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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244897/new-electrode-and-electrolyte-configurations-for-lithium-oxygen-battery
#1
Ulderico Ulissi, Giuseppe Antonio Elia, Sangsik Jeong, Jakub Reiter, Nikolaos Tsiouvaras, Stefano Passerini, Jusef Hassoun
We report herein cathode configurations alternative to the most diffused ones for application in lithium-oxygen batteries using an ionic liquid-based electrolyte. The electrodes employ high surface area conductive carbon as the reaction host and polytetrafluoroethylene as the binding agent to enhance ORR/OER reversibility. Roll-pressed, self-standing electrodes (SSEs) and thinner, spray deposited electrodes (SDEs) are characterized in lithium-oxygen cells using an ionic liquid (IL) based electrolyte formed by mixing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt in N,N-diethyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)-N-methylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (DEMETFSI)...
December 15, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243906/realizing-high-capacitance-and-rate-capability-in-polyaniline-by-enhancing-the-electrochemical-surface-area-through-induction-of-superhydrophilicity
#2
Roby Soni, Varchaswal Kashyap, Divya Nagaraju, Sreekumar Kurungot
Polyaniline (PANI) as a pseudocapacitive material has very high theoretical capacitance of 2000 F g-1. However, its practical capacitance has been limited by low electrochemical surface area and unfavorable wettability towards aqueous electrolytes. This work deals with a strategy wherein high electrochemical surface area of PANI has been achieved by the induction of superhydrophilicity together with the alignment of PANI exclusively on the surface of carbon fibers as a thin layer to form a hybrid assembly. Superhydrophilicity is induced by electrochemical functionalization of the Toray carbon paper, which further induces superhydrophilicity to the electrodeposited PANI layer on the paper and, thereby, ensuring high electrode-electrolyte interface...
December 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243904/suppression-of-dendritic-lithium-growth-by-in-situ-formation-of-a-chemically-stable-and-mechanically-strong-solid-electrolyte-interphase
#3
Guojia Wan, Feihu Guo, Hui Li, Yuliang Cao, Xinping Ai, Jiangfeng Qian, Yangxing Li, Hanxi Yang
The growth and proliferation of Li dendrites during repeated Li cycling has long been a crucial issue that hinders the development of secondary Li metal batteries. Building a stable and robust solid state electrolyte interphases (SEI) on Li anode surface is regarded as a promising strategy to overcome the dendrites issues. In this work, we report a simple strategy to engineer the interface chemistry of Li metal anode by using tiny amount of dimethyl sulfate (DMS, C2H6SO4) as SEI-formation additive. With the preferential reduction of DMS, a SEI layer composed of Li2S/Li2O forms on the Li surface...
December 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243536/variation-in-pediatric-organ-donor-management-practices-among-us-organ-procurement-organizations
#4
Robert S Ream, Eric S Armbrecht
INTRODUCTION: Reports of actual pediatric organ donor management practice among US organ procurement organizations are sparse, and the use of standardized management guidelines is unknown. A recent consensus statement from the Society of Critical Care Medicine, the American College of Chest Physicians, and the Association of Organ Procurement Organizations offers guidelines for the management of the pediatric organ donor. RESEARCH QUESTION: To describe the use of guidelines and routine practices in the management of the pediatric organ donor with respect to hemodynamics, lung and ventilator management, fluid and electrolytes, hormonal replacement therapy, the use of blood products, thermoregulation, and prophylactic antibiotics...
January 1, 2017