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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440207/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-cancer-progression-preventive-phytochemicals
#1
Soorya Parathodi Illam, Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Shaji Edappilly Mathew, Remya Valsalakumari, Rosemol M Jacob, Achuthan Chathrattil Raghavamenon
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is the conversion of epithelial cells into mesenchymal phenotype generally observed during embryogenesis and wound healing as well as in malignant transformation. Several signaling pathways and transcription factors associated with EMT have been explored. Dietary phytochemicals are multi-targeted agents that interfere with these pathways, assume preventive potential against pathologic EMT. OBJECTIVE: Present review aims to provide a detailed description on the nature, characteristics of EMT in physiological and pathophysiological conditions and the scope of phytochemicals in its prevention...
April 24, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439298/multi-drug-resistant-pathogenic-bacteria-in-the-gut-of-young-children-in-bangladesh
#2
Shirajum Monira, Syeda Antara Shabnam, Sk Imran Ali, Abdus Sadique, Fatema-Tuz Johura, Kazi Zillur Rahman, Nur Haque Alam, Haruo Watanabe, Munirul Alam
BACKGROUND: The gut of human harbors diverse commensal microbiota performing an array of beneficial role for the hosts. In the present study, the major commensal gut bacteria isolated by culturing methods from 15 children of moderate income families, aged between 10 and 24 months, were studied for their response to different antibiotics, and the molecular basis of drug resistance. RESULTS: Of 122 bacterial colonies primarily selected from Luria-Bertani agar, bacterial genera confirmed by analytical profile index (API) 20E(®) system included Escherichia as the predominant (52%) organism, followed by Enterobacter (16%), Pseudomonas (12%), Klebsiella (6%), Pantoea (6%), Vibrio (3%), and Citrobacter (3%); while Aeromonas and Raoultella were identified as the infrequently occurring genera...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438422/next-generation-parasitologists-structured-training-programs-meet-educational-challenges
#3
Juliane Kofer, Heribert Hofer, Susanne Hartmann
Parasite infections are diverse, complex and widespread, and they represent major health threats to people and animals alike. Topics such as vaccine development, drug resistance, immune regulation, vector-borne parasitic diseases, and wildlife parasitology are key issues. Here, we discuss the need and direction of structured educational programs for graduates in modern parasitology.
April 21, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438125/chlamydia-spp-development-is-differentially-altered-by-treatment-with-the-lpxc-inhibitor-lpc-011
#4
Erik D Cram, Daniel D Rockey, Brian P Dolan
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular bacteria that infect a broad range of mammalian hosts. Members of related genera are pathogens of a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species. Despite the diversity of Chlamydia, all species contain an outer membrane lipooligosaccharide (LOS) that is comprised of a genus-conserved, and genus-defining, trisaccharide 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid Kdo region. Recent studies with lipopolysaccharide inhibitors demonstrate that LOS is important for the C...
April 24, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437678/efficacy-safety-tolerability-and-price-of-newly-approved-drugs-in-solid-tumors
#5
REVIEW
Tristan A Barnes, Eitan Amir, Arnoud J Templeton, Susana Gomez-Garcia, Beatriz Navarro, Bostjan Seruga, Alberto Ocana
BACKGROUND: New anti-cancer drugs utilize diverse mechanisms of action. Here we evaluate their differential efficacy, safety, tolerability and price. METHODS: Drugs approved for solid tumor treatment between 2000 and 2015 were identified and analyzed in subgroups: agents targeting oncogenes (group 1), anti-angiogenics (group 2), immunotherapy (group 3), and chemotherapy (group 4). Hazard ratios (HRs) were extracted from the registration trials and pooled in a meta-analysis...
April 9, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437586/pathogenesis-of-vascular-leak-in-dengue-virus-infection
#6
REVIEW
Gathsaurie Neelika Malavige, Graham S Ogg
Endothelial dysfunction leading to vascular leak is the hallmark of severe dengue. Vascular leak typically becomes clinically evident during 3-6 days since the onset of illness, which is known as the critical phase. This critical phase follows the period of peak viraemia, and lasts for 24 to 48 hours and usually shows rapid and complete reversal, suggesting it is likely to occur as a result of inflammatory mediators, rather than infection of the endothelium. Cytokines such as TNFα, which are known to be elevated in the critical phase of dengue, are likely to be contributing factors...
