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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929366/in-vitro-gastrointestinal-resistant-pectin-hydrogel-particles-for-%C3%AE-glucuronidase-adsorption
#1
Sergey V Popov, Pavel A Markov, Olga A Patova, Fedor V Vityazev, Larisa A Bakutova, Mikhail F Borisenkov, Ekaterina A Martinson, Boris A Ananchenko, Eugene A Durnev, Andrey A Burkov, Sergey G Litvinets, Vladimir A Belyi, Elena A Ipatova
Pectin hydrogel particles (PHPs) were prepared by ionotropic gelation of low methylesterified pectin of Tanacetum vulgare L. with calcium ions. Wet PHPs prepared from TVF exhibited a smaller diameter and the lower weight as well as exhibited the best textural properties in terms of hardness and elasticity compared to the PHPs prepared from commercial low methylesterified pectin (CU701) used for comparison. Upon air drying, PHPs prepared from CU701 became small and dense microspheres whereas the dry PHPs prepared from TVF exhibited a drop-like shape...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922004/annually-resolved-north-atlantic-marine-climate-over-the-last-millennium
#2
D J Reynolds, J D Scourse, P R Halloran, A J Nederbragt, A D Wanamaker, P G Butler, C A Richardson, J Heinemeier, J Eiríksson, K L Knudsen, I R Hall
Owing to the lack of absolutely dated oceanographic information before the modern instrumental period, there is currently significant debate as to the role played by North Atlantic Ocean dynamics in previous climate transitions (for example, Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age, MCA-LIA). Here we present analyses of a millennial-length, annually resolved and absolutely dated marine δ(18)O archive. We interpret our record of oxygen isotope ratios from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (δ(18)O-shell), from the North Icelandic shelf, in relation to seawater density variability and demonstrate that solar and volcanic forcing coupled with ocean circulation dynamics are key drivers of climate variability over the last millennium...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921999/lift-calculations-based-on-accepted-wake-models-for-animal-flight-are-inconsistent-and-sensitive-to-vortex-dynamics
#3
Eric Gutierrez, Daniel B Quinn, Diana D Chin, David Lentink
There are three common methods for calculating the lift generated by a flying animal based on the measured airflow in the wake. However, these methods might not be accurate according to computational and robot-based studies of flapping wings. Here we test this hypothesis for the first time for a slowly flying Pacific parrotlet in still air using stereo particle image velocimetry recorded at 1000 Hz. The bird was trained to fly between two perches through a laser sheet wearing laser safety goggles. We found that the wingtip vortices generated during mid-downstroke advected down and broke up quickly, contradicting the frozen turbulence hypothesis typically assumed in animal flight experiments...
December 6, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918895/absorbed-in-sleep-dissociative-absorption-as-a-predictor-of-sleepiness-following-sleep-deprivation-in-two-high-functioning-samples
#4
Nirit Soffer-Dudek, Leah Shelef, Idit Oz, Anna Levkovsky, Ifaat Erlich, Shirley Gordon
In recent years, a labile sleep-wake cycle has been implicated as a cause for dissociative experiences, and studies show that dissociation is elevated following sleep deprivation. Dissociative individuals may find it harder to regulate sleepiness in the face of sleep disruption. Although there is significant variability in reactions to sleep deprivation, research on trait predictors is scarce. The present study examined the ability of trait dissociation to prospectively predict sleepiness following sleep loss and recovery sleep...
December 2, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918473/motion-of-adsorbed-nano-particles-on-azobenzene-containing-polymer-films
#5
REVIEW
Sarah Loebner, Joachim Jelken, Nataraja Sekhar Yadavalli, Elena Sava, Nicolae Hurduc, Svetlana Santer
We demonstrate in situ recorded motion of nano-objects adsorbed on a photosensitive polymer film. The motion is induced by a mass transport of the underlying photoresponsive polymer material occurring during irradiation with interference pattern. The polymer film contains azobenzene molecules that undergo reversible photoisomerization reaction from trans- to cis-conformation. Through a multi-scale chain of physico-chemical processes, this finally results in the macro-deformations of the film due to the changing elastic properties of polymer...
