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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339616/time-trends-in-smoking-onset-by-sex-and-race-ethnicity-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-findings-from-the-2006-2013-national-survey-on-drug-use-and-health
#1
Azure B Thompson, Paul D Mowery, Jacob Kraemer Tebes, Sherry A McKee
Introduction: During the 2000s the number of adolescents who became new smokers in the United States declined while the number of young adults who did so increased. However, we do not know among which demographic groups these changes occurred. Methods: We analyzed data from the 2006 to 2013 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (n = 180 079). Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess annual trends in smoking onset and log-binomial regression models to assess changes over time in the risk of smoking onset among young adults (18- to 25-years-old) relative adolescents (12- to 17-years-old)...
January 30, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339595/does-starting-to-smoke-cigars-trigger-onset-of-cannabis-blunt-smoking
#2
Brian J Fairman, James C Anthony
Introduction: Among United States teens during the 1990s, increasing cigar use coincided with increasing use of tobacco cigar shells filled with cannabis, called "blunts." Cigar smokers are more likely to use cannabis, and we hypothesized that starting to smoke cigars might be a probabilistic "trigger" of blunt smoking. We turned to the case-crossover approach to evaluate this hypothesis. Methods: Within US National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, 2009-2013, we identified a nationally representative sample of newly incident blunt smokers aged 12- to 21-years-old (n = 4868) and compared month-of-onsets for smoking of cigars and blunts...
January 25, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333965/worm-infestations-and-development-of-autoimmunity-in-children-the-abis-study
#3
Johnny Ludvigsson, Michael P Jones, Åshild Faresjö
Worm infestations influence the immune system and may therefore decrease the risk for autoimmune diseases. The aim of the study was to determine whether children who have developed autoimmune disease were less likely to have had worm infestations in childhood. The ABIS-study is a prospective population-based cohort study of children born in southeast Sweden 1997/99. 17.055 children participated. As of June 2014 116 individuals had developed Type 1 diabetes, 181 celiac disease, and 53 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331350/risk-factors-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-among-tuberculosis-patients-a-case-control-study
#4
Abdulhalik Workicho, Wondwosen Kassahun, Fessahaye Alemseged
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) did not receive major attention until recently in sub-Saharan Africa where the tuberculosis incidence and risk factors are highest. Factors leading to development of drug resistance need to be understood to develop appropriate control strategies for national programs. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for MDR-TB among tuberculosis patients. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to assess sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical risk factors using a structured questionnaire and clinical record reviewing...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330633/association-between-psychotropic-and-cardiovascular-iatrogenic-alerts-and-risk-of-hospitalizations-in-elderly-people-treated-for-dementia-a-self-controlled-case-series-study-based-on-the-matching-of-2-french-health-insurance-databases
#5
Lorene Zerah, Jacques Boddaert, Armelle Leperre-Desplanques, Dominique Bonnet-Zamponi, Marc Verny, Jean Deligne, Pierre-Yves Boelle
BACKGROUND: Elderly people are at risk of repeated hospitalizations, some of which may be drug related and preventable. In 2011, a group of French healthcare experts selected 5 iatrogenic alerts (IAs), based on criteria identified in a literature search and from their professional experience, to assess the appropriateness of medication in elderly patients. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to examine the association between hospitalizations and IAs in elderly patients treated for Alzheimer disease who are particularly sensitive to adverse drug events...
March 18, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327083/the-effect-of-an-interactive-cycling-training-on-cognitive-functioning-in-older-adults-with-mild-dementia-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
E G A Karssemeijer, W J R Bossers, J A Aaronson, R P C Kessels, M G M Olde Rikkert
BACKGROUND: To date there is no cure or an effective disease-modifying drug to treat dementia. Available acetylcholine-esterase inhibiting drugs or memantine only produce small benefits on cognitive and behavioural functioning and their clinical relevance remains controversial. Combined cognitive-aerobic interventions are an appealing alternative or add-on to current pharmacological treatments. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of a combined cognitive-aerobic training and a single aerobic training compared to an active control group in older adults with mild dementia...
