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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790059/characteristics-of-distribution-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-lineages-in-china
#1
Haixia Chen, Li He, Chao Cai, Jingyi Liu, Junnan Jia, Liang Ma, Hairong Huang, Lixia Wang, Xumin Ni, Jimin Gao, Weimin Li
The genotyping methods of Mycobacterium tuberculosis would dramatically improve our understanding of the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis. 3,929 isolates, from a National Survey of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in 2007 in China, were successfully genotyped by large sequence polymorphisms and 15 loci variable number tandem repeats. We found that 2,905 (2,905/3,929, 73.9%) cases belonged to Lineage 2, dominated in the east and central regions, 975 cases (975/3,929, 24.8%) were Lineage 4, highly prevailed in the west regions, and 36 and 13 cases were Lineage 3 and Lineage 1, respectively...
March 21, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787813/vascular-involvement-in-axial-spondyloarthropathies
#2
Clément Prati, Céline Demougeot, Xavier Guillot, Maxime Sondag, Frank Verhoeven, Daniel Wendling
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory joint disease that involves the entheses, causing inflammatory pain and functional impairments. Patients may experience extraarticular manifestations such as uveitis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. These, together with the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis and the development of spinal fusion, are the main determinants of adverse disease outcomes. As with many systemic inflammatory diseases, AS is associated with excess cardiovascular mortality due to increased risks of myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thromboembolism...
May 19, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785683/targeted-therapies-and-adverse-drug-reactions-in-oncology-the-role-of-clinical-pharmacist-in-pharmacovigilance
#3
G Fornasier, M Taborelli, S Francescon, J Polesel, M Aliberti, P De Paoli, P Baldo
Background The majority of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported in the summary of product characteristics (SPCs) are based on pivotal clinical trials, performed under controlled conditions and with selected patients. Objectives (1) to observe ADRs in the real-world setting and to evaluate if the supervision of the pharmacist impacts on the management of ADRs and on the satisfaction of patients; (2) to sensitise health professionals and patients on the need to increase the reporting of ADRs, in compliance with Pharmacovigilance...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781380/finally-a-regimen-to-extend-human-life-expectancy
#4
James Larrick, Andrew R Mendelsohn
The US has the most expensive healthcare system worldwide. Yet measures of healthspan and life expectancy are well below the major industrialized nations. With the US population aged 65 and older projected to double by mid-century a healthcare crisis is looming. Within this context huge interest and investment has emerged in technologies and drugs to address aging with an expected benefit to healthspan. The thesis being that such basic interventions will reduce morbidity caused by many chronic diseases where biological age itself is the major risk factor...
May 21, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779917/antimicrobial-resistance-among-migrants-in-europe-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Laura B Nellums, Hayley Thompson, Alison Holmes, Enrique Castro-Sánchez, Jonathan A Otter, Marie Norredam, Jon S Friedland, Sally Hargreaves
BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings...
May 17, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778548/risk-factors-of-the-peptic-ulcer-bleeding-in-aging-uremia-patients-under-regular-hemodialysis
#6
Xi-Hsuan Lin, Chung-Chi Lin, Yuan-Jen Wang, Jiing-Chyuan Luo, Shih-Hao Young, Ping-Hsien Chen, Ming-Chih Hou, Fa-Yauh Lee
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that uremia patients under hemodialysis (HD) have a significantly higher occurrence of peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) than healthy controls and that elderly patients remain at high risk of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and PUB. Here we aimed to identify the risk factors for PUB in aging (≥65-years-old) uremic patients under regular HD. METHODS: Using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, we compared 18,252 aging regular HD patients and 17,883 age-, gender-, and medication-matched patients without kidney disease (control group)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776460/validation-of-the-betastar-%C3%A2-advanced-for-beta-lactams-test-kit-for-the-screening-of-bulk-tank-and-tanker-truck-milks-for-the-presence-of-beta-lactam-drug-residues
#7
Andrew Denhartigh, Lindsay Reynolds, Katherine Palmer, Frank Klein, Jennifer Rice, John J Rejman
A validation study was conducted for an immunochromatographic method (BetaStar® Advanced for Beta-lactams) for the detection of beta-lactam residues in raw, commingled bovine milk. The assay detected amoxicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, penicillin, cephapirin, and ceftiofur below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration tolerance levels but above the maximum sensitivity thresholds established by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments. The results of internal and independent laboratory dose-response studies employing spiked samples were in agreement...
