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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210202/mechanisms-and-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#1
James Giordano, Marom Bikson, Emily S Kappenman, Vincent P Clark, H Branch Coslett, Michael R Hamblin, Roy Hamilton, Ryan Jankord, Walter J Kozumbo, R Andrew McKinley, Michael A Nitsche, J Patrick Reilly, Jessica Richardson, Rachel Wurzman, Edward Calabrese
The US Air Force Office of Scientific Research convened a meeting of researchers in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, engineering, and medicine to discuss most pressing issues facing ongoing research in the field of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and related techniques. In this study, we present opinions prepared by participants of the meeting, focusing on the most promising areas of research, immediate and future goals for the field, and the potential for hormesis theory to inform tDCS research...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205508/global-dynamics-of-non-equilibrium-gliding-in-animals
#2
Isaac Yeaton, Jake Socha, Shane Ross
Gliding flight - moving horizontally downward through the air without power - has evolved in a broad diversity of taxa and serves numerous ecologically relevant functions such as predator escape, expanding foraging locations, and finding mates, and has been suggested as an evolutionary pathway to powered flight. Historically, gliding has been conceptualized using the idealized conditions of equilibrium, in which the net aerodynamic force on the glider balances its weight. While this assumption is appealing for its simplicity, recent studies of glide trajectories have shown that equilibrium gliding is not the norm for most species...
February 16, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198959/intraoperative-body-temperature-control-esophageal-thermometer-versus-infrared-tympanic-thermometer
#3
Vanessa de Brito Poveda, Ariane de Souza Nascimento
OBJECTIVE: To verify the correlation between temperature measurements performed using an infrared tympanic thermometer and an esophageal thermometer during the intraoperative period. METHOD: A longitudinal study of repeated measures was performed including subjects aged 18 years or older undergoing elective oncologic surgery of the digestive system, with anesthesia duration of at least 1 hour. Temperature measurements were performed simultaneously by a calibrated esophageal thermometer and by a calibrated infrared tympanic thermometer, with laboratory reading precision of ±0...
November 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191980/interaction-mechanisms-between-air-bubble-and-molybdenite-surface-impact-of-solution-salinity-and-polymer-adsorption
#4
Lei Xie, Jingyi Wang, Duowei Yuan, Chen Shi, Xin Cui, Hao Zhang, Qi Liu, Qingxia Liu, Hongbo Zeng
The surface characteristics of molybdenite (MoS2) such as wettability and surface interactions have attracted much research interest in a wide range of engineering applications, such as froth flotation. In this work, a bubble probe atomic force microscope (AFM) technique was employed to directly measure the interaction forces between an air bubble and molybdenite mineral surface before/after polymer (i.e., guar gum) adsorption treatment. The AFM imaging showed that the polymer coverage on the surface of molybdenite could achieve ~5...
February 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190355/drying-induced-self-similar-assembly-of-mega-molecular-polysaccharides-through-nano-and-submicron-layering
#5
Kosuke Okeyoshi, Gargi Joshi, Sakshi Rawat, Saranyoo Sornkamnerd, Kittima Amornwachirabodee, Maiko Kaneko Okajima, Mayumi Ito, Shoko Kobayashi, Koichi Higashimine, Yoshifumi Oshima, Tatsuo Kaneko
We propose a self-similar assembly to generate planar orientations of mega-molecular polysaccharides in the nanometer-scale and submicron-scale. Evaporating the aqueous liquid crystalline (LC) solution on a planar air-LC interface induces polymer layering by self-assembly and rational action of macroscopic capillary forces between the layers. To clarify the mechanisms of nano and submicron scale layering, the polymer films are investigated by electron microscopy.
February 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186804/light-induced-pulling-and-pushing-by-the-synergic-effect-of-optical-force-and-photophoretic-force
#6
Jinsheng Lu, Hangbo Yang, Lina Zhou, Yuanqing Yang, Si Luo, Qiang Li, Min Qiu
Optical force, coming from momentum exchange during light-matter interactions, has been widely utilized to manipulate microscopic objects, though mostly in vacuum or in liquids. By contrast, due to the light-induced thermal effect, photophoretic force provides an alternative and effective way to transport light-absorbing particles in ambient gases. However, in most cases these forces work independently. Here, by employing the synergy of optical force and photophoretic force, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a configuration which can drive a micron-size metallic plate moving back and forth on a tapered fiber with supercontinuum light in ambient air...
