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Air Force

Yifeng Li, Wenqiang Zhang, Yun Zheng, Jing Chen, Bo Yu, Yan Chen, Meilin Liu
Solid oxide cell (SOC) based energy conversion systems have the potential to become the cleanest and most efficient systems for reversible conversion between electricity and chemical fuels due to their high efficiency, low emission, and excellent fuel flexibility. Broad implementation of this technology is however hindered by the lack of high-performance electrode materials. While many perovskite-based materials have shown remarkable promise as electrodes for SOCs, cation enrichment or segregation near the surface or interfaces is often observed, which greatly impacts not only electrode kinetics but also their durability and operational lifespan...
September 18, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Monikankana Sharma, S Dasappa
Biomass as a fuel for cooking is a common practice in rural India, and about 700 million people use traditional stoves to meet their energy demand. However, the thermal and the combustion efficiencies of these stoves are very low, leading to an inefficient use of biomass, and also, resulting in significant indoor air pollution. Research development has however led to the development of some improved stoves viz., natural draft and forced draft for both domestic as well as large scale cooking applications and government is trying to promote them...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Leigh M Seccombe, Lachlan Buddle, John D Brannan, Matthew J Peters, Claude S Farah
PURPOSE: Protective self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) used for firefighting delivers decompressed (cold), dehumidified air that may enhance the severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in those susceptible. We investigated the effect of SCBA during exercise on airway caliber in people with asthma and healthy controls. METHODS: Two exercise challenges (EC) designed to elicit EIB were performed on separate days within one week. The initial challenge was breathing room air (ECRA) with workload titrated to elicit >60% estimated maximum voluntary ventilation...
September 12, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Xiaoming Chen, Christopher M Dmuchowski, Cheol Park, Catharine C Fay, Changhong Ke
The structural stability and mechanical integrity of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) in high temperature environments are of importance in pursuit of their applications that are involved with extreme thermal processing and/or working conditions, but remain not well understood. In this paper, we perform an extensive study of the impacts of high temperature exposure on the structural and mechanical properties of BNNTs with a full structural size spectrum from nano- to micro- to macro-scale by using a variety of in situ and ex situ material characterization techniques...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
J Zouaoui, A M Trunfio-Sfarghiu, L Brizuela, A Piednoir, O Maniti, B Munteanu, S Mebarek, A Girard-Egrot, A Landoulsi, T Granjon
BACKGROUND: Considering the importance of cellular mechanics in the birth and evolution of cancer towards increasingly aggressive stages, we compared nano-mechanical properties of non-tumoral (WPMY-1) and highly aggressive metastatic (PC-3) prostate cell lines both on cell aggregates, single cells, and membrane lipids. METHODS: Cell aggregate rheological properties were analyzed during dynamic compression stress performed on a homemade rheometer. Single cell visco-elasticity measurements were performed by Atomic Force Microscopy using a cantilever with round tip on surface-attached cells...
September 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Volker Knecht, Günter Reiter, Renate Reiter
The emergence of polymer-free water surface in a Langmuir polymer films at conditions where a homogeneous coverage has been expected previously is explained on the basis of the surface tensions of polymer and water, γ_(pv) and γ_(wv), respectively, as well as the interfacial tension between the two materials, γ_(pw). The polymer molecules considered are 22-residue poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate)(PBLG) peptides in α-helical conformation. Values for γ_(pv) and γ_(pw) derived from MD simulations are consistent with values inferred from experiments considering the emergence of polymer-free surface area for ultra thin films studied using the surface forces apparatus in earlier work...
