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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347174/periodic-jetting-and-monodisperse-jet-drops-from-oblique-gas-injection
#1
Oliver McRae, Antoine Gaillard, James C Bird
When air is blown in a straw or tube near an air-liquid interface, typically one of two behaviors is observed: a dimple in the liquid's surface, or a frenzy of sputtering bubbles, waves, and spray. Here we report and characterize an intermediate regime that can develop when a confined air jet enters the interface at an angle. This regime is oscillatory with a distinct characteristic frequency and can develop periodic angled jets that can break up into monodisperse aerosols. The underlying mechanisms responsible for this highly periodic regime are not well understood...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346900/smoothed-particle-hydrodynamics-study-of-the-roughness-effect-on-contact-angle-and-droplet-flow
#2
Elena Shigorina, Jannes Kordilla, Alexandre M Tartakovsky
We employ a pairwise force smoothed particle hydrodynamics (PF-SPH) model to simulate sessile and transient droplets on rough hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. PF-SPH allows modeling of free-surface flows without discretizing the air phase, which is achieved by imposing the surface tension and dynamic contact angles with pairwise interaction forces. We use the PF-SPH model to study the effect of surface roughness and microscopic contact angle on the effective contact angle and droplet dynamics. In the first part of this work, we investigate static contact angles of sessile droplets on different types of rough surfaces...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340151/reference-values-for-spirometry-in-elderly-individuals-a-cross-sectional-study-of-different-reference-equations
#3
Joana Belo, Teresa Palmeiro, Iolanda Caires, Ana L Papoila, Marta Alves, Pedro Carreiro-Martins, Maria A Botelho, Nuno Neuparth
Background: Spirometry is the single most important test for the evaluation of respiratory function. The results are interpreted by comparing measured data with predicted values previously obtained from a reference population. Reference equations for spirometry have been discussed previously. The aim of this study was to compare reference values based on National Health and Nutrition Assessment Survey (NHANES III), European Community of Steel and Coal (ECSC), and Global Lung Initiative (GLI) equations in an elderly sample population...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339985/butterfly-sprint-swimming-technique-analysis-of-somatic-and-spatial-temporal-coordination-variables
#4
Marek Strzała, Arkadiusz Stanula, Piotr Krężałek, Andrzej Ostrowski, Marcin Kaca, Grzegorz Głąb
The aim of this study was to investigate somatic properties and force production of leg extensor muscles measured in the countermovement jump test (CMJ), as well as to analyse kinematic variables of sprint surface butterfly swimming. Thirty-four male competitive swimmers were recruited with an average age of 19.3 ± 1.83 years. Their average body height (BH) was 183.7 ± 5.93 cm, body fat content 10.8 ± 2.64% and body mass (BM) 78.3 ± 5.0 kg. Length measurements of particular body segments were taken and a counter movement jump (CMJ) as well as an all-out 50 m butterfly speed test were completed...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334611/understanding-complex-tribofilms-by-means-of-h3bo3-b2o3-model-glasses
#5
Fabiana Spadaro, Antonella Rossi, Shivaprakash N Ramakrishna, Emmanuel Lainé, Philip Woodward, Nicholas D Spencer
The discovery of the spontaneous reaction of boric oxides with moisture in the air to form lubricious H3BO3 films has led to great interest in the tribology of boron compounds in general. Despite this, a study of the growth kinetics of H3BO3 on a B2O3 substrate under controlled relative humidity (RH), has not yet been reported in the literature. Here, we describe the tribological properties of H3BO3-B2O3 glass systems after aging under controlled relative humidity over different lengths of time. A series of tribological tests has been performed applying a normal load of 15 N, at both room temperature and 100°C in Yubase 4 oil...
January 15, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331337/elastin-in-lung-development-and-disease-pathogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Robert P Mecham
Elastin is expressed in most tissues that require elastic recoil. The protein first appeared coincident with the closed circulatory system, and was critical for the evolutionary success of the vertebrate lineage. Elastin is expressed by multiple cell types in the lung, including mesothelial cells in the pleura, smooth muscle cells in airways and blood vessels, endothelial cells, and interstitial fibroblasts. This highly crosslinked protein associates with fibrillin-containing microfibrils to form the elastic fiber, which is the physiological structure that functions in the extracellular matrix...
January 10, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330588/whole-body-3d-kinematics-of-bird-take-off-key-role-of-the-legs-to-propel-the-trunk
#7
Pauline Provini, Anick Abourachid
Previous studies showed that birds primarily use their hindlimbs to propel themselves into the air in order to take-off. Yet, it remains unclear how the different parts of their musculoskeletal system move to produce the necessary acceleration. To quantify the relative motions of the bones during the terrestrial phase of take-off, we used biplanar fluoroscopy in two species of birds, diamond dove (Geopelia cuneata) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). We obtained a detailed 3D kinematics analysis of the head, the trunk and the three long bones of the left leg...
