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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917384/genetic-alterations-in-intervertebral-disc-disease
#1
REVIEW
Nikolay L Martirosyan, Arpan A Patel, Alessandro Carotenuto, M Yashar S Kalani, Evgenii Belykh, Corey T Walker, Mark C Preul, Nicholas Theodore
BACKGROUND: Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is considered a multifactorial disease that is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. The last two decades of research strongly demonstrate that genetic factors contribute about 75% of the IVDD etiology. Recent total genome sequencing studies have shed light on the various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with IVDD. AIM: This review presents comprehensive and updated information about the diversity of genetic factors in the inflammatory, degradative, homeostatic, and structural systems involved in the IVDD...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900808/genetic-and-developmental-basis-for-fin-shape-variation-in-african-cichlid-fishes
#2
Dina Navon, Nathan Olearczyk, R Craig Albertson
Adaptive radiations are often characterized by the rapid evolution of traits associated with divergent feeding modes. For example, the evolutionary history of African cichlids is marked by repeated and coordinated shifts in skull, trophic, fin and body shape. Here, we seek to explore the molecular basis for fin shape variation in Lake Malawi cichlids. We first described variation within an F2 mapping population derived by crossing two cichlid species with divergent morphologies including fin shape. We then used this population to genetically map loci that influence variation in this trait...
November 4, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899990/microarray-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-and-linker-genes-associated-with-the-molecular-mechanism-of-colorectal-cancer
#3
Xingjie Shen, Meng Yue, Fansheng Meng, Jingyu Zhu, Xiaoyan Zhu, Yakun Jiang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent malignancies worldwide and remains the third leading cause of cancer-associated mortality. The present study aimed to fully elucidate the pathogenesis of CRC and identify associated genes in tumor development. Microarray GSE44076, GSE41328 and GSE44861 datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and integrated with meta-analysis. Differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from CRC samples compared with adjacent non-cancerous controls using the Limma package in R, followed by functional analysis using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery online tool...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899062/scleraxis-is-essential-for-tendon-differentiation-by-equine-embryonic-stem-cells-and-in-equine-fetal-tenocytes
#4
Emma Bavin, Francesca Atkinson, Tom Barsby, Debbie Guest
The transcription factor scleraxis is required for tendon development and is upregulated during embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation into tenocytes. However, its role beyond early embryonic development is not defined. We utilised a short hairpin RNA to knockdown scleraxis expression in ESCs, adult and fetal tenocytes. No effect on growth or morphology was observed in 2D cultures. However, scleraxis knockdown in fetal tenocytes significantly reduced COL1A1, COMP and SOX9 gene expression. Scleraxis knockdown in adult tenocytes had no effect on the expression of these genes...
November 29, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895742/comparative-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiles-of-gastric-cardia-adenocarcinoma-and-gastric-non-cardia-adenocarcinoma
#5
Bin Song, Juan Du, Neng Deng, Ji-Chen Ren, Zhen-Bo Shu
In the present study, gene expression profiles were analyzed to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA). A gene expression dataset (accession number GSE29272) was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, and consisted of 62 GCA samples and 62 normal controls, as well as 72 GNCA samples and 72 normal controls. The two groups of differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were compared to obtain common and unique DEGs. A differential analysis was performed using the Linear Models for Microarray Data package in R...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894325/identification-of-col1a1-and-col1a2-as-candidate-prognostic-factors-in-gastric-cancer
#6
Jun Li, Yuemin Ding, Aiqing Li
BACKGROUND: The role of type I collagen, composed of collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1) and collagen type I alpha 2 (COL1A2), has been studied in several cancers. However, the expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 in malignant, premalignant, and normal gastric tissues and their clinical significances in gastric cancer have not been elucidated. METHODS: Real-time quantitative PCR was performed in 55 malignant, 27 premalignant, and 19 normal tissues to measure COL1A1 and COL1A2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, and the correlations between COL1A1 and COL1A2 expression and clinicopathological parameters and patients' survival rate were analyzed...
