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Healin Im, Seok Hwan Jeong, Dong Hyuk Park, Sunkook Kim, Young Ki Hong
After reporting on the two-step anodization, nanoporous anodic aluminum oxides (AAOs) have been widely utilized in the versatile fields of fundamental sciences and industrial applications owing to their periodic arrangement of nanopores with relatively high aspect ratio. However, the techniques reported so far, which could be only valid for mono-surface anodization, show critical disadvantages, i.e., time-consuming as well as complicated procedures, requiring toxic chemicals, and wasting valuable natural resources...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Camila Ferreira Pinto, Raissa Antonelli, Karla Santos de Araújo, Ana Luiza de Toledo Fornazari, David Maikel Fernandes, Ana Claudia Granato, Eduardo Bessa Azevedo, Geoffroy Roger Pointer Malpass
The aim of the present study was to investigate the electrochemical formation of free chlorine species (HOCl/ClO(-)) and their subsequent use for the degradation of the pesticide atrazine. Initially, the process of electrochemical free chlorine production was investigated using a bench-scale electrochemical flow-cell. The most significant variables (electrolyte concentration ([NaCl]) and inter-electrode gap) of the process were obtained using a 2(3) factorial design and the optimum process conditions (1.73 mol L(-1) and 0...
October 20, 2017: Environmental Technology
Guillaume Fraux, François-Xavier Coudert, Anne Boutin, Alain H Fuchs
We review the high pressure forced intrusion studies of water in hydrophobic microporous materials such as zeolites and MOFs, a field of research that has emerged some 15 years ago and is now very active. Many of these studies are aimed at investigating the possibility of using these systems as energy storage devices. A series of all-silica zeolites (zeosil) frameworks were found suitable for reversible energy storage because of their stability with respect to hydrolysis after several water intrusion-extrusion cycles...
October 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Su Mi Ahn, Jungdon Suk, Do Youb Kim, Yongku Kang, Hwan Kyu Kim, Dong Wook Kim
To fabricate a sustainable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery, it is crucial to identify an optimum electrolyte. Herein, it is found that tetramethylene sulfone (TMS) and lithium nitrate (LiNO3) form the optimum electrolyte, which greatly reduces the overpotential at charge, exhibits superior oxygen efficiency, and allows stable cycling for 100 cycles. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) analyses reveal that neat TMS is stable to oxidative decomposition and exhibit good compatibility with a lithium metal...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Swapnali S Pawar, Regupathi Iyyaswami, Prasanna D Belur
The partitioning of Lactoferrin (LF) into the reverse micellar phase formed by a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in n-heptanol from the synthetic solution of LF was studied. The solubilization behaviour of LF into the reverse micellar phase and back extraction using a fresh stripping phase were improved by studying the effect of processing parameters, including surfactant concentration, solution pH, electrolyte salt concentration and addition of alcohol as co-solvent. Forward extraction of 100% was achieved at CTAB concentration of 50 mM in n-heptanol solvent, pH of 10 and 1 M NaCl...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
M Rudolph, E L Ratcliff
Conductive polymer electrodes have exceptional promise for next-generation bioelectronics and energy conversion devices due to inherent mechanical flexibility, printability, biocompatibility, and low cost. Conductive polymers uniquely exhibit hybrid electronic-ionic transport properties that enable novel electrochemical device architectures, an advantage over inorganic counterparts. Yet critical structure-property relationships to control the potential-dependent rates of charge transfer at polymer/electrolyte interfaces remain poorly understood...
October 19, 2017: Nature Communications
Lisa Smart, Shona Reese, Giselle Hosgood
The clinical features and management of food engorgement (FE) in dogs have not been previously described. This retrospective observational study describes characteristics and outcome of 35 dogs with FE, and compares features on presentation to 36 dogs with gastric dilation and volvulus (GDV). Cases were retrospectively reviewed for history, clinical findings and outcome. Gastric distension was measured by caudal gastric margin (CGM), level with lumbar vertebrae, on a lateral abdominal radiograph. Frequent characteristics of dogs with FE included tachycardia, tachypnoea, hyperproteinaemia, increased base excess (BE), mild hypernatraemia and hyperlactataemia...