April 24, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435832/microbiological-biosafety-multiple-drug-resistance-and-functional-diversity-of-bacteria-associated-with-the-surfaces-of-raw-vegetables
#7
Farooq Nisma, Raheem Asif, Ali Basharat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435533/discovery-of-antimalarial-azetidine-2-carbonitriles-that-inhibit-p-falciparum-dihydroorotate-dehydrogenase
#8
Micah Maetani, Nobutaka Kato, Valquiria A P Jabor, Felipe A Calil, Maria Cristina Nonato, Christina A Scherer, Stuart L Schreiber
Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is an enzyme necessary for pyrimidine biosynthesis in protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium, the causative agents of malaria. We recently reported the identification of novel compounds derived from diversity-oriented synthesis with activity in multiple stages of the malaria parasite life cycle. Here, we report the optimization of a potent series of antimalarial inhibitors consisting of azetidine-2-carbonitriles, which we had previously shown to target P. falciparum DHODH in a biochemical assay...
April 13, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435064/salvianolate-attenuates-renal-fibrosis-in-rat-models-of-diabetic-nephropathy-by-inhibiting-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-mechanisms
#9
Chongxiang Xiong, Jianrao Lu, Xinhua Wang, Monica V Masucci
OBJECTIVE: Mounting evidence has shown that inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Salvianolate is proven to have multiple bioactivities including anti-inflammation and anti-oxidative stress effects in diverse diseases. However, its role in rat models of diabetic nephropathy remains unclear. METHODS: In this study, we examined the renoprotective effect of Salvianolate on rat models of diabetic nephropathy induced by streptozotocin intraperitoneal injection...
April 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434133/stiripentol-in-the-management-of-epilepsy
#10
REVIEW
Katherine C Nickels, Elaine C Wirrell
Stiripentol is a structurally unique antiepileptic drug that has several possible mechanisms of action, including diverse effects on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor and novel inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase. Because of its inhibition of several cytochrome P450 enzymes, it has extensive pharmacokinetic interactions, which often necessitates reduction in doses of certain co-therapies, particularly clobazam. Stiripentol also has a neuroprotective action, by reducing calcium-mediated neurotoxicity...
April 22, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433110/animal-models-of-wilson-disease
#11
Valentina Medici, Dominik Huster
Wilson disease (WD) is caused by ATPase copper-transporting beta (ATP7B) mutations and results in copper toxicity in liver and brain. Although the defective gene was identified in 1993, the specific mechanisms underlying copper toxicity and the remarkable phenotypic diversity of the disease are still poorly understood. Animal models harboring defects in the ATP7B homolog have helped to reveal new insights into pathomechanisms of WD. Four rodent models with ATP7B gene defects have been described - the Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat, inbred mouse models (toxic milk (tx), the Jackson Laboratory toxic milk (tx-j)), and the genetically engineered ATP7B(-/-) (knockout) mouse - all of which develop liver disease to different extents...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432033/lipids-as-central-modulators-of-sensory-trp-channels
#12
REVIEW
Maria Grazia Ciardo, Antonio Ferrer-Montiel
The transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family is involved in a diversity of physiological processes including sensory and homeostatic functions, as well as muscle contraction and vasomotor control. Their dysfunction contributes to the etiology of several diseases, being validated as therapeutic targets. These ion channels may be activated by physical or chemical stimuli and their function is highly influenced by signaling molecules activated by extracellular signals. Notably, as integral membrane proteins, lipid molecules also modulate their membrane location and function either by direct interaction with the channel structure or by modulating the physico-chemical properties of the cellular membrane...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430976/acute-and-chronic-noradrenergic-effects-on-cortical-excitability-in-healthy-humans
#13
Hsiao-I Kuo, Walter Paulus, Giorgi Batsikadze, Asif Jamil, Min-Fang Kuo, Michael A Nitsche
Background: Noradrenaline is a major neuromodulator in the central nervous system, and it is involved in the pathophysiology of diverse neuropsychiatric diseases. Previous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggested that acute application of selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (NRI) enhances cortical excitability in the human brain. However, other, such like clinical effects, usually require prolonged NRI treatment, which might go along with different physiological effects...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#14
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428226/rapid-throughput-analysis-of-gabaa-receptor-subtype-modulators-and-blockers-using-disbac1-3-membrane-potential-red-dye
#15
Atefeh Mousavi Nik, Brandon Pressly, Vikrant Singh, Shane Antrobus, Susan Hulsizer, Michael A Rogawski, Heike Wulff, Isaac N Pessah
Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader (FLIPR®) membrane potential dye (FMP-Red-Dye) is a proprietary tool for basic discovery and high throughput drug screening for G-protein coupled receptors and ion channels. We optimized and validated this potentiometric probe to assay functional modulators of heterologous expressed GABAA receptor (GABAAR) isoforms (synaptic α1β3γ2, extrasynaptic α4β3δ, and β3 homopentomers). High-resolution mass spectrometry identified FMP-Red-dye as DisSBAC1(3). GABAAR expressing cells equilibrated with FMP-Red-Dye exhibited depolarized equilibrium membrane (Em) potentials compared to GABAAR-null cells...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427779/fish-oil-lc-pufas-do-not-affect-blood-coagulation-parameters-and-bleeding-manifestations-analysis-of-8-clinical-studies-with-selected-patient-groups-on-omega-3-enriched-medical-nutrition
#16
Stephanie Jeansen, Renger F Witkamp, Jossie A Garthoff, Ardy van Helvoort, Philip C Calder
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The increased consumption of fish oil enriched-products exposes a wide diversity of people, including elderly and those with impaired health to relatively high amounts of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs). There is an ongoing debate around the possible adverse effects of n-3 LC-PUFAs on bleeding risk, particularly relevant in people with a medical history of cardiovascular events or using antithrombotic drugs. METHODS: This analysis of 8 clinical intervention studies conducted with enteral medical nutrition products containing fish oil as a source of n-3 LC-PUFAs addresses the occurrence of bleeding-related adverse events and effects on key coagulation parameters (Prothrombin Time [PT], (activated) and Partial Thromboplastin Time [(a)PTT])...