January 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183647/adsorption-and-enzyme-activity-of-asparaginase-at-lipid-langmuir-and-langmuir-blodgett-films
#7
Carlos da Rocha Junior, Luciano Caseli
In this present work, the surface activity of the enzyme asparaginase was investigated at the air-water interface, presenting surface activity in high ionic strengths. Asparaginase was incorporated in Langmuir monolayers of the phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), forming a mixed film, which was characterized with surface pressure-area isotherms, surface potential-area isotherms, polarization-modulated infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM)...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180125/relationship-between-air-pollution-weather-traffic-and-traffic-related-mortality
#8
Maryam Dastoorpoor, Esmaeil Idani, Narges Khanjani, Gholamreza Goudarzi, Abbas Bahrampour
BACKGROUND: Air pollution and weather are just two of many environmental factors contributing to traffic accidents (RTA). OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effects of these factors on traffic accidents and related mortalities in Ahvaz, Iran. METHODS: In this ecological study, data about RTA, traffic-related mortalities, air pollution (including NO, CO, NO2, NOx PM10, SO2, and O3 rates) and climate data from March 2008 until March 2015 was acquired from the Khuzestan State Police Force, the Environmental Protection Agency and the State Meteorological Department...
September 2016: Trauma Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177630/predictive-model-of-supercooled-water-droplet-pinning-repulsion-impacting-on-a-superhydrophobic-surface-the-role-of-gas-liquid-interface-temperature
#9
Morteza Mohammadi, Moussa Tembely, Ali Dolatabadi
Dynamical analysis of an impacting liquid drop on superhydrophobic surfaces is mostly carried out by evaluation of droplet contact time and maximum spreading diameter. In this study, we present a general transient model of droplet spreading diameter developed from previously defined mass-spring model for bouncing drops. The effect of viscosity was also considered in the model by definition of a dash-pot term extracted by the experimentation of various viscous liquid droplets on the superhydrophobic surface...
February 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177211/electrostatically-active-polymer-hybrid-aerogels-for-airborne-nanoparticle-filtration
#10
Sung Jun Kim, Prasad Raut, Sadhan C Jana, George Chase
The role of electrostatic force on separation of airborne nanoparticles is evaluated in this work by considering a hybrid monolithic aerogel of syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). The sPS part accounts for open pore structures in the monolith, while the PVDF chains contribute spontaneous polarity for particle capture by the electrostatic force. The hybrid aerogels are fabricated by thermoreversible gelation of sPS from a solution with PVDF in tetrahydrofuran followed by supercritical drying of the gel...
February 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177017/surface-shear-viscosity-as-a-macroscopic-probe-of-amyloid-fibril-formation-at-a-fluid-interface
#11
Vignesh S Balaraj, Philip C H Zeng, Sean P Sanford, Samantha A McBride, Aditya Raghunandan, Juan M Lopez, Amir H Hirsa
Amyloidogenesis of proteins is of wide interest because amyloid structures are associated with many diseases, including Alzheimer's and type II diabetes. Dozens of different proteins of various sizes are known to form amyloid fibrils. While there are numerous studies on the fibrillization of insulin induced by various perturbations, shearing at fluid interfaces has not received as much attention. Here, we present a study of human insulin fibrillization at room temperature using a deep-channel surface viscometer...
February 8, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176048/influences-of-environmental-noise-level-and-respiration-rate-on-the-accuracy-of-acoustic-respiration-rate-monitoring
#12
Shizuha Yabuki, Hiroaki Toyama, Yusuke Takei, Toshihiro Wagatsuma, Hiroshi Yabuki, Masanori Yamauchi
We tested the hypothesis that the environmental noise generated by a forced-air warming system reduces the monitoring accuracy of acoustic respiration rate (RRa). Noise levels were adjusted to 45-55, 56-65, 66-75, and 76-85 dB. Healthy participants breathed at set respiration rates (RRset) of 6, 12, and 30/min. Under each noise level at each RRset, the respiration rates by manual counting (RRm) and RRa were recorded. Any appearance of the alarm display on the RRa monitor was also recorded. Each RRm of all participants agreed with each RRset at each noise level...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170103/effectiveness-and-cost-of-reducing-particle-related-mortality-with-particle-filtration
#13
William J Fisk, Wanyu R Chan
This paper evaluates the mortality-related benefits and costs of improvements in particle filtration in U.S. homes and commercial buildings based on models with empirical inputs. The models account for time spent in various environments as well as activity levels and associated breathing rates. The scenarios evaluated include improvements in filter efficiencies in both forced air heating and cooling systems of homes and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems of workplaces as well as use of portable air cleaners in homes...
