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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777384/contribution-of-different-tarsal-attachment-devices-to-the-overall-attachment-ability-of-the-stink-bug-nezara-viridula
#1
Gianandrea Salerno, Manuela Rebora, Alexander Kovalev, Elena Gorb, Stanislav Gorb
The tarsal attachment devices of the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula, a cosmopolitan pest of different crops, encompass a pair of claws, distal pretarsal smooth pulvilli, and a proximal hairy pad on the ventral basitarsus. To evaluate the role of these attachment devices in generating attachment, behavioural experiments testing locomotion of insects with ablated pulvilli, shaved hairs and cut-off claws were performed. Using traction force experiments, insect attachment performance was evaluated on artificial substrates characterised by different roughness and on two substrates with different surface energies in the air and under water...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777308/theoretical-analysis-of-evaporative-cooling-of-classic-heat-stroke-patients
#2
Abdulaziz H Alzeer, E H Wissler
Heat stroke is a serious health concern globally, which is associated with high mortality. Newer treatments must be designed to improve outcomes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of variations in ambient temperature and wind speed on the rate of cooling in a simulated heat stroke subject using the dynamic model of Wissler. We assume that a 60-year-old 70-kg female suffers classic heat stroke after walking fully exposed to the sun for 4 h while the ambient temperature is 40 °C, relative humidity is 20%, and wind speed is 2...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775687/effects-of-bronchodilation-on-biomarkers-of-peripheral-airway-inflammation-in-copd
#3
Pierachille Santus, Dejan Radovanovic, Susanna Mascetti, Alessia Pauletti, Vincenzo Valenti, Marco Mantero, Alberto Papi, Marco Contoli
Peripheral airway inflammation and dysfunction are key elements in the pathogenesis of COPD. The exhaled alveolar fraction of nitric oxide (CANO) is an indirect biomarker of lung peripheral inflammation. We tested whether inhaled long-acting bronchodilators (LABA) can affect CANO and we evaluated correlations with lung mechanics in patients with COPD. Two-centre, randomised, double blind, crossover study including COPD patients with moderate-to-severe airflow obstruction. Following a pharmacological washout, multi-flow exhaled fraction of NO (FENO), plethysmography, lung diffusion (DLCO), single breath nitrogen washout test and dyspnoea were measured in a crossover manner at baseline and 30, 60 and 180 minutes following administration of salmeterol (Sal) or formoterol fumarate (FF)...
May 15, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774617/3d-structured-stretchable-strain-sensors-for-out-of-plane-force-detection
#4
Zhiyuan Liu, Dianpeng Qi, Wan Ru Leow, Jiancan Yu, Michele Xiloyannnis, Leonardo Cappello, Yaqing Liu, Bowen Zhu, Ying Jiang, Geng Chen, Lorenzo Masia, Bo Liedberg, Xiaodong Chen
Stretchable strain sensors, as the soft mechanical interface, provide the key mechanical information of the systems for healthcare monitoring, rehabilitation assistance, soft exoskeletal devices, and soft robotics. Stretchable strain sensors based on 2D flat film have been widely developed to monitor the in-plane force applied within the plane where the sensor is placed. However, to comprehensively obtain the mechanical feedback, the capability to detect the out-of-plane force, caused by the interaction outside of the plane where the senor is located, is needed...
May 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767634/measurement-and-estimation-of-human-forced-expiratory-noise-parameters-using-a-microphone-with-a-stethoscope-head-and-a-lapel-microphone
#5
Anna Yur'evna Glazova, Vladimir I Korenbaum, Anatoly E Kostiv, Oksana I Kabancova, Alexander A Tagiltcev, Svetlana N Shin
The time signature of tracheal noise in the 200-2000 Hz frequency band recorded during a forced expiratory manoeuvre (FETa) is a promising tool for diagnosis of bronchial obstructions. FETa is typically registered using a microphone with a stethoscope head placed on the neck over the trachea (stethoscope sensor). We studied basic time and spectral parameters of forced expiratory tracheal noises with a microphone placed near the mouth (lapel microphone, outside the flow of exhaled air) and compared these with measurements via stethoscope sensor, with the aim of providing patient home monitoring via standard personal computer facilities...
May 16, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767500/enhanced-performance-of-field-effect-transistors-based-on-black-phosphorus-channels-reduced-by-galvanic-corrosion-of-al-over-layers
#6
Sangik Lee, Chansoo Yoon, Ji Hye Lee, Yeon Soo Kim, Mi Jung Lee, Wondong Kim, Jaeyoon Baik, Quanxi Jia, Bae Ho Park
Two-dimensional (2D) layered semiconducting materials with considerable bandgaps are emerging as a new class of materials applicable to next-generation devices. Particularly, black phosphorus (BP) is considered to be very promising for next-generation 2D electrical and optical devices due to its high carrier mobility of 200-1000 cm2 V-1 s-1 and large on/off ratio of 104 -105 in field effect transistors. However, its environmental instability in air requires fabrication processes in a glove box filled with nitrogen or argon gas followed by encapsulation, passivation, and chemical functionalization of BP...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767217/assessing-mentorship-experiences-of-faculty-at-a-military-academic-center-challenge-and-opportunity
#7
Kevin C McMains, Rechell G Rodriguez, Jennifer Peel, Heather C Yun, Mark W True, Woodson S Jones
OBJECTIVES: Mentor relationships are a key component of professional development within academic medicine. To date, there are no investigations into the prevalence and effects of mentor relationships within military academic medicine. This quality improvement initiative aimed to establish the prevalence and effects of mentorship, including whether sex differences exist among faculty at a military academic center, the San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium, and identify opportunities to improve faculty development efforts for mentorship to benefit faculty at this institution...
