory-bowel-disease-pathway-and-improving-apoptosis-in-colon-mucosa
#9
Weida Lyu, Huijuan Jia, Chuanzong Deng, Kenji Saito, Seigo Yamada, Hisanori Kato
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is induced by multiple environmental factors, and there is still no known treatment capable of curing the disease completely. We propose a zeolite-containing mixture (Hydryeast(®), HY)-a multi-component nutraceutical of which the main ingredients are Azumaceramics (mixture of zeolite and oyster shell burned under high temperature), citric acid, red rice yeast (monascus) and calcium stearate-as a nutraceutical intervention in IBD to ameliorate dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis...
May 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445391/telomerase-inhibitory-effects-of-red-pigment-rubropunctatin-and-statin-monacolin-l-isolated-from-red-yeast-rice
#10
Baojun Xu, Qijun Wang, Changkeun Sung
In addition to the cholesterol-lowering activity of red yeast rice (RYR), its anticancer activities have been frequently reported. However, the mechanism of action of the anticancer activity of RYR is not yet fully understood. The objective of the current study was to elucidate anticancer compositions and anticancer mechanism of actions of RYR. The isolated compounds from RYR were subjected to anti-proliferation assay, apoptosis assay via flow cytometry, and telomerase inhibitory assay via telomeric repeat amplification protocol-PCR (TRAP-PCR) assay, and Western blotting assay in an in vitro cell culture system...
April 26, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410522/development-of-matrix-effect-free-mispe-uhplc-ms-ms-method-for-determination-of-lovastatin-in-pu-erh-tea-oyster-mushroom-and-red-yeast-rice
#11
Pavel Svoboda, Daniel Sander, Kateřina Plachká, Lucie Nováková
Matrix effect-free UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of cholesterol-lowering lovastatin in food samples represented by Pu-erh tea, oyster mushroom, and red yeast rice. The resulting method was fully validated in terms of intra-day and inter-day precision, accuracy, linearity, range, LOD, LOQ, and matrix effects. The matrix effect phenomenon evaluated by comparison of slopes of calibration curves was completely eliminated by solid-phase extraction based on the technique of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs)...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408313/preventing-cardiovascular-heart-disease-promising-nutraceutical-and-non-nutraceutical-treatments-for-cholesterol-management
#12
REVIEW
T P Johnston, T A Korolenko, M Pirro, A Sahebkar
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis resulting from hypercholesterolemia causes many serious cardiovascular diseases. Statins are generally accepted as a treatment of choice for lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which reduces coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality. Since statin use can be associated with muscle problems and other adverse symptoms, non-adherence and discontinuation of statin therapy often leads to inadequate control of plasma cholesterol levels and increased cardiovascular risk...
June 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317482/nutraceuticals-as-an-important-part-of-combination-therapy-in-dyslipidaemia
#13
Angelo Maria Patti, Peter P Toth, Rosaria Vincenza Giglio, Maciej Banach, Marcello Noto, Dragana Nikolic, Giuseppe Montalto, Manfredi Rizzo
Several risk factors such as abnormality of lipid metabolism (e.g. high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), elevated triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)) play a central role in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nutraceutical combination together with a cholesterol-lowering action, when associated with suitable lifestyle, should furnish an alternative to pharmacotherapy in patients reporting statin-intolerance and in subjects at low cardiovascular risk...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277227/-red-yeast-rice-induced-muscular-injuries-analysis-of-french-pharmacovigilance-database-and-literature-review
#14
Christelle Philibert, Virginie Bres, Marie-Josèphe Jean-Pastor, Claire Guy, Bénédicte Lebrun-Vignes, Perrine Robin, Véronique Pinzani, Dominique Hillaire-Buys
Red yeast rice (RYR) is a dietary supplement containing monacolins obtained by fermentation of Monascus purpureus strains. Because of its structural homology with lovastatin, monacolin K inhibits HMG-CoA reductase and shows hypocholesterolemic properties comparable to synthetic statins. We studied all cases of myopathy involving RYR reported in the French national pharmacovigilance database (6 cases) and in scientific literature (9 cases). Among these cases, 9 showed elevated creatine kinase, 3 rhabdomyolysis and 2 myalgia...
