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Secondary trauma

Christine A DeForest, Virginia Blackman, John E Alex, Lauren Reeves, Alejandra Mora, Crystal Perez, Joseph Maddry, Domenique Selby, Benjamin Walrath
Introduction: Military prehospital and en route care (ERC) directly impacts patient morbidity and mortality. Provider knowledge and skills are critical variables in the effectiveness of ERC. No Navy doctrine defines provider choice for patient transport or requires standardized provider training. Frequently, Search and Rescue Medical Technicians (SMTs) and Navy Nurses (ERC RNs) are tasked with this mission though physicians have also been used. Navy ERC provider training varies greatly by professional role...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Ashley Gionfriddo, Mika L Nonoyama, Peter C Laussen, Peter N Cox, Megan Clarke, Alejandro A Floh
OBJECTIVES: To promote standardization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention introduced a new ventilator-associated pneumonia classification, which was modified for pediatrics (pediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia according to proposed criteria [PVAP]). We evaluated the frequency of PVAP in a cohort of children diagnosed with ventilator-associated pneumonia according to traditional criteria and compared their strength of association with clinically relevant outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Franka Metzner, Stephanie Pahlke, Alice Diesing, Nina Marin, Fionna Klasen, Silke Pawils, Michael Schulte-Markwort, Hertha Richter-Appelt
Complex Trauma-related Disorders in Research and Practice Frequent traumata in childhood and adolescence are long-term or repeated interpersonal traumata caused by perpetrators in the close environment of the minors. For the description of the extensive symptoms after interpersonal Type II traumata, the complex trauma-related disorders Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) or Disorder of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS) and the Developmental Trauma Disorder (DTD) are being discussed for inclusion in the classification systems for mental disorders...
March 2018: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
N Tehrani
Background: Working with victims and offenders of child abuse can impact on the health and well-being of police officers and staff. Aims: To identify the effects of tenure, work ability, gender and a personal experience of child abuse on symptoms of anxiety, depression and primary and secondary trauma in child abuse investigators (CAIs). Methods: Screening questionnaires were sent to police officers and staff. The officers and staff worked in child protection in seven police forces...
March 13, 2018: Occupational Medicine
T D Reid, P D Strassle, J Gallaher, J Grudziak, C Mabedi, A G Charles
INTRODUCTION: Trauma is a large contributor to morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We sought to determine which anatomic injury locations and mechanisms of injury predispose to prehospital mortality in Malawi to help target preventive and therapeutic interventions. We hypothesized that head injury would result in the highest prehospital mortality. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of all trauma patients presenting to Kamuzu Central Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi, from 2008 to 2015...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Antonio Ernstberger, Michael Koller, Florian Zeman, Maximilian Kerschbaum, Franz Hilber, Eva Diepold, Julika Loss, Tanja Herbst, Michael Nerlich
BACKGROUND: Trauma is a global burden of disease and one of the main causes of death worldwide. Therefore, many countries around the world have implemented a wide range of different initiatives to minimize mortality rates after trauma. One of these initiatives is the bundling of treatment expertise in trauma centers and the establishment of trauma networks. Germany has a decentralized system of trauma care medical centers. Severely injured patients ought to receive adequate treatment in both level I and level II centers...
2018: PloS One
Todd D Rozen
OBJECTIVE: To present results from the United States Cluster Headache Survey comparing the clinical presentation of tobacco nonexposed and tobacco-exposed cluster headache patients. BACKGROUND: Cluster headache is uniquely tied to a personal history of tobacco usage/cigarette smoking and, if the individual cluster headache sufferer did not smoke, it has been shown that their parent(s) typically did and that individual had significant secondary smoke exposure as a child...
March 14, 2018: Headache
Tsang Chun On Anderson, Yeung Wan Lung Ryo, Mak Ka Fung, Lui Wai Man
We report a case of unique location of an aneurysm at the atlanto-axial extradural segment of a unilateral aberrant vertebral artery. The MRI vessel wall imaging findings and possible mechanism of aneurysm formation were discussed. A 5 mm extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm located at the interlaminar space between C1 and C2 was diagnosed in a woman presenting with occipital headache. The index vertebral artery ran an aberrant course at the V3 segment, where it entered the dura between C1 and C2 instead of the usual atlanto-occipital space...