October 19, 2017: Veterinary Record
Xiujuan Wang, Kai Chen, Gang Wang, Xiaojie Liu, Hui Wang
Transition metal phosphides (TMPs) have been extensively investigated owing to their high theoretical capacities and relatively low intercalation potentials vs. Li/Li+, but their practical applications have been hindered by low electrical conductivity and dramatic volume variation during cycling. In this work, an interesting strategy for rational design of graphene (GR) encapsulated with hollow FeP@carbon nanocomposite (H-FeP@C@GR) via a combination of hydrothermal route, carbon coating process, phosphidation treatment, and carbothermic reaction is reported...
October 19, 2017: ACS Nano
Nan Wang, Hancheng Yuan, Yanna Nuli, Jun Yang, Jiulin Wang
The development of rechargeable Mg-based batteries with high energy density is restricted by the high-voltage cathodes and the parasitic side reactions between battery components and electrolytes operating at relatively high potentials. Here, we develop a hybrid Mg2+/Li+ cell using monoclinic or orthorhombic Fe2(MoO4)3 cathode, a Mg anode and a simple (PhMgCl)2-AlCl3+LiCl electrolyte. Hastelloy-C alloy is proposed as a current collector of high-voltage cathode for the hybrid Mg2+/Li+ battery within a Swagelok-type cell...
October 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Qinlai Qian, Yifu Yang, Huixia Shao
The naturally formed solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) of lithium (Li) with organic electrolytes is fragile and can result in repeated exposure of fresh Li metal to the electrolyte during plating/stripping cycles. Building an artificial SEI layer is an effective way to enhance its stability and improve the electrochemical deposition behavior of Li. Using non-Li metal substrate to construct Li metal electrode is a more applicable method than using direct Li metal anode. In this study, the possibility of electrochemical reduction of propylene carbonate (PC) as an artificial SEI formation reaction for Li metal anode was evaluated...
October 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Lu-Ping Zhu, Hao Lu, Dong Hao, Lingling Wang, Zihua Wu, Lijun Wang, Peng Li, Jinhua Ye
A novel photoelectrode of three-dimensional (3D) lupinus-like TiO2 nanorod@Sn3O4 nanosheet hierarchical heterostructured arrays (TiO2@Sn3O4 HHAs) on transparent FTO glass substrate was designed and fabricated by a two-step solvothermal growth process. Photoelectrochemical(PEC) measurements showed that 3D lupinus-like TiO2@Sn3O4 HHAs photoelectrode displayed enhanced photocurrent density (3-fold increase with respect to pure TiO2), improved conversion efficiency, more negative onset potential (from -0.13 to -0...
October 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hans J Schäfer
It's electrifying! Electrochemical cross-coupling of aryl compounds provides a one-step approach to unsymmetrical biaryl compounds. A boron-doped diamond electrode is used as the anode to oxidise the phenolic hydroxy group to a phenoxy radical, and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropylalcohol (HFIP) and tetraalkylammonium methylsulfate are used as the solvent and electrolyte. Since no reagents are required, no waste is formed from this source.
October 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Jéssica Alves Nogueira, Hamilton Varela
Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) fed with H2 contaminated with CO may exhibit oscillatory behavior when operated galvanostatically. The self-organization of the anodic overpotential is interesting because it can be accompanied by an increase in the average performance. Herein we report experimental studies of voltage oscillations that emerge in a PEMFC equipped with a Pd/C or PdPt/C anode and fed with H2 contaminated with CO (100 ppm). We used on-line mass spectrometry to investigate how the mass fragments associated with CO2 and CO (m/z 44 and 28, respectively) varied with the voltage oscillations...