December 3, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917861/submillimetre-network-formation-by-light-induced-hybridization-of-zeptomole-level-dna
#6
Takuya Iida, Yushi Nishimura, Mamoru Tamura, Keisuke Nishida, Syoji Ito, Shiho Tokonami
Macroscopic unique self-assembled structures are produced via double-stranded DNA formation (hybridization) as a specific binding essential in biological systems. However, a large amount of complementary DNA molecules are usually required to form an optically observable structure via natural hybridization, and the detection of small amounts of DNA less than femtomole requires complex and time-consuming procedures. Here, we demonstrate the laser-induced acceleration of hybridization between zeptomole-level DNA and DNA-modified nanoparticles (NPs), resulting in the assembly of a submillimetre network-like structure at the desired position with a dramatic spectral modulation within several minutes...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912898/a-clinical-prediction-model-for-prolonged-air-leak-after-pulmonary-resection
#7
Adam Attaar, Daniel G Winger, James D Luketich, Matthew J Schuchert, Inderpal S Sarkaria, Neil A Christie, Katie S Nason
OBJECTIVE: Prolonged air leak increases costs and worsens outcomes after pulmonary resection. We aimed to develop a clinical prediction tool for prolonged air leak using pretreatment and intraoperative variables. METHODS: Patients who underwent pulmonary resection for lung cancer/nodules (from January 2009 to June 2014) were stratified by prolonged parenchymal air leak (>5 days). Using backward stepwise logistic regression with bootstrap resampling for internal validation, candidate variables were identified and a nomogram risk calculator was developed...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910651/fabrication-of-sharp-atomic-force-microscope-probes-using-in-situ-local-electric-field-induced-deposition-under-ambient-conditions
#8
Alexei Temiryazev, Sergey I Bozhko, A Edward Robinson, Marina Temiryazeva
We demonstrate a simple method to significantly improve the sharpness of standard silicon probes for an atomic force microscope or to repair a damaged probe. The method is based on creating and maintaining a strong, spatially localized electric field in the air gap between the probe tip and the surface of conductive sample. Under these conditions, nanostructure growth takes place on both the sample and the tip. The most likely mechanism is the decomposition of atmospheric adsorbate with subsequent deposition of carbon structures...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907861/in-situ-time-lapse-study-of-extracellular-polymeric-substance-discharge-in-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm
#9
Bernard Haochih Liu, Li-Chieh Yu
Streptococcus mutans is one of the main pathogens that cause tooth decay. By metabolizing carbohydrates, S. mutans emits extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that adheres to the tooth surface and forms layers of biofilm. Periodontal disease occurs due to the low pH environment created by S. mutans biofilm, and such an acidic environment gradually erodes tooth enamel. Since the existence of EPS is essential in the formation of biofilm, the in-situ investigation of its generation and distribution in real time is the key to the control and suppression of S...