March 2018: Neurointervention
Salim Şentürk, Ahmet Öğrenci, Ahmet Gürhan Gürçay, Ahmet Atilla Abdioğlu, Onur Yaman, Ali Fahir Özer
AIM: Burst fractures can occur with different radiological images after high energy. We aimed to simplify radiological staging of burst fractures. METHODS: Eighty patients whom exposed spinal trauma and had burst fracture were evaluated concerning age, sex, fracture segment, neurological deficit, secondary organ injury and radiological changes that occurred. RESULTS: We performed a new classification in burst fractures at radiological images...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Yuqing Zhang, Xinyu Zhou, Lining Yang, Sarah E Hetrick, John R Weisz, Pim Cuijpers, Jürgen Barth, Cinzia Del Giovane, Shuai Yuan, David Cohen, Donna Gillies, Xiaofeng Jiang, Teng Teng, Peng Xie
INTRODUCTION: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among children and adolescents who are exposed to trauma, and it is often associated with significant negative impacts on their psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Many types of psychotherapies have been found to be effective for PTSD in children and adolescents. However, due to the lack of direct comparisons between different psychotherapies, the hierarchy of treatment efficacy is still unclear. Therefore, we plan to conduct a systematic review and network meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of various types of psychotherapies for PTSD in children and adolescents...
March 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Louis Sass, Juan P Borda, Luis Madeira, Elizabeth Pienkos, Barnaby Nelson
The self-disorder model offers a unifying way of conceptualizing schizophrenia's highly diverse symptoms (positive, negative, disorganized), of capturing their distinctive bizarreness, and of conceiving their longitudinal development. These symptoms are viewed as differing manifestations of an underlying disorder of ipseity or core-self: hyper-reflexivity/diminished-self-presence with accompanying disturbances of "grip" or "hold" on reality. Recent revision to this phenomenological theory, in particular distinguishing primary-vs-secondary factors, offers a bio-pheno-social model that is consistent with recent empirical findings and offers several advantages: (1) It helps account for the temporal variations of the symptoms or syndrome, including longitudinal progression, but also the shorter-term, situationally reactive, and sometimes defensive or quasi-intentional variability of symptom-expression that can occur in schizophrenia (consistent with understanding some aspects of ipseity-disturbance as dynamic and mutable, involving shifting attitudes or experiential orientations)...
February 5, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Lorraine T Benuto, Yueran Yang, Andrew Ahrendt, Caroline Cummings
Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is a pattern of psychological symptoms that approximates the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and occurs in professionals who are exposed to individuals who have experienced trauma. While victim advocates are frontline health professionals who are trained to support victims of crime and interpersonal violence and are at risk for developing STS, they have been largely neglected in the extant literature on STS. The STS Scale (STSS) is a 17-item self-report questionnaire utilized to assess frequency of symptoms of intrusion, avoidance, and arousal, specifically related to providing services to victims of trauma...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Benjamin Zielonka, Alan R Cohen, Kim Smith-Whitley, Bhavya S Doshi
Although musculoskeletal pain in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) is most frequently the result of vaso-occlusive episodes, clinicians often consider other etiologies including osteomyelitis, avascular necrosis, and trauma. In this study, we report the case of a young female with SCD with hip and back pain secondary to a nontraumatic iliopsoas periosteal hematoma with evidence of adjacent bone infarction. The pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and management of periosteal hematomas in SCD are reviewed...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Obieze Chiemeka Nwanna-Nzewunwa, Marquise Kouo Ngamby, Elinor Shetter, Georges Alain Etoundi Mballa, Isabelle Feldhaus, Martin Ekeke Monono, Adnan A Hyder, Rochelle Dicker, Kent A Stevens, Catherine Juillard
INTRODUCTION: About 54% of deaths in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are attributable to lack of prehospital care. The single largest contributor to the disability-adjusted life years due to poor prehospital care is injury. Despite having disproportionately high injury burdens, most LMIC trauma systems have little prehospital organization. An understanding of existing prehospital care patterns in LMICs is warranted as a precursor to strengthening prehospital systems. METHODS: In this retrospective pilot study, we collected demographic and injury characteristics, therapeutic itinerary, and transport data of patients that were captured by the trauma registry at the Central Hospital of Yaoundé (CHY) from April 15, 2009 to October 15, 2009...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Yen-Ko Lin, Chao-Wen Chen, Wei-Che Lee, Yuan-Chia Cheng, Tsung-Ying Lin, Chia-Ju Lin, Leiyu Shi, Yin-Chun Tien, Liang-Chi Kuo
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether, in the emergency department (ED), educational video-assisted informed consent is superior to the conventional consent process, to inform trauma patients undergoing surgery about the procedure, benefits, risks, alternatives, and postoperative care. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial, with superiority study design. All trauma patients scheduled to receive trauma-related debridement surgery in the ED of Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital were included...