November 29, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881410/taz-activation-drives-fibroblast-spheroid-growth-expression-of-pro-fibrotic-paracrine-signals-and-context-dependent-ecm-gene-expression
#7
Amy J Jorgenson, Kyoung Moo Choi, Delphine Sicard, Karry M J Smith, Samantha E Hiemer, Xaralabos Varelas, Daniel J Tschumperlin
Recent studies have implicated the Hippo pathway and its transcriptional effectors YAP and TAZ as necessary for fibroblast activation and tissue fibrosis. To test the specific and sufficient roles for TAZ in driving autonomous fibroblast activation, we cultured NIH3T3 fibroblasts expressing a doxycycline-inducible nuclear-localized mutant of TAZ (TAZ4SA) in scaffold-free 3D hanging drop spheroids, or on matrices of specified mechanical rigidity. Control NIH3T3 fibroblasts formed spheroids in hanging drop culture that remained stable and neither increased nor decreased in size significantly over 15 days...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880964/protective-effects-of-standardized-siegesbeckia-glabrescens-extract-and-its-active-compound-kirenol-against-uvb-induced-photoaging-through-inhibition-of-mapk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#8
Jongwook Kim, Mi-Bo Kim, Jun Gon Yun, Jae Kwan Hwang
Anti-photoaging effects of standardized Siegesbeckia glabrescens extract (SGE) and its major active compound kirenol were investigated using Hs68 human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice, respectively. UVB-irradiated hairless mice that received oral SGE (600 mg/kg/day) showed reduced wrinkle formation and skinfold thickness compared to the UVB-irradiated control. Furthermore, SGE treatment increased the mRNA levels of collagen synthesis genes (COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A1, and COL7A1) and activated antioxidant enzyme (catalase), while suppressing the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs; MMP-2, -3, -9, and -13) expression...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873077/impaired-osteogenic-differentiation-and-enhanced-cellular-receptor-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-sensitivity-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#9
Mattabhorn Phimphilai, Peraphan Pothacharoen, Prachya Kongtawelert, Nipon Chattipakorn
Preclinical studies have demonstrated impaired osteoblast differentiation in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), which is related to skeletal accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). However, the role of AGE in osteoblast differentiation in patients with T2DM is unclear. This cross-sectional study was performed to investigate osteoblast differentiation and its association with serum pentosidine and soluble receptor of AGEs (sRAGE). Twenty-seven patients with T2DM and 15 age-matched controls were included to measure sRAGE and osteogenic differentiation in mononuclear cells derived from peripheral blood...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866191/the-long-non-coding-rna-lncrna8975-1-is-upregulated-in-hypertrophic-scar-fibroblasts-and-controls-collagen-expression
#10
Jun Li, Ling Chen, Chunyu Cao, Hui Yan, Bei Zhou, Yanli Gao, Qian Li, Jingyun Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are thought to play crucial roles in human diseases. However, the function of lncRNAs in hypertrophic scar formation remains poorly understood. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the expression of lncRNA8975-1 in hypertrophic scar tissues and fibroblasts by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). To investigate its function, overexpression and knockdown of lncRNA8975-1 were performed using lentivirus infection and Stealth RNAi transfection, respectively...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856711/pulmonary-vascular-collagen-content-not-cross-linking-contributes-to-right-ventricular-pulsatile-afterload-and-overload-in-early-pulmonary-hypertension
#11
Zhijie Wang, David A Schreier, Hinnah Abid, Timothy A Hacker, Naomi C Chesler
Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is associated with pulmonary artery (PA) remodeling and right ventricular (RV) overload. We have previously uncovered collagen-mediated mechanisms of proximal PA stiffening in early HPH by manipulating collagen degradation and crosslinking using a transgenic mouse strain and a potent collagen cross-link inhibitor β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN). However, the roles of collagen in distal PA remodeling, overall RV afterload and RV hypertrophy in HPH remain unknown. Here, we used the same experimental strategy to investigate the impact of pulmonary vascular collagen content and cross-linking on steady and pulsatile RV afterload as well as RV hypertrophy in early HPH...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855367/the-epigenetically-regulated-microrna-378a-targets-tgf-%C3%AE-2-in-tgf-%C3%AE-1-treated-hepatic-stellate-cells
#12
Fujun Yu, Jianhuan Yang, Kate Huang, Xiaodong Pan, BiCheng Chen, Peihong Dong, Jianjian Zheng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In liver fibrosis, the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is considered as a pivotal event. It is well known that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is the main stimuli factor responsible for HSC activation. microRNAs (miRNAs), regulating various biological processes, have recently been shown to be involved in HSC activation. A recent study reported that deficiency of miR-378a contributes to cardiac fibrosis via TGF-β1-dependent paracrine mechanism. However, the involvement of miR-378a and its roles in TGF-β1-induced HSC activation remains largely unknown...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853186/activated-hepatic-stellate-cells-play-pivotal-roles-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-chemoresistance-and-migration-in-multicellular-tumor-spheroids
#13
Yeonhwa Song, Se-Hyuk Kim, Kang Mo Kim, Eun Kyung Choi, Joon Kim, Haeng Ran Seo
Most Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic agents and remain an unmet medical need. Recently, multiple studies on the crosstalk between HCC and their tumor microenvironment have been conducted to overcome chemoresistance in HCC. In this study, we formed multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) to elucidate the mechanisms of environment-mediated chemoresistance in HCC. We observed that hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in MCTS significantly increased the compactness of spheroids and exhibited strong resistance to sorafenib and cisplatin relative to other types of stromal cells...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831650/critical-genes-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-revealed-by-network-and-module-analysis-of-rna-seq-data
#14
M-R Yang, Y Zhang, X-X Wu, W Chen
OBJECTIVE: RNA-seq data of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was analyzed to identify critical genes related to the pathogenesis and prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three RNA-seq datasets of HCC (GSE69164, GSE63863 and GSE55758) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), while another dataset including 54 HCC cases with survival time was obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by significant analysis of microarrays (SAM) method using package samr of R...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829645/an-ep4-receptor-agonist-inhibits-cardiac-fibrosis-through-activation-of-pka-signaling-in-hypertrophied-heart
#15
Qi Wang, Toru Oka, Kiyoshi Yamagami, Jong-Kook Lee, Hiroshi Akazawa, Atsuhiko T Naito, Taku Yasui, Takamaru Ishizu, Yoshikazu Nakaoka, Yasushi Sakata, Issei Komuro
Cardiac fibrosis is a pathological feature of myocardium of failing heart and plays causative roles in arrhythmia and cardiac dysfunction, but its regulatory mechanisms remain largely elusive. In this study, we investigated the effects of the novel EP4 receptor agonist ONO-0260164 on cardiac fibrosis in hypertrophied heart and explored the regulatory mechanisms in cardiac fibroblasts.In a mouse model of cardiac hypertrophy generated by transverse aortic constriction (TAC), ONO-0260164 treatment significantly prevented systolic dysfunction and progression of myocardial fibrosis at 5 weeks after TAC...