November 24, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905059/exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-impairs-fracture-healing-in-rats
#10
Hildemberg A R Santiago, Ariane Zamarioli, Manoel D Sousa Neto, Jose B Volpon
BACKGROUND: Nonsmokers may be affected by environmental tobacco smoke (secondhand smoke), but the effects of such exposure on fracture healing have not been well studied. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: To explore the possible effects of passive inhalation of tobacco smoke on the healing of a diaphyseal fracture in femurs of rats. We hypothesized that secondhand exposure to tobacco smoke adversely affects fracture healing. METHODS: A mid-diaphyseal fracture was created in the femur of 41 female Wistar rats and fixed with an intramedullary metallic pin; 14 rats were excluded (nine for inadequate fractures and five for K wire extrusion)...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900190/prospective-12-month-functional-and-vocational-outcomes-of-hip-arthroscopy-for-femoroacetabular-impingement-as-part-of-an-evidence-based-hip-pain-rehabilitation-pathway-in-an-active-military-population
#11
A N Bennett, J Nixon, A Roberts, R Barker-Davies, R Villar, J M Houghton
BACKGROUND: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is common with an estimated prevalence of 10-15% among young active individuals. The natural history of the disorder is progression to early osteoarthritis. Hip arthroscopy is recommended if conservative treatments fail; however, outcomes are unclear, particularly in highly active populations. AIM: To evaluate the functional and vocational outcome of hip arthroscopy, as part of an evidence-based rehabilitation hip pain pathway, for the treatment of FAI in an active military population...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898853/cookery-method-and-endpoint-temperature-can-affect-the-warner-bratzler-shear-force-cooking-loss-and-internal-cooked-color-of-beef-semimembranosus-and-infraspinatus-steaks
#12
J W S Yancey, J K Apple, M D Wharton
Steaks from USDA Select inside rounds (Exp. 1) and shoulder clods (Exp. 2) were used to test the interactive effect of cookery method and endpoint temperature on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and internal cooked color. Pairs of 2.5-cm-thick semimembranosus (SM) or infraspinatus (INF) steaks ( = 360/muscle) were cut from each subprimal, labeled, vacuum packaged, and frozen at -30°C in the dark for approximately 60 d before being cooked to 65.5, 71.1, or 76.6°C using 1) a forced-air convection oven (FAC); 2) a forced-air impingement oven (IMP); 3) a gas-fired, open-hearth charbroiler (CHAR); 4) an electric countertop griddle (GRID); or 5) a clam-shell grill (CLAM)...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897280/coming-across-a-novel-copper-oxide-2d-framework-during-the-oxidation-of-cu-111
#13
Sonia Matencio, Esther Barrena, Carmen Ocal
Two dimensional copper oxides obtained on Cu(111) by air-enriched argon sputtering plus annealing have been measured at room temperature by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. Depending on the oxygen content different oxide frameworks and diverse stoichiometric metal/oxide interfaces exist. In particular, we report on a novel open honeycomb structure with a large unit cell which is modeled as a two dimensional network made out of Cu3O units...
November 29, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894680/frequency-of-micronuclei-and-other-biomarkers-of-dna-damage-in-populations-exposed-to-dusts-asbestos-and-other-fibers-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Stefano Bonassi, Mirta Milić, Monica Neri
Airborne particles are small, solid particles projected into the air either by natural forces, or by mechanical or man-made processes, and include fibers and dusts. Their toxicity is usually subsequent to inhalation and can lead to pulmonary dysfunctions and diseases, including cancer. Cytochalasin B blocked micronucleus assay in lymphocytes (L-CBMN) has been shown as a sensitive and reliable technique in assessing genotoxic exposure, An extensive search of the PubMed and Web of Science databases allowed retrieval of 18 articles on occupational or environmental exposure evaluating L-CBMN in subjects exposed to fibers or dusts (asbestos, silica, rockwool, beryllium, tobacco, and wood)...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892711/clinical-indicators-associated-with-hiv-acquisition-in-the-united-states-air-force
#15
William N Hannah, Shilpa Hakre, Peter Dawson, Hao Wu, Sheila A Peel, Nelson L Michael, Paul T Scott, Jason F Okulicz
Mandatory HIV screening of United States Air Force (USAF) personnel every two years effectively identifies incident cases, however testing frequency limits the ability to detect early HIV infection. Identifying clinical indicators of HIV in the USAF population is necessary to develop a supplemental provider-based targeted testing strategy. We conducted a matched case-control study of male active duty USAF personnel with a new HIV diagnosis (n = 452) between 1996 and 2011 matched to five randomly selected controls (n = 2176)...