March 29, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427468/learning-from-biomedical-linked-data-to-suggest-valid-pharmacogenes
#17
Kevin Dalleau, Yassine Marzougui, Sébastien Da Silva, Patrice Ringot, Ndeye Coumba Ndiaye, Adrien Coulet
BACKGROUND: A standard task in pharmacogenomics research is identifying genes that may be involved in drug response variability, i.e., pharmacogenes. Because genomic experiments tended to generate many false positives, computational approaches based on the use of background knowledge have been proposed. Until now, only molecular networks or the biomedical literature were used, whereas many other resources are available. METHOD: We propose here to consume a diverse and larger set of resources using linked data related either to genes, drugs or diseases...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427454/cryptosporidium-and-giardia-in-africa-current-and-future-challenges
#18
REVIEW
Sylvia Afriyie Squire, Una Ryan
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are important causes of diarrhoeal illness. Adequate knowledge of the molecular diversity and geographical distribution of these parasites and the environmental and climatic variables that influence their prevalence is important for effective control of infection in at-risk populations, yet relatively little is known about the epidemiology of these parasites in Africa. Cryptosporidium is associated with moderate to severe diarrhoea and increased mortality in African countries and both parasites negatively affect child growth and development...
April 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427007/novel-and-revisited-approaches-in-antituberculosis-drug-discovery
#19
REVIEW
Jennifer Herrmann, Jan Rybniker, Rolf Müller
The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) necessitates the discovery and development of novel drugs against tuberculosis. In this review, we focus on two recent approaches that led to the discovery of promising antitubercular compound classes: (I) Hits derived from large compound library screens are increasingly difficult to translate into clinical application; this in turn fostered the development of innovative screening methods. (II) An alternative strategy towards high-quality hits and leads is to evaluate chemically diverse scaffolds which can be found among natural products...
April 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426890/fine-mapping-of-lipid-regions-in-global-populations-discovers-ethnic-specific-signals-and-refines-previously-identified-lipid-loci
#20
Niha Zubair, Mariaelisa Graff, Jose Luis Ambite, William S Bush, Gleb Kichaev, Yingchang Lu, Ani Manichaikul, Wayne H-H Sheu, Devin Absher, Themistocles L Assimes, Suzette J Bielinski, Erwin P Bottinger, Petra Buzkova, Lee-Ming Chuang, Ren-Hua Chung, Barbara Cochran, Logan Dumitrescu, Omri Gottesman, Jeffrey W Haessler, Christopher Haiman, Gerardo Heiss, Chao A Hsiung, Yi-Jen Hung, Chii-Min Hwu, Jyh-Ming J Juang, Loic Le Marchand, I-Te Lee, Wen-Jane Lee, Li-An Lin, Danyu Lin, Shih-Yi Lin, Rachel H Mackey, Lisa W Martin, Bogdan Pasaniuc, Ulrike Peters, Irene Predazzi, Thomas Quertermous, Alex P Reiner, Jennifer Robinson, Jerome I Rotter, Kelli K Ryckman, Pamela J Schreiner, Eli Stahl, Ran Tao, Michael Y Tsai, Lindsay L Waite, Tzung-Dau Wang, Steven Buyske, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Iona Cheng, Dana C Crawford, Ruth J F Loos, Stephen S Rich, Myriam Fornage, Kari E North, Charles Kooperberg, Cara L Carty
Genome-wide association studies have identified over 150 loci associated with lipid traits, however, no large-scale studies exist for Hispanics and other minority populations. Additionally, the genetic architecture of lipid-influencing loci remains largely unknown. We performed one of the most racially/ethnically diverse fine-mapping genetic studies of HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides to-date using SNPs on the MetaboChip array on 54,119 individuals: 21,304 African Americans, 19,829 Hispanic Americans, 12,456 Asians, and 530 American Indians...
December 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
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