May 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765941/nano-and-micro-patterned-s-h-and-x-pdms-for-cell-based-applications-comparison-of-wettability-roughness-and-cell-derived-parameters
#8
Marina Scharin-Mehlmann, Aaron Häring, Mathias Rommel, Tobias Dirnecker, Oliver Friedrich, Lothar Frey, Daniel F Gilbert
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a promising biomaterial for generating artificial extracellular matrix (ECM) like patterned topographies, yet its hydrophobic nature limits its applicability to cell-based approaches. Although plasma treatment can enhance the wettability of PDMS, the surface is known to recover its hydrophobicity within a few hours after exposure to air. To investigate the capability of a novel PDMS-type (X-PDMS) for in vitro based assessment of physiological cell properties, we designed and fabricated plane as well as nano- and micrometer-scaled pillar-patterned growth substrates using the elastomer types S-, H- and X-PDMS, which were fabricated from commercially available components...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756066/postanaesthetic-shivering-from-pathophysiology-to-prevention
#9
REVIEW
Maria Bermudez Lopez
Postoperative shivering is a common complication of anaesthesia. Shivering is believed to increase oxygen consumption, increase the risk of hypoxemia, induce lactic acidosis, and catecholamine release. Therefore, it might increase the postoperative complications especially in high-risk patients. Moreover, shivering is one of the leading causes of discomfort for postsurgical patients. Shivering is usually triggered by hypothermia. However, it occurs even in normothermic patients during the perioperative period...
April 2018: Romanian Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755755/lung-volumes-identify-an-at-risk-group-in-persons-with-prolonged-secondhand-tobacco-smoke-exposure-but-without-overt-airflow-obstruction
#10
Mehrdad Arjomandi, Siyang Zeng, Jeroen Geerts, Rachel K Stiner, Bruce Bos, Ian van Koeverden, Jason Keene, Brett Elicker, Paul D Blanc, Warren M Gold
Introduction: Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is associated with occult obstructive lung disease as evident by abnormal airflow indices representing small airway disease despite having preserved spirometry (normal forced expiratory volume in 1 s-to-forced vital capacity ratio, FEV1 /FVC). The significance of lung volumes that reflect air trapping in the presence of preserved spirometry is unclear. Methods: To investigate whether lung volumes representing air trapping could determine susceptibility to respiratory morbidity in people with SHS exposure but without spirometric chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, we examined a cohort of 256 subjects with prolonged occupational SHS exposure and preserved spirometry...
2018: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754389/cost-effectiveness-of-forced-air-warming-during-sedation-in-the-cardiac-catheterisation-laboratory
#11
Aaron Conway, Jed Duff, Joanna Sutherland
AIM: To determine the cost-effectiveness of forced air warming during sedation in a cardiac catheterisation laboratory. BACKGROUND: Forced air warming improves thermal comfort in comparison with standard care. It is not known whether the extra costs required for forced air warming are good value. DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a randomised controlled trial conducted in 2016-2017. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken using Monte Carlo simulations from input distributions to estimate costs and effects associated with using forced air warming to reduce risk of thermal discomfort for patients receiving sedation in a cardiac catheterisation laboratory...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753038/inspection-of-endoscope-instrument-channels-after-reprocessing-using-a-prototype-borescope
#12
Adarsh M Thaker, Stephen Kim, Alireza Sedarat, Rabindra R Watson, V Raman Muthusamy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Visual inspection of the instrument channel has been proposed as a quality assurance step during endoscope reprocessing. However, the nature and severity of findings in a broad array of endoscopes (gastroscopes, colonoscopes, duodenoscopes, and echoendoscopes) after systemic implementation of an inspection protocol remain unknown. In addition, a study using borescope inspection in upper endoscopes and colonoscopes raised concerns about persistent simethicone residue despite full reprocessing...
May 9, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752956/advanced-microscopy-to-elucidate-cardiovascular-injury-and-regeneration-4d-light-sheet-imaging
#13
REVIEW
Kyung In Baek, Yichen Ding, Chih-Chiang Chang, Megan Chang, René R Sevag Packard, Jeffrey J Hsu, Peng Fei, Tzung K Hsiai
The advent of 4-dimensional (4D) light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) has provided an entry point for rapid image acquisition to uncover real-time cardiovascular structure and function with high axial resolution and minimal photo-bleaching/-toxicity. We hereby review the fundamental principles of our LSFM system to investigate cardiovascular morphogenesis and regeneration after injury. LSFM enables us to reveal the micro-circulation of blood cells in the zebrafish embryo and assess cardiac ventricular remodeling in response to chemotherapy-induced injury using an automated segmentation approach...