November 28, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889086/impacts-of-regional-transport-on-black-carbon-in-huairou-beijing-china
#16
Yuqin Wang, Benjamin de Foy, James J Schauer, Michael R Olson, Yang Zhang, Zhengqiang Li, Yuanxun Zhang
The 22(nd) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Conference was held near Yanqi Lake, Huairou, in Beijing, China during November 10-11, 2014. To guarantee haze-free days during the APEC Conference, the Beijing government and the governments of the surrounding provinces implemented a series of controls. Three months of Aethalometer 880 nm black carbon (BC) measurements were examined to understand the hourly fluctuations in BC concentrations that resulted from emission controls and meteorology changes. Measurements were collected at the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences near the APEC Conference site and in Central Beijing at the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth of the Chinese Academy of Sciences...
November 23, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887730/reducing-upper-airway-collapse-at-lower-continuous-positive-airway-titration-pressure
#17
Sherif Ashaat, Ahmed M Al-Jumaily
During respiration, upper airway (UA) collapse occurs when the forces generated from the negative UA pressures exceed the forces produced by the UA muscles; which leads to loose soft tissue at the back of the mouth. At predetermined titration pressure, the Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) normally provides a continuous pressurized and humidified air to prevent airway collapse. However, high titration pressures are not always tolerated by patients and may lead to damaging effects including stroke symptoms for cardiovascular disease patients...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886050/design-of-fresnel-lens-type-multi-trapping-acoustic-tweezers
#18
You-Lin Tu, Shih-Jui Chen, Yean-Ren Hwang
In this paper, acoustic tweezers which use beam forming performed by a Fresnel zone plate are proposed. The performance has been demonstrated by finite element analysis, including the acoustic intensity, acoustic pressure, acoustic potential energy, gradient force, and particle distribution. The acoustic tweezers use an ultrasound beam produced by a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducer operating at 2.4 MHz and 100 Vpeak-to-peak in a water medium. The design of the Fresnel lens (zone plate) is based on air reflection, acoustic impedance matching, and the Fresnel half-wave band (FHWB) theory...
November 23, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882425/assessment-of-regional-emphysema-air-trapping-and-xenon-ventilation-using-dual-energy-computed-tomography-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients
#19
Sang Min Lee, Joon Beom Seo, Hye Jeon Hwang, Namkug Kim, Sang Young Oh, Jae Seung Lee, Sei Won Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh, Tae Hoon Kim
OBJECTIVES: To compare the parenchymal attenuation change between inspiration/expiration CTs with dynamic ventilation change between xenon wash-in (WI) inspiration and wash-out (WO) expiration CTs. METHODS: 52 prospectively enrolled COPD patients underwent xenon ventilation dual-energy CT during WI and WO periods and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). The parenchymal attenuation parameters (emphysema index (EI), gas-trapping index (GTI) and air-trapping index (ATI)) and xenon ventilation parameters (xenon in WI (Xe-WI), xenon in WO (Xe-WO) and xenon dynamic (Xe-Dyna)) of whole lung and three divided areas (emphysema, hyperinflation and normal) were calculated on virtual non-contrast images and ventilation images...
November 23, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879677/pulmonary-function-and-incidence-of-selected-respiratory-diseases-depending-on-the-exposure-to-ambient-pm10
#20
Artur Badyda, Anna Gayer, Piotr Oskar Czechowski, Grzegorz Majewski, Piotr Dąbrowiecki
It is essential in pulmonary disease research to take into account traffic-related air pollutant exposure among urban inhabitants. In our study, 4985 people were examined for spirometric parameters in the presented research which was conducted in the years 2008-2012. The research group was divided into urban and rural residents. Traffic density, traffic structure and velocity, as well as concentrations of selected air pollutants (CO, NO₂ and PM10) were measured at selected areas. Among people who live in the city, lower percentages of predicted values of spirometric parameters were noticed in comparison to residents of rural areas...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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