May 18, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774301/-mansonella-perstans-onchocerca-volvulus-and-strongyloides-stercoralis-infections-in-rural-populations-in-central-and-southern-togo
#8
Francois Korbmacher, Kossi Komlan, Richard G Gantin, Wiyao P Poutouli, Koffi Padjoudoum, Potchoziou Karabou, Peter T Soboslay, Carsten Köhler
Background: Mansonella perstans , Onchocerca volvulus and Strongyloides stercoralis are widespread helminth parasites in the tropics. Their distribution remains difficult to determine as it may change during national disease control programs and with regional mass drug administration (MDA). Epidemiological surveys are of importance to evaluate the geographical distribution of these helminth parasites and the diseases they may cause, however, up to date epidemiological evaluations on M...
May 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774296/integrated-risk-mapping-and-landscape-characterisation-of-lymphatic-filariasis-and-loiasis-in-south-west-nigeria
#9
Tara A Brant, Patricia N Okorie, Olushola Ogunmola, Nureni Bolaji Ojeyode, S B Fatunade, Emmanuel Davies, Yisa Saka, Michelle C Stanton, David H Molyneux, J Russell Stothard, Louise A Kelly-Hope
Nigeria has the heaviest burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in sub-Saharan Africa, which is caused by the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. LF is targeted for elimination and the national programme is scaling up mass drug administration (MDA) across the country to interrupt transmission. However, in some regions the co-endemicity of the filarial parasite Loa loa (loiasis) is an impediment due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs) associated with the drug ivermectin...
February 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774291/significant-decline-in-lymphatic-filariasis-associated-with-nationwide-scale-up-of-insecticide-treated-nets-in-zambia
#10
M Nsakashalo-Senkwe, E Mwase, E Chizema-Kawesha, V Mukonka, P Songolo, F Masaninga, M P Rebollo, B Thomas, M J Bockarie, H Betts, J R Stothard, L A Kelly-Hope
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito-borne disease, broadly endemic in Zambia, and is targeted for elimination by mass drug administration (MDA) of albendazole and diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) to at-risk populations. Anopheline mosquitoes are primary vectors of LF in Africa, and it is possible that the significant scale-up of malaria vector control over the past decade may have also impacted LF transmission, and contributed to a decrease in prevalence in Zambia. We therefore aimed to examine the putative association between decreasing LF prevalence and increasing coverage of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) for malaria vector control, by comparing LF mapping data collected between 2003-2005 and 2009-2011 to LF sentinel site prevalence data collected between 2012 and 2014, before any anti-LF MDA was started...
November 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773358/-antidepressive-agents-and-hyponatremia-a-literature-review-and-a-case-non-case-study-in-the-french-pharmacovigilance-database
#11
Michaël Rochoy, Christina Zakhem-Stachera, Johana Béné, Christophe Berkhout, Sophie Gautier
OBJECTIVE: Most antidepressants have been associated with a risk of hyponatremia in the literature. This effect is not always reported in monographs. The aim of our study was to clarify the difference of increased risk of hyponatremia among various antidepressants. METHODS: Retrospective study of such cases/non-cases from observations recorded in the French national pharmacovigilance between 01/01/2004 and 31/12/2013. We studied all antidepressants marketed in 2014 in France, with a positive control (haloperidol) and a negative one (amoxicillin)...
March 1, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773232/risk-factors-associated-with-strongylid-egg-count-prevalence-and-abundance-in-the-united-states-equine-population
#12
M K Nielsen, M A Branan, A M Wiedenheft, R Digianantonio, J A Scare, J L Bellaw, L P Garber, C A Kopral, A M Phillippi-Taylor, J L Traub-Dargatz
Equine strongyle parasites are considered ubiquitous in grazing equids across the world, and cyathostomin parasites are known pathogens causing well-described disease complexes in horses. Decades of intensive anthelmintic treatments have led to anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomins, and current recommendations are to lower treatment intensity and base control strategies on fecal egg count surveillance. Little is known about risk factors associated with strongyle parasite egg shedding patterns in the United States equine population, as the most recent national survey was conducted 20 years ago...
May 14, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771941/efficacy-of-ivermectin-mass-drug-administration-to-control-scabies-in-asylum-seekers-in-the-netherlands-a-retrospective-cohort-study-between-january-2014-march-2016
#13
Dorien T Beeres, Sofanne J Ravensbergen, Annelies Heidema, Darren Cornish, Machiel Vonk, Leonie D Wijnholds, Jessica J H Hendriks, Johanneke Kleinnijenhuis, Till F Omansen, Ymkje Stienstra
Scabies is a skin infestation with the mite Sarcoptes scabiei causing itch and rash and is a major risk factor for bacterial skin infections and severe complications. Here, we evaluated the treatment outcome of 2866 asylum seekers who received (preventive) scabies treatment before and during a scabies intervention programme (SIP) in the main reception centre in the Netherlands between January 2014 and March 2016. A SIP was introduced in the main national reception centre based on frequent observations of scabies and its complications amongst Eritrean and Ethiopian asylum seekers in the Netherlands...