November 9, 2016: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824055/involvement-of-eif6-in-external-mechanical-stretch-mediated-murine-dermal-fibroblast-function-via-tgf-%C3%AE-1-pathway
#16
Qin Shu, Jianglin Tan, Van Daele Ulrike, Xiaorong Zhang, Jiacai Yang, Sisi Yang, Xiaohong Hu, Weifeng He, Gaoxing Luo, Jun Wu
External mechanical loading on a wound commonly increases fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) has been implicated in fibrosis in various models, including the mechanical force model. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Our previous experiments suggested that eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6) acted as a regulator of TGF-β1 expression, and negatively impact on collagen synthesis. Our current results showed that external mechanical stretching significantly increased COL1A1, TGF-β1 and eIF6 expression as well as dermal fibroblasts proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823969/targeting-ezh1-and-ezh2-contributes-to-the-suppression-of-fibrosis-associated-genes-by-mir-214-3p-in-cardiac-myofibroblasts
#17
Wen-Si Zhu, Chun-Mei Tang, Zhen Xiao, Jie-Ning Zhu, Qiu-Xiong Lin, Yong-Heng Fu, Zhi-Qin Hu, Zhuo Zhang, Min Yang, Xi-Long Zheng, Shu-Lin Wu, Zhi-Xin Shan
The role of microRNA-214-3p (miR-214-3p) in cardiac fibrosis was not well illustrated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression and potential target of miR-214-3p in angiotensin II (Ang-II)-induced cardiac fibrosis. MiR-214-3p was markedly decreased in the fibrotic myocardium of a mouse Ang-II infusion model, but was upregulated in Ang-II-treated mouse myofibroblasts. Cardiac fibrosis was shown attenuated in Ang-II-infused mice received tail vein injection of miR-214-3p agomir. Consistently, miR-214-3p inhibited the expression of Col1a1 and Col3a1 in mouse myofibroblasts in vitro...
November 3, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820852/osteoarthritis-in-the-knee-joints-of-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipigs-after-resection-of-the-anterior-cruciate-ligament-missing-correlation-of-mri-gene-and-protein-expression-with-histological-scoring
#18
Gregor Reisig, Michael Kreinest, Wiltrud Richter, Mechthild Wagner-Ecker, Dietmar Dinter, Ulrike Attenberger, Barbara Schneider-Wald, Stefan Fickert, Markus L Schwarz
INTRODUCTION: The Göttingen Minipig (GM) is used as large animal model in articular cartilage research. The aim of the study was to introduce osteoarthritis (OA) in the GM by resecting the anterior cruciate ligament (ACLR) according to Pond and Nuki, verified by histological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring as well as analysis of gene and protein expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The eight included skeletally mature female GM were assessed after ACLR in the left and a sham operation in the right knee, which served as control...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818223/hesperitin-derivative-11-suppress-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-and-proliferation-by-targeting-pten-akt-pathway
#19
Wan-Xia Li, Xin Chen, Yang Yang, Hui-Min Huang, Hai-di Li, Cheng Huang, Xiao-Ming Meng, Jun Li
Hesperitin derivative (HD-11) is a monomeric compound derived from Hesperidin, which is a naturally occurring flavanone glycoside that exerts extensive clinical effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-angiogenic. However, the role and fundamental mechanism of HD-11 in hepatic fibrosis is still unrevealed. In this study, HD-11 not only alleviates ECM deposition in rats with liver fibrosis, but also reduces the expression of α-SMA and col1a1 in TGF-β1-induced HSC-T6 cells. Moreover, it was demonstrated that HD-11 significantly promoted the expression of PTEN in vivo and in vitro...
November 3, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813341/pharmacological-and-biological-therapeutic-strategies-for-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#20
Ronit Marom, Yi-Chien Lee, Ingo Grafe, Brendan Lee
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility, low bone mass, and bone deformities. The majority of cases are caused by autosomal dominant pathogenic variants in the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes that encode type I collagen, the major component of the bone matrix. The remaining cases are caused by autosomal recessively or dominantly inherited mutations in genes that are involved in the post-translational modification of type I collagen, act as type I collagen chaperones, or are members of the signaling pathways that regulate bone homeostasis...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
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