September 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Julie L Menegay, Xiaohe Xu, T S Sunil, Jason F Okulicz
BACKGROUND: Although clinical data is limited, guidelines recommend avoiding live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine (LAIV) in HIV-infected persons. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate non-guideline LAIV use and resulting adverse effects in an HIV-infected population. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of influenza vaccination in US Air Force (USAF) members with HIV infection immunized between 2005 and 2015 was performed. Influenza vaccination history after HIV diagnosis was evaluated, including receipt of LAIV or inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV)...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Ting-Ting Liu, Kai Chen, Min Pan
BACKGROUND: Hollow micro-needles have been used increasingly less in practice because the infusion into the skin is limited by the tissue resistance to flow. The relationship between the infusion flow rate and tissue resistance pressure is not clear. METHODS: A custom-made, hollow micro-needle system was used in this study. The driving force and infusion flow rate were measured using a force transducer attached to an infusion pump. Evans blue dye was injected into the air, polyacrylamide gel and in-vivo mouse skin at different flow rates...
September 6, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
Frederico L J Monteiro, Helio Halpern, Fernando Bortoli, Lucia Kataoka, Cristina Marumo, Mariângela Ribeiro, Matheus Castellassi, Cynthia Mendes, Nelson Wolosker
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency between two thermal blanket models: the upper blanket and the underbody blanket in patient heating and hypothermia prevention during endovascular surgery. DESIGN: Prospective randomized study SETTING: Operating room PATIENTS: 50 patients, ASA 2-4 physical status, receiving endovascular surgery repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm or lower limb angioplasty by endovascular technique were studied...
September 5, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
William F Pierce, Selena D Ready, John Tyson Chapman, Corrinne Kulick, Anastasia Shields, Jialynn Wang, Kimberly Andrews, Richard W Childs, Carlos Bell, Alexandr Kosyak, Jade Pham
BACKGROUND: In 2014, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) Commissioned Corps deployed to Monrovia, Liberia, to operate a 25-bed Ebola treatment unit (ETU) constructed by the U.S. Military. The ETU was named the Monrovia Medical Unit (MMU) and was constructed from an U.S. Air Force Expeditionary Medical Support (EMEDS) unit with modifications on the basis of consultation from Médecins Sans Frontières, the World Health Organization, and expert panels from the U.S. Department of Defense and Department of Health and Human Services...
September 2017: Military Medicine
Cheryl E Quenneville, Ed Fournier, Nicholas Shewchenko
INTRODUCTION: The lower legs are at risk of substantial injury during events such as frontal automotive crashes and antivehicular mine blasts. Loading to occupants can be assessed using an instrumented anthropomorphic test device (ATD), whose measurements can be compared to established injury criteria. NATO's AEP-55 STANAG 4569 recognizes two surrogates for lower leg injury assessments from impacts with intruding floor pans resulting from underbelly blast loads; (1) the rigid Hybrid III instrumented lower leg, and; (2) the compliant MILitary Lower eXtremity (MIL-LX)...
September 2017: Military Medicine
Anthony P Tvaryanas, Joseph H Wagner, Genny M Maupin, Valarie M Schroeder
BACKGROUND: This study examined the association of statin use and musculoskeletal conditions in statin users and nonusers within the population of U.S. Air Force active duty Service members in the military health care system. METHODS: The study was a retrospective cohort analysis of Service members between 2004 and 2014 as identified from personnel data having physical fitness and cardiac risk data available and who were free of musculoskeletal diagnoses for 6 months before the study period...
September 2017: Military Medicine
Yi-Guang Wang, Xin-Gui Tang, Qiu-Xiang Liu, Yan-Ping Jiang, Li-Li Jiang
Sr(Ti1-xFex)O3-δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) thin films were grown on Si(100) substrates with LaNiO₃ buffer-layer by a sol-gel process. Influence of Fe substitution concentration on the structural, ferroelectric, and magnetic properties, as well as the leakage current behaviors of the Sr(Ti1-xFex)O3-δ thin films, were investigated by using the X-ray diffractometer (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), the ferroelectric test system, and the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). After substituting a small amount of Ti ion with Fe, highly enhanced ferroelectric properties were obtained successfully in SrTi0...
September 8, 2017: Nanomaterials
Yani Zhao, Marek Cieplak
We study the behavior of five proteins at the air-water and oil-water interfaces by all-atom molecular dynamics. The proteins are found to get distorted when pinned to the interface. This behavior is consistent with the phenomenological way of introducing the interfaces in a coarse-grained model through a force that depends on the hydropathy indices of the residues. Proteins couple to the oil-water interface stronger than to the air-water one. They diffuse slower at the oil-water interface but do not depin from it, whereas depinning events are observed at the other interface...