October 2017: ChemistryOpen
Erika Moreno, Juan A Gayosso, Jose Ramón Montejano, Georgina Almaguer, Norma Vázquez, Cristino Cruz, Adriana Mercado, Norma A Bobadilla, Gerardo Gamba, Alfredo Sierra, Victoria Ramírez
Geranium seemannii Peyr is a perennial plant endemic in central Mexico that has been widely used for its diuretic effect, but the responsible compound of this effect is unknown as well as the mechanism by which the diuretic effect is achieved. Geraniin is one of the compounds isolated from this kind of geranium. This study was designed to determinate whether geraniin possesses diuretic activity and to elucidate the mechanism of action. Geraniin was extracted and purified from Geranium seemannii Peyr. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: 1) Control, 2) 75 mg/kg of geraniin, 3) 20 mg/Kg of furosemide, and 4) 10 mg/Kg of hydrochlorothiazide...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Matthew Stephen Palmer, George Heigenhauser, MyLinh Duong, Lawrence L Spriet
This study determined whether ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) vs. progressive dehydration affected skeletal muscle glycogen use and performance in ice hockey players during simulated ice hockey exercise comprised of 3 active "periods". Seven males (21.3±0.3 years, 184.7±1.2 cm, 84.2±3.9 kg, and 49.6±1.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed a hockey-specific protocol on two occasions and either dehydrated progressively (NF), or stayed well-hydrated by ingesting a CES. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, before the 3(rd) period (P3), and after the final sprint in the protocol...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Maria Escudero-Escribano, Anders F Pedersen, Elisa A Paoli, Rasmus Frydendal, Daniel Friebel, Paolo Malacrida, Jan Rossmeisl, Ifan E L Stephens, Ib Chorkendorff
The high precious metal loading and high overpotential of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) prevents the widespread utilization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) water electrolyzers. Herein we explore the OER activity and stability in acidic electrolyte of a combined IrOx/RuO2 system consisting of RuO2 thin films with sub-monolayer (1, 2 and 4 Å) amounts of IrOx deposited on top. Operando extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) on the Ir L-3 edge revealed a rutile type IrO2 structure with some Ir sites occupied by Ru, IrOx being at the surface of the RuO2 thin film...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Giuseppe Antonio Elia, Jean-Baptiste Ducros, Dane Sotta, Virginie Delhorbe, Agnès Brun, Krystan Marquardt, Robert Hahn
Herein we report, for the first time, an overall evaluation of commercially available battery separators to be used for aluminum batteries, revealing that most of them are not stable in the highly-reactive 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride : aluminum trichloride (EMIMCl:AlCl3) electrolyte conventionally employed in rechargeable aluminum batteries. Subsequently, a novel highly-stable polyacrylonitrile (PAN) separator obtained by the electrospinning technique for application in high-performance aluminum batteries has been prepared...
October 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Minjeong Shin, Heng-Liang Wu, Badri Narayanan, Kimberly A See, Rajeev S Assary, Lingyang Zhu, Richard T Haasch, Shuo Zhang, Zhengcheng Zhang, Larry A Curtiss, Andrew A Gewirth
We evaluate hydrofluoroether (HFE) cosolvents with varying degrees of fluorination in the acetonitrile-based solvate elec-trolyte to determine the effect of HFE structure on the electrochemical performance of the Li-S battery. Solvates or spar-ingly solvating electrolytes are an interesting electrolyte choice for Li-S battery due to their low polysulfide solubility. The solvate electrolyte with stoichiometric ratio of LiTFSI salt in acetonitrile, (MeCN)2-LiTFSI, exhibits limited polysulfide sol-ubility due to the high concentration of LiTFSI...
October 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ana A Folgueiras-Amador, Kai Philipps, Sebastien Guilbaud, Jarno Poelakker, Thomas Wirth
Flow electrochemistry is an efficient methodology to generate radical intermediates. An electrochemical flow microreactor has been designed and manufactured to improve the efficiency of electrochemical flow reactions. With this device only little or no supporting electrolytes are needed, making processes less costly and enabling easier purification. This is demonstrated by the facile synthesis of amidyl radicals used in intramolecular hydroaminations to isoindolinones. The combination with inline mass spectrometry facilitates a much easier telescoping of chemical steps in a single flow process...
October 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Xiao-Bin Fu, Guang Yang, Jin-Ze Wu, Jianchen Wang, Qun Chen, Yefeng Yao
Fast lithium-ion transportation is found in the crystalline polymer electrolytes, α-CD-PEOn/Li+ (n = 12, 40), prepared by self-assembly of α-cyclodextrin (CD), polyethylene oxide (PEO) and Li+ salts. A detailed solid-state NMR study combined with X-ray diffraction technique reveals the unique structural features of the samples, that is, a) the tunnel structure formed by the assembled CDs, providing the ordered long-range pathway for Li+ ion transportation; b) the all-trans conformational sequence of the PEO chains in the tunnels, attenuating significantly the coordination between Li+ and the EO segments...
October 16, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
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