March 21, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326998/effects-of-organizational-safety-practices-and-perceived-safety-climate-on-ppe-usage-engineering-controls-and-adverse-events-involving-liquid-antineoplastic-drugs-among-nurses
#7
David M DeJoy, Todd D Smith, Henok Woldu, Mari-Amanda Dyal, Andrea L Steege, James M Boiano
PURPOSE: Antineoplastic drugs pose risks to the healthcare workers who handle them. This fact notwithstanding, adherence to safe handing guidelines remains inconsistent and often poor. This study examined the effects of pertinent organizational safety practices and perceived safety climate on the use of personal protective equipment, engineering controls, and adverse events (spill/leak or skin contact) involving liquid antineoplastic drugs Method: Data for this study came from the 2011 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers which included a sample of approximately 1,800 nurses who had administered liquid antineoplastic drugs during the past seven days...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326651/current-activities-and-future-directions-of-comprehensive-hepatitis-control-measures-in-japan-a-supportive-role-of-hepatitis-information-center-in-building-a-solid-foundation
#8
Noriko Oza, Hiroshi Isoda, Toshiki Ono, Tatsuya Kanto
In Japan, hepatitis B or C virus infection has been a major health issue. For the prevention of liver-related deaths, multifaceted strategies have been taken against hepatitis virus. In Fiscal Year (FY) 2002, nationwide screening for hepatitis was started as a part of health examinations provided by municipal governments. From FY2007, the hepatitis treatment network has been strengthened by the nationwide establishment of regional government-based hepatitis treatment systems, comprising linked regional core centers, specialized institutions for hepatitis treatment, primary care physicians and regional governments...
March 21, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326285/impact-of-telemonitoring-approaches-on-integrated-hiv-and-tb-diagnosis-and-treatment-interventions-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-scoping-review
#9
REVIEW
Clarence S Yah, Ernest Tambo, Christopher Khayeka-Wandabwa, Jeanne Y Ngogang
Background: This paper explores telemonitoring/mhealth approaches as a promising real time and contextual strategy in overhauling HIV and TB interventions quality access and uptake, retention,adherence and coverage impact in endemic and prone-epidemic prevention and control in sub-Sahara Africa. Methods: The scoping review method was applied in acknowledged journals indexing platforms including Medline, Embase, Global Health, PubMed, MeSH PsycInfo, Scopus and Google Scholar to identify relevant articles pertaining to telemonitoring as a proxy surrogate method in reinforcing sustainability of HIV/TB prevention/treatment interventions in sub-Saharan Africa...
2017: Health Promotion Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325220/action-of-antibiotic-oxacillin-on-in%C3%A2-vitro-growth-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-previously-treated-with-homeopathic-medicines
#10
Tânia Aguiar Passeti, Leandro Ribeiro Bissoli, Ana Paula Macedo, Registila Beltrame Libame, Susana Diniz, Silvia Waisse
BACKGROUND: Resistance to antibiotics is a major public health concern worldwide. New treatment options are needed and homeopathy is one such option. We sought to assess the effect of the homeopathic medicine Belladonna (Bell) and a nosode (biotherapy) prepared from a multi-drug resistant bacterial species, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), on the same bacterium. METHODS: Bell and MRSA nosode were prepared in 6cH and 30cH potencies in 30% alcohol and sterile water, according to the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopeia and tested on MRSA National Collection of Type Cultures (NCTC) 10442...
February 2017: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324815/gender-and-race-ethnic-differences-in-the-persistence-of-alcohol-drug-and-poly-substance-use-disorders
#11
Elizabeth A Evans, Christine E Grella, Donna L Washington, Dawn M Upchurch
AIMS: To examine gender and racial/ethnic differences in the effect of substance use disorder (SUD) type on SUD persistence. METHODS: Data were provided by 1025 women and 1835 men from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine whether gender and race/ethnicity (Non-Hispanic White, Black, Hispanic) moderate the effects of DSM-IV defined past-12 month SUD type (alcohol, drug, poly-substance) on SUD persistence at 3-year follow-up, controlling for covariates...
March 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324032/risk-of-diabetes-treated-in-early-adulthood-following-growth-hormone-treatment-for-short-stature-in-childhood
#12
Amélie Poidvin, Alain Weill, Emmanuel Ecosse, Joel Coste, Jean-Claude Carel
Context.: Growth hormone (GH) is known to be diabetogenic, but the risk of diabetes in individuals treated with GH in childhood has been little evaluated and conflicting results have been obtained. Objective.: To investigate the prevalence of diabetes and gestational diabetes in a population-based cohort of French patients treated with GH for short stature in childhood. Design, Setting and Participants.: Population-based cohort of 5100 children with idiopathic isolated GH deficiency, idiopathic short stature, or short stature in children born short for gestational age who started GH treatment between 1985 and 1996...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322417/reduction-of-acute-hepatitis-b-through-vaccina-tion-of-adolescents-with-no-decrease-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-due-to-immigration-in-a-low-ende-micity-country
#13
Jean-Luc Richard, Christian Schaetti, Sabine Basler, Virginie Masserey Spicher
With a hepatitis B prevalence of 0.3%, Switzerland is a country with low endemicity. Unlike most other countries, Switzerland's recommendation for vaccination against hepatitis B has since 1998 focused on adolescents aged 11 to 15 years rather than on infants, in addition to risk groups since 1982. This paper describes the evolution of the incidence of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and newly reported chronic cases in Switzerland, as well as their epidemiological features, in order to discuss the implications for the control of hepatitis B through vaccination...