March 9, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Stéphanie Bossé, Bianca D'Antono, Tobias Stalder
OBJECTIVE: Childhood trauma has been associated with greater psychological and physical morbidity, including a greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). This may partially reflect trauma-induced disturbances in how stress is later perceived and regulated. This study evaluated the associations of childhood trauma with perceived stress and hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in a large sample of adults with coronary artery disease (CAD) and in non-CVD patients suffering from other non-fatal illnesses...
March 8, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
H Yahya
Milia are multiple, small, benign keratin-filled superficial epidermoid cysts which are classified as primary when they occur spontaneously or secondary when they result from skin trauma or disease. Multiple eruptive milia (MEM) refer to a condition characterized by a sudden eruption of a large number of milia. MEM may be familial, occur as part of a genodermatosis, or occur spontaneously when they are termed idiopathic. Idiopathic MEM are an exceedingly rare disease. We present the case of a 70-year-old Nigerian woman with idiopathic MEM...
March 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Jack Braha, Scott Tenner
Pseudocysts evolve from fluid collections and/or disruptions of the pancreatic duct. They may occur secondary to acute pancreatitis, pancreatic trauma, or chronic pancreatitis. Lacking the clinical information, radiologists may inappropriately call a fluid collection or any cystic lesion a pseudocyst. With no clear history of acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis, this is rare. Complications include infection, intracystic hemorrhage, or rupture. Pseudocysts can become painful, especially with chronic pancreatitis, and can cause early satiety and weight loss when their size affects the stomach and bowel...
April 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
Michaela Cellina, Marta Panzeri, Chiara Floridi, Carlo Maria Andrea Martinenghi, Giulio Clesceri, Giancarlo Oliva
AIM: To assess the amount of computed tomography (CT) scans for minor head injury (MHI) performed in young patients in our emergency department (ED), not indicated by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and Canadian Computed Tomography Head Rules (CCHR), and to analyze factors contributing to unnecessary examinations. Secondary objectives were to calculate the effective dose, to establish the number of positive CT and to analyze which of the risk factors are correlated with positivity at CT; finally, to calculate sensitivity and specificity of NICE and CCHR in our population...
March 7, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
Georgios Karaolanis, Dimitrios Moris, C Cameron McCoy, Diamantis I Tsilimigras, Sotirios Georgopoulos, Chris Bakoyiannis
The evaluation and management of patients with abdominal vascular trauma or injury requires immediate and effective decision-making in these unfavorable circumstances. The majority of these patients arrive at trauma centers in profound shock, secondary to massive blood loss, which is often unrelenting. Moreover, ischemia, compartment syndrome, thrombosis, and embolization may also be life threatening and require immediate intervention. To minimize the risk of these potentially lethal complications, early understanding of the disease process and emergent therapeutic intervention are necessary...
2018: Frontiers in Surgery
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