January 6, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328682/brief-report-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infections-in-u-s-air-force-basic-military-trainees-who-donated-blood-2013-2016
#8
Douglas F Taylor, Ryan S Cho, Jason F Okulicz, Bryant J Webber, John G Gancayco
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) can cause significant morbidity in military service members. Prevalences of HBV and HCV infections among military recruits accessioning into the U.S. Air Force have not previously been described. The Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland Blood Donor Center was queried for the results of HBV and HCV screening tests among all basic military trainees who donated blood between 25 November 2013 and 16 April 2016. Other active and reserve component members were excluded...
December 2017: MSMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327184/efficacy-of-forced-air-warming-to-prevent-perioperative-hypothermia-in-morbidly-obese-versus-non-obese-patients
#9
Raphael Okoué, Daniela Calabrese, Pascal Nzé, Simon Msika, Hawa Keita
BACKGROUND: Hypothermia is associated with an increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Forced-air warming systems are the most effective methods for its prevention. When using a mattress, a reduction in the area of diffusion of warm air by crushing due to excess weight cannot be ruled out. METHODS: We designed a prospective study to compare the efficacy of a forced-air warming mattress (Bair Hugger® 585) to prevent hypothermia (core temperature (CT°) < 36 °C) in morbidly obese (group MO, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 40 kg/m2) and non-obese patients (group NO, BMI < 30 kg/m2)...
January 11, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326506/the-bond-strength-of-nanohybrid-and-nanoceramic-composites-to-feldspathic-porcelain
#10
Hatice Özdemir, Nuran Dinçkal Yanikoglu
Background: Porcelain fracture is the most important problem in fixed prosthetic restorations. The replacement of fractured restoraions isn't often prefer by patients and dentists. Intraoral repair of fractured porcelain is a big alternative for patient and dentist. For this reason, dentists try to improve different surface treatments to increase the bond strength between porcelain and repair materials such as composite resins. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of nano-hybrid (Nh...
October 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325856/is-insufficient-pulmonary-air-support-the-cause-of-dysphonia-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#11
Megahed M Hassan, Mona T Hussein, Ahmed Mamdouh Emam, Usama M Rashad, Ibrahim Rezk, Al Hussein Awad
OBJECTIVE: Optimal pulmonary air support is essential pre-requisite for efficient phonation. The objective is to correlate pulmonary and vocal functions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to find out whether the reduced pulmonary function per se could induce dysphonia. METHODS: In this prospective case-control study, sixty subjects with stable COPD underwent evaluation of pulmonary and vocal functions. The pulmonary functions measured include {Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF)}...
January 8, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320941/progressive-delayed-respiratory-complications-of-sulfur-mustard-poisoning-in-43-iranian-veterans-three-decades-after-exposure
#12
E Darchini-Maragheh, M Balali-Mood, M Malaknezhad, S R Mousavi
The most common delayed complication of sulfur mustard (SM) poisoning has been observed in the respiratory tracts. It was thus aimed to investigate the delayed respiratory complications in SM-exposed patients around 25 years before the study. Forty-three veterans with more than 25% disability of due to SM poisoning were investigated. Clinical examinations as well as pulmonary function test (PFT) were performed. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs was done as clinically indicated. Triad of chronic cough, dyspnea, and expectoration were the most common symptoms that were recorded in 88...
February 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320159/bioinspired-nanostructured-surfaces-for-on-demand-bubble-transportation
#13
Xin Tang, Hairui Xiong, Tiantian Kong, Ye Tian, Wen-Di Li, Liqiu Wang
The maneuver of small bubbles in a programmed way will advance numerous processes, including gas evolution reaction and aeration. Unlike in-air droplets, rapidly rising bubbles in liquid medium can hardly be steered through interaction with solid substrates, causing difficulties in maneuvering bubbles. We pattern and lubricate nanoporous substrates with regions of contrasting wettability that is similar to the back of Namib desert beetles and subsequently immerse the lubricated surface underwater to spontaneously form spatially patterned Nepenthes-inspired slippery surfaces after the dewetting of lubricants...
January 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316641/neighborhood-perceptions-and-cumulative-impacts-of-low-level-chronic-exposure-to-fine-particular-matter-pm2-5-on-cardiopulmonary-health
#14
Kristen M C Malecki, Amy A Schultz, Rachel S Bergmans
Adverse perceptions of neighborhood safety, aesthetics and quality including access to resources can induce stress and may make individuals more sensitive to cardiopulmonary effects of air pollution exposure. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions as important and modifiable non-chemical stressors of the built environment that may exacerbate effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary health outcomes, particularly among general population based cohorts. This study examined associations between low-level chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2...