May 9, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751962/corrigendum-to-jp8-exposure-and-neurocognitive-performance-among-us-air-force-personnel-neurotoxicology-62-2017-170-180
#14
Kristin J Heaton, Alexis L Maule, Kristen W Smith, Ema G Rodrigues, Michael D McClean, Susan P Proctor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751436/prenatal-dioxin-exposure-estimated-from-dioxins-in-breast-milk-and-sex-hormone-levels-in-umbilical-cord-blood-in-vietnamese-newborn-infants
#15
Hitomi Boda, Tran Ngoc Nghi, Muneko Nishijo, Pham Ngoc Thao, Pham The Tai, Hoang Van Luong, Tran Hai Anh, Yuko Morikawa, Yoshikazu Nishino, Hisao Nishijo
Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in the environment and humans residing near the former US Air Force base in Bien Hoa city, South Vietnam. We recruited 210 mother-infant pairs for whom breast milk dioxin levels were reported in our previous study. Cord blood samples were collected from 162 mother-infant pairs. We selected 16 cord blood samples with a volume over 20mL and fat content of ≥0.03g. Toxic equivalent levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (TEQ-PCDD/Fs) and concentrations of 17 congeners, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), in cord blood were measured and compared with levels in breast milk (Study 1)...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744200/measuring-lip-force-by-oral-screens-part-2-the-importance-of-screen-design-instruction-and-suction
#16
Madeleine Wertsén, Manne Stenberg
The aim of this study was to find a reliable method for measuring lip force and to find the most important factors that influence the measurements in terms of magnitude and variability. The hypothesis tested was that suction is involved and thus the instruction and the design of the oral screen are of importance when measuring lip force. This is a methodological study in a healthy population. This study was conducted in a general community. The designs of the screens were soft and hard prefabricated screens and 2 semi-individually made with a tube allowing air to pass...
October 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743785/effect-of-organic-dust-exposure-on-pulmonary-functions-in-workers-of-vegetable-market-with-special-reference-to-its-microbial-content
#17
Arun Goel, Balram Ji Omar, Rajesh Kathrotia, Prashant M Patil, Sunita Mittal
Context: Wholesale vegetable market is a rich source of generation of organic dust as loads of fruits and vegetables are loaded and unloaded here daily. Thus, regular workers are exposed to this organic dust for a considerable period of time depending on their work schedule. This study was planned to determine the microbial status of organic dust and to explore its association with pulmonary functions in the workers of wholesale vegetable market in Rishikesh. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional exploratory/observational study...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742023/handedness-results-from-complementary-hemispheric-dominance-not-global-hemispheric-dominance-evidence-from-mechanically-coupled-bilateral-movements
#18
Elizabeth J Woytowicz, Kelly P Westlake, Jill Whitall, Robert L Sainburg
Two contrasting views of handedness can be described as 1) complementary dominance, in which each hemisphere is specialized for different aspects of motor control, and 2) global dominance, in which the hemisphere contralateral to the dominant arm is specialized for all aspects of motor control. The present study sought to determine which motor lateralization hypothesis best predicts motor performance during common bilateral task of stabilizing an object (e.g. bread) with one hand while applying forces to the object (e...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741728/interprofessional-healthcare-teams-in-the-military-a-scoping-literature-review
#19
Lara Varpio, Karlen S Bader, Holly S Meyer, Steven J Durning, Anthony R Artino, Meghan K Hamwey
Introduction: Research into healthcare delivered via interprofessional healthcare teams (IHTs) has uncovered that IHT can improve patient satisfaction, enhance collaborative behaviors, reduce clinical error rates, and streamline management of care delivery. Importantly, these achievements are attained by IHTs that have been trained via interprofessional education (IPE). Research indicates that interprofessional healthcare team training must be contextualized to suit the demands of each care context...
May 8, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741659/communication-preferences-and-satisfaction-of-secure-messaging-among-patients-and-providers-in-the-military-healthcare-system
#20
Belinda F Hernandez, Brenda J Morgan, Jennifer Ish, Lucky O Agbator, Soledad Lindo-Moon, Francine F Stotler, Cubby L Gardner
Introduction: Use of electronic secure messaging (SM) is rapidly growing in various healthcare settings. However, there is a large number of patients that choose not use SM or use it minimally. Thus, understanding preferences for patient-provider communication modalities is critically important, particularly among military healthcare beneficiaries. The purpose of this study was to assess preferences for patient-provider communication modalities (in person, telephone, SM, or mail) among a sample of patients, providers, and staff located at five Air Force military treatment facilities across the USA...
May 8, 2018: Military Medicine
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