February 7, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167425/effect-of-cation-alkyl-chain-length-on-surface-forces-and-physical-properties-in-deep-eutectic-solvents
#14
Zhengfei Chen, Michael Ludwig, Gregory G Warr, Rob Atkin
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been prepared from mixtures of alkyl ammonium bromide salts (ethylammonium bromide, propylammonium bromide and butylammonium bromide) and glycerol at a 1: 2 M ratio. These DESs reveal the effect of cation alkyl chain length on interfacial structure at mica (a model anionic) surface. As the cation chain length is increased it becomes more amphiphilic and solvophobic, leading to stronger association of alkyl chains, as revealed by atomic force microscope force curve measurements...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160097/indoor-environmental-factors-associated-with-pulmonary-function-among-adults-in-an-acid-rain-plagued-city-in-southwest-china
#15
Jie Yu, Longju Zhang, Ya Luo, Yin Tang, Fangxu Tuo, Jiaqi Yang, Jie Xu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of indoor environmental risk factors with respiratory function among adults in an acid rain-plagued city in China where coal use is frequent. METHODS: The subjects were randomly selected in the winter season. Information on selected home environmental factors was collected through administered questionnaires. Additionally, pulmonary function tests, including Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/FVC and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were also performed in participants...
February 3, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159714/pain-intensity-during-ultrasound-assessment-of-uterine-cavity-and-tubal-patency-with-and-without-painkiller-a-prospective-observational-study
#16
Inga Ludwin, Wellington P Martins, Carolina O Nastri, Artur Ludwin
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pain intensity and incidence of mild/severe pain during the ultrasound assessment of the uterine cavity and tubal patency using saline, air/saline and foam as contrasts with and without painkiller. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. DESIGN: Classification: Canadian Task Force II-1. SETTING: Private clinic. PATIENTS: Three hundred infertile women who were consecutively submitted to uterine cavity and tubal patency assessment by ultrasound using saline, air, and foam in single exam between Oct-2012 and Nov-2013...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158021/optical-manipulation-for-studies-of-collisional-dynamics-of-micron-sized-droplets-under-gravity
#17
Maksym Ivanov, Kelken Chang, Ivan Galinskiy, Bernhard Mehlig, Dag Hanstorp
A new experimental technique for creating and imaging collisions of micron-sized droplets settling under gravity is presented. A pair of glycerol droplets is suspended in air by means of two optical traps. The droplet relative velocities are determined by the droplet sizes. The impact parameter is precisely controlled by positioning the droplets using the two optical traps. The droplets are released by turning off the trapping light using electro-optical modulators. The motion of the sedimenting droplets is then captured by two synchronized high-speed cameras, at a frame rate of up to 63 kHz...
January 23, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149556/effect-of-gender-on-perioperative-outcomes-after-robotic-assisted-pulmonary-lobectomy
#18
Jessica R Glover, Frank O Velez-Cubian, Wei Wei Zhang, Kavian Toosi, Tawee Tanvetyanon, Emily P Ng, Carla C Moodie, Joseph R Garrett, Jacques P Fontaine, Eric M Toloza
BACKGROUND: Female gender has been associated with worse outcomes after cardiovascular surgery and critical illness. We investigated the effect of gender on perioperative outcomes following robotic-assisted pulmonary lobectomy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 282 consecutive patients who underwent robotic-assisted pulmonary lobectomy by one surgeon over 53 months. Perioperative outcomes and clinically significant intraoperative and postoperative complications, including respiratory and cardiovascular events, were noted...
December 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147564/demisting-using-an-ultrasonic-standing-wave-field
#19
T M Merrell, J R Saylor
Removing drops from an air flow can be challenging, particularly, for small drops. Herein a method for demisting is presented that employs ultrasonics to force small drops to combine. Specifically, a cylindrical ultrasonic standing wave field is established in a tube, forming pressure nodes that take the form of cylinders located within the tube and having the same axis as the tube. Droplets are driven toward these pressure nodes by the acoustic radiation force, forcing smaller drops to combine to form larger drops, which eventually fall due to gravity, thereby demisting the flow...
January 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140624/normative-data-for-the-neurocom-sensory-organization-test-in-us-military-special-operations-forces
#20
Erin R Pletcher, Valerie J Williams, John P Abt, Paul M Morgan, Jeffrey J Parr, Meleesa F Wohleber, Mita Lovalekar, Timothy C Sell
CONTEXT:  Postural stability is the ability to control the center of mass in relation to a person's base of support and can be affected by both musculoskeletal injury and traumatic brain injury. The NeuroCom Sensory Organization Test (SOT) can be used to objectively quantify impairments to postural stability. The ability of postural stability to predict injury and be used as an acute injury-evaluation tool makes it essential to the screening and rehabilitation process. To our knowledge, no published normative data of the SOT from a healthy, highly active population are available for use as a reference for clinical decision making...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
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