September 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Liyona Kampel-Furman, Z Joachims, H Bar-Cohen, A Grossman, Y Frenkel-Nir, Y Shapira, E Alon, E Carmon, B Gordon
BACKGROUND: Military aviators are potentially at risk for developing noise-induced hearing loss. Whether ambient aircraft noise exposure causes hearing deficit beyond the changes attributed to natural ageing is debated. The aim of this research was to assess changes in hearing thresholds of Israeli Air Force (IAF) pilots over 20 years of military service and identify potential risk factors for hearing loss. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted of pure-tone air conduction audiograms of pilots, from their recruitment at 18 years of age until the last documented medical check-up...
September 6, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Gemma Craig, Charlotte Wadey
A 3-month evaluation was undertaken at the Kent Oncology Centre's chemotherapy day unit (CDU) to trial an air-tight sealing disposal system for cytotoxic waste management. Research has identified the potential risk to staff who handle waste products that are hazardous to health. Staff safety was a driving force behind a trial of a new way of working. This article provides an overview of the evaluation of the Pactosafe system in one clinical area, examining reviews by oncology healthcare workers, the practicalities in the clinical setting, training, cost effectiveness and the environmental benefits...
September 7, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Alexander D Carl, Roghi E Kalan, John David Obayemi, Martiale Gaetan Zebaze Kana, Winston Oluwole Soboyejo, Ronald L Grimm
We investigated synthetic strategies for the functionalization of Si(111) surfaces with organic species containing amine moieties. We employed the functionalized surfaces to chemically "glue" perovskites to silicon with efficient electron transfer, and minimal oxidation leading to deleterious recombination at the silicon substrate. A two-step halogenation-alkylation reaction produced a mixed allyl-methyl monolayer on Si(111). Subsequent reactions utilized multiple methods of brominating at the allyl double bond including reaction with HBr in acetic acid, HBr in THF and molecular bromine in dichloromethane...
September 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hisato Kawashima, Maxime Paven, Hiroyuki Mayama, Hans-Jürgen Butt, Yoshinobu Nakamura, Syuji Fujii
Remotely controlling the movement of small objects is desirable, especially for the transportation and selection of materials. Transfer of the objects between liquid and solid surfaces and triggering their release would allow for development of novel material transportation technology. Here, we describe the remote transport of a material from a water film surface to a solid surface by using quasi-spherical liquid marbles (LMs). A light-induced Marangoni flow or an air stream is used to propel the LMs on water...
September 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Julien Ramade, Cyril Langlois, Michel Pellarin, Laurent Piccolo, Marie-Ange Lebeault, Thierry Epicier, Mimoun Aouine, Emmanuel Cottancin
Multimetallic nano-alloys display a structure and consequently physicochemical properties evolving in a reactive environment. Following and understanding this evolution is therefore crucial for future applications in gas sensing and heterogeneous catalysis. In view hereof, the structural evolution of oxidized Ag25In75 bimetallic nanoparticles under varying H2 partial pressures (PH2) and substrate temperatures (Ts) has been investigated in real-time through environmental transmission microscopy (E-TEM) while maintaining the atomic resolution...
September 6, 2017: Nanoscale
Markus Moosmann, Thomas Schimmel, Wilhelm Barthlott, Matthias Mail
Underwater air retention of superhydrophobic hierarchically structured surfaces is of increasing interest for technical applications. Persistent air layers (the Salvinia effect) are known from biological species, for example, the floating fern Salvinia or the backswimmer Notonecta. The use of this concept opens up new possibilities for biomimetic technical applications in the fields of drag reduction, antifouling, anticorrosion and under water sensing. Current knowledge regarding the shape of the air-water interface is insufficient, although it plays a crucial role with regards to stability in terms of diffusion and dynamic conditions...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
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