May 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770053/tuberculosis-drug-resistance-in-canada-2006-2016
#14
V Gallant, J Vachon, W Siu
Background: Drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis (TB) pose a serious threat to TB prevention and control efforts. The Canadian Tuberculosis Laboratory Surveillance System (CTBLSS) was created in 1998 to monitor emerging trends and patterns in TB drug resistance in Canada. Objective: To present a descriptive overview of TB drug resistance data collected through the CTBLSS for the years 2006 to 2016 in Canada, with a focus on 2016. Methods: The CTBLSS is an isolate-based surveillance system designed to collect data on TB drug resistance across Canada...
November 2, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761488/psychological-therapies-for-treatment-resistant-depression-in-adults
#15
REVIEW
Sharea Ijaz, Philippa Davies, Catherine J Williams, David Kessler, Glyn Lewis, Nicola Wiles
BACKGROUND: Antidepressants are a first-line treatment for adults with moderate to severe major depression. However, many people prescribed antidepressants for depression don't respond fully to such medication, and little evidence is available to inform the most appropriate 'next step' treatment for such patients, who may be referred to as having treatment-resistant depression (TRD). National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance suggests that the 'next step' for those who do not respond to antidepressants may include a change in the dose or type of antidepressant medication, the addition of another medication, or the start of psychotherapy...
May 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760188/depression-in-type-1-diabetes-was-associated-with-high-levels-of-circulating-galectin-3
#16
Eva O Melin, Jonatan Dereke, Maria Thunander, Magnus Hillman
OBJECTIVE: Neuroinflammatory responses are implicated in depression. The aim was to explore whether depression in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) was associated with high circulating galectin-3, controlling for metabolic variables, s-creatinine, life style factors, medication, and cardiovascular complications. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Participants were T1D patients (n=283, 56% men, age 18-59 years, diabetes duration ≥1 year)...
May 14, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758306/drug-use-among-youth-national-survey-data-support-a-common-liability-of-all-drug-use
#17
Robert L DuPont, Beth Han, Corinne L Shea, Bertha K Madras
The prevalence of substance use disorders in adults is higher if substance use is initiated during adolescence, underscoring the importance of youth substance use prevention. We examined whether the use of one substance by adolescents is associated with increased risk for using any other substance, regardless of use sequences. In 2017 we examined data from 17,000 youth aged 12-17 who participated in the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a sample of nationally representative data on substance use among the U...
May 11, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756637/withdrawal-of-immunosuppressant-or-biologic-therapy-for-patients-with-quiescent-crohn-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Ray K Boyapati, Joana Torres, Carolina Palmela, Claire E Parker, Orli M Silverberg, Sonam D Upadhyaya, Tran M Nguyen, Jean-Frédéric Colombel
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, relapsing and remitting disease of the gastrointestinal tract that can cause significant morbidity and disability. Current treatment guidelines recommend early intervention with immunosuppressant or biological therapy in high-risk patients with a severe disease phenotype at presentation. The feasibility of therapeutic de-escalation once remission is achieved is a commonly encountered question in clinical practice, driven by patient and clinician concerns regarding safety, adverse events, cost and national regulations...
May 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754836/misoprostol-for-small-bowel-ulcers-in-patients-with-obscure-bleeding-taking-aspirin-and-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-masters-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-3-trial
#19
Ali S Taha, Caroline McCloskey, Paula McSkimming, Alex McConnachie
BACKGROUND: The incidence of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, which originates from the small bowel and is mainly associated with the use of aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), is rising. We assessed the efficacy and safety of misoprostol for the treatment of small bowel ulcers and erosions in patients taking low-dose aspirin or NSAIDs with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients (aged ≥18 years) with small bowel ulcers who were taking low-dose aspirin, NSAIDs, or both for a minimum of 4 weeks, at University Hospital Crosshouse (Kilmarnock, UK)...
May 10, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752194/sex-specific-relevance-of-diabetes-to-occlusive-vascular-and-other-mortality-a-collaborative-meta-analysis-of-individual-data-from-980-793-adults-from-68-prospective-studies
#20
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that diabetes confers a higher relative risk of vascular mortality among women than among men, but whether this increased relative risk in women exists across age groups and within defined levels of other risk factors is uncertain. We aimed to determine whether differences in established risk factors, such as blood pressure, BMI, smoking, and cholesterol, explain the higher relative risks of vascular mortality among women than among men. METHODS: In our meta-analysis, we obtained individual participant-level data from studies included in the Prospective Studies Collaboration and the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration that had obtained baseline information on age, sex, diabetes, total cholesterol, blood pressure, tobacco use, height, and weight...
May 8, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
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