October 27, 2016: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257063/red-yeast-rice
#15
Thu Nguyen, Mitchell Karl, Antonello Santini
Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited...
March 1, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254024/enhancement-of-antioxidant-activity-of-radix-puerariae-and-red-yeast-rice-by-mixed-fermentation-with-monascus-purpureus
#16
Qin Huang, Hao Zhang, Dan Xue
In this work, a new functional food combined Radix Puerariae and red yeast rice was explored. The pigment intensity, antioxidant activities and the main isoflavones of it were evaluated and compared with traditional red yeast rice and Radix Puerariae. The fermented mixture showed higher contents of isoflavones and pigment intensities than red yeast rice and Radix Puerariae. The DPPH, OH, FRAP and total antioxidant activity results of fermented mixture also showed higher antioxidant potential than those of Radix Puerariae and red yeast rice, owing to the higher pigment intensity and total phenolic contents...
July 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159286/key-volatile-compounds-in-red-koji-shochu-a-monascus-fermented-product-and-their-formation-steps-during-fermentation
#17
Yen Yen Sally Rahayu, Yumiko Yoshizaki, Keiko Yamaguchi, Kayu Okutsu, Taiki Futagami, Hisanori Tamaki, Yoshihiro Sameshima, Kazunori Takamine
Red koji, which refers the solid culture grown koji mold on the steamed rice, is one of the ingredients of Asian fermented foods including the Japanese spirit shochu. This study was aimed at elucidating the characteristic flavor and key volatile compounds of red koji-shochu as well as the mechanism of their formation. Sensory evaluation showed that red koji-shochu has the distinctive flavors cheese, sour, milky, and oily. Fifteen key volatile compounds of red koji-shochu were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography, and by comparison between red koji-shochu and white koji-shochu, as another typical shochu...
June 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133369/functional-foods-and-dietary-supplements-for-the-management-of-dyslipidaemia
#18
REVIEW
Paola M Hunter, Robert A Hegele
Dyslipidaemia is characterized by increased blood levels of total or LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, or decreased HDL cholesterol levels, and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidaemia has a high worldwide prevalence, and many patients are turning to alternatives to pharmacotherapy to manage their lipid levels. Lifestyle modification should be emphasized in all patients to reduce cardiovascular risk and can be initiated before pharmacotherapy in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease...
January 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093797/adverse-reactions-to-dietary-supplements-containing-red-yeast-rice-assessment-of-cases-from-the-italian-surveillance-system
#19
Gabriela Mazzanti, Paola Angela Moro, Emanuel Raschi, Roberto Da Cas, Francesca Menniti-Ippolito
AIMS: Red yeast rice (RYR) is contained in dietary supplements for patients with dyslipidemia. RYR supplements contain monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, a licensed drug with a well-known risk profile. We aim to describe the safety profile of RYR by analysing spontaneous reports of suspected adverse reactions (ARs). METHODS: Within the Italian Surveillance System of Natural Health Products, suspected ARs were collected and evaluated by a multidisciplinary group of experts to assess causality using the WHO-UMC system or the CIOMS/RUCAM score, for hepatic reactions...
April 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058034/retrospective-analysis-of-the-effects-of-a-highly-standardized-mixture-of-berberis-aristata-silybum-marianum-and-monacolins-k-and-ka-in-patients-with-dyslipidemia
#20
Francesco Di Pierro, Pietro Putignano, Tarcisio Ferrara, Carmela Raiola, Giuliana Rapacioli, Nicola Villanova
BACKGROUND: Berberis aristata, because of its berberine content, and Monascus purpureus fermented rice, because of the presence of monacolins (naturally derived statins), are widely investigated food-grade ingredients used to formulate cholesterol-lowering supplements. Although they are extensively used, berberine is poorly absorbed and monacolins are poorly chemically characterized, not standardized, and possibly contaminated with toxic compounds. Silymarin is reported to enhance berberine absorption, while Monakopure™-K20 (MK-20) is a highly standardized red yeast rice containing monacolins K and KA in the ratio of 1:1 but not secondary monacolins, dehydromonacolins, or citrinin...
2017: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
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