March 21, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322095/therapeutic-inertia-and-intensified-treatment-in-diabetes-mellitus-prescription-patterns-a-nationwide-population-based-study-in-taiwan
#14
Li-Ying Huang, Hseng-Long Yeh, Ming-Chin Yang, Wen-Yi Shau, Syi Su, Mei-Shu Lai
Objective To measure therapeutic inertia by characterizing prescription patterns using secondary data obtained from the nationwide diabetes mellitus pay-for-performance (DM-P4P) programme in Taiwan. Methods Using reimbursement claims from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, a nationwide retrospective cohort study was undertaken of patients with diabetes mellitus who participated in the DM-P4P programme from 2006-2008. Glycosylated haemoglobin results were used to evaluate modifications in therapy in response to poor diabetes control...
December 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320336/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-ethiopian-settings-and-its-association-with-previous-history-of-anti-tuberculosis-treatment-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Setegn Eshetie, Mucheye Gizachew, Mulat Dagnew, Gemechu Kumera, Haile Woldie, Fekadu Ambaw, Belay Tessema, Feleke Moges
BACKGROUND: Efforts to control the global burden of tuberculosis (TB) have been jeopardized by the rapid evolution of multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), which is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. Previous studies have documented variable prevalences of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and its risk factors in Ethiopia. Therefore, this meta-analysis is aimed, firstly, to determine the pooled prevalence of MDR-TB among newly diagnosed and previously treated TB cases, and secondly, to measure the association between MDR-TB and a history of previous anti-TB drugs treatment...
March 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315808/benzodiazepine-z-drug-and-pregabalin-prescriptions-and-mortality-among-patients-in-opioid-maintenance-treatment-a-nation-wide-register-based-open-cohort-study
#16
Tove Abrahamsson, Jonas Berge, Agneta Öjehagen, Anders Håkansson
BACKGROUND: Use of sedatives may increase risk of death in opioid users. The aim of the study was to assess whether prescription of sedatives may be associated with mortality in patients in opioid maintenance treatment. METHODS: This retrospective register-based open cohort study included nation-wide register data including all individuals who were dispensed methadone or buprenorphine as opioid maintenance treatment for opioid dependence between July, 2005 and December, 2012 (N=4501)...
February 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315761/a-growing-geographic-disparity-rural-and-urban-cigarette-smoking-trends-in-the-united-states
#17
N J Doogan, M E Roberts, M E Wewers, C A Stanton, D R Keith, D E Gaalema, A N Kurti, R Redner, A Cepeda-Benito, J Y Bunn, A A Lopez, S T Higgins
Rural areas of the United States have a higher smoking prevalence than urban areas. However, no recent studies have rigorously examined potential changes in this disparity over time or whether the disparity can be explained by demographic or psychosocial characteristics associated with smoking. The present study used yearly cross sectional data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2007 through 2014 to examine cigarette smoking trends in rural versus urban areas of the United States. The analytic sample included 303,311 respondents...
March 15, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301554/can-volunteering-in-later-life-reduce-the-risk-of-dementia-a-5-year-longitudinal-study-among-volunteering-and-non-volunteering-retired-seniors
#18
Yannick Griep, Linda Magnusson Hanson, Tim Vantilborgh, Laurens Janssens, Samantha K Jones, Martin Hyde
We propose that voluntary work, characterized by social, physical and cognitive activity in later life is associated with fewer cognitive problems and lower dementia rates. We test these assumptions using 3-wave, self-reported, and registry data from the 2010, 2012, and 2014 Swedish National Prescribed Drug Register. We had three groups of seniors in our data: 1) no volunteering (N = 531), 2) discontinuous volunteering (N = 220), and 3) continuous volunteering (N = 250). We conducted a path analysis in Mplus to investigate the effect of voluntary work (discontinuously and continuously) on self-reported cognitive complaints and the likelihood of being prescribed an anti-dementia treatment after controlling for baseline and relevant background variables...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299152/ebola-viral-disease-in-west-africa-a-threat-to-global-health-economy-and-political-stability
#19
Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke, Ibrahim Mohammed, Yauba Saidu
The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD) outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294436/purchases-by-heavier-drinking-young-people-concentrated-in-lower-priced-beverages-implications-for-policy
#20
Martin Wall, Sally Casswell, Li-Chia Yeh
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Alcohol is an increasingly important risk factor in the global burden of disease. The acute harms experienced and persistence of drinking patterns established in adolescence motivate investigating influences on youth drinking. The aim is to examine association between heavier drinking in young people and their choice of beverage type, purchase outlet and price. DESIGN AND METHODS: A nationally representative sample of New Zealand drinkers (N = 1056) aged 16-19 years recruited using random digit dialling was surveyed in 2012 as part of the International Alcohol Control study...
March 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
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