January 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316602/no-evidence-of-increased-infection-risk-with-forced-air-warming-devices-a-systematic-review
#15
Heather S Haeberle, Sergio M Navarro, Linsen T Samuel, Anton Khlopas, Assem A Sultan, Nipun Sodhi, Morad Chughtai, Michael A Mont, Prem N Ramkumar
INTRODUCTION: Forced-air warming devices have been reported to present a potential risk for surgical site infections (SSIs) and periprosthetic joint infections. Due to a lack of consensus, we reviewed the infection risk of forced-air warming devices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed, evaluating overall infection risk and bacterial load. A total of eight studies reporting outcomes from 1,965 subjects were included. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There is no current evidence in the orthopaedic literature that forced-air warming devices translate to increased SSIs...
December 22, 2017: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316347/effect-of-heated-air-blanket-on-the-dispersion-of-squames-in-an-operating-room
#16
X He, S Karra, P Pakseresht, S V Apte, S Elghobashi
High-fidelity, predictive fluid flow simulations of the interactions between the rising thermal plumes from forced air warming blower and the ultraclean ventilation air in an operating (OR) are conducted to explore whether this complex flow can impact the dispersion of squames to the surgical site. A large-eddy simulation (LES), accurately capturing the spatio-temporal evolution of the flow in three-dimensions together with the trajectories of squames, is performed for a realistic OR consisting of an operating table (OT), side tables, surgical lamps, medical staff, and a patient...
January 9, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309159/surface-activity-of-poly-ethylene-glycol-coated-silver-nanoparticles-in-the-presence-of-a-lipid-monolayer
#17
Nasim Ganji, Iftheker Khan, Geoffrey D Bothun
We have investigated the surface activity of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag-PEG) in the presence or absence of lipid monolayers comprised of mono-unsaturated dioleoylphosphocholine and dioleoylphosphoglycerol (DOPC/DOPG; 1:1 mole ratio). Dynamic measurements of surface pressure demonstrated that Ag-PEG were surface-active at the air/water interface. Surface excess concentrations suggested that at high Ag-PEG subphase concentrations, Ag-PEG assembled as densely-packed monolayers in the presence and absence of a lipid monolayer...
January 8, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308653/ambiphilic-molecules-from-organometallic-curiosity-to-metal-free-catalysts
#18
Frédéric-Georges Fontaine, Étienne Rochette
Ambiphilic molecules were first used as functional ligands for transition elements, which could enable intriguing organometallic transformations. In the past decade, these intramolecular Lewis pairs, first considered organometallic curiosities, have become staples in organometallic chemistry and catalysis, acting as Z ligands, activating inert molecules using the concept of frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) chemistry, and acting as metal-free catalysts. In this Account, we detail our contribution to this blossoming field of research, focusing on the use of ambiphilic molecules as metal-free catalysts for CO2 reduction and C-H borylation reactions...
January 8, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308230/numerical-simulations-of-targeted-delivery-of-magnetic-drug-aerosols-in-the-human-upper-and-central-respiratory-system-a-validation-study
#19
Saša Kenjereš, Jimmy Leroy Tjin
In the present study, we investigate the concept of the targeted delivery of pharmaceutical drug aerosols in an anatomically realistic geometry of the human upper and central respiratory system. The geometry considered extends from the mouth inlet to the eighth generation of the bronchial bifurcations and is identical to the phantom model used in the experimental studies of Banko et al. (2015 Exp. Fluids56, 1-12 (doi:10.1007/s00348-015-1966-y)). In our computer simulations, we combine the transitional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and the wall-resolved large eddy simulation (LES) methods for the air phase with the Lagrangian approach for the particulate (aerosol) phase...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308188/stability-of-uv-ozone-treated-thermoplastics-under-different-storage-conditions-for-microfluidic-analytical-devices
#20
Tung-Yi Lin, Trey T Pfeiffer, Peter B Lillehoj
Thermoplastics are becoming a popular material for fabricating microfluidic devices and there is an increasing need for robust surface modification strategies. UV/ozone (UVO) treatment is a simple and effective method for making plastic surfaces more hydrophilic. Prior reports on the stability of UVO-treated plastics are limited to four weeks, which is not sufficient for applications requiring long-term storage. Here, we present new findings on the long-term stability of UVO-treated plastics for up to 16 weeks and show that the storage condition has a significant impact on the surface stability...
July 29, 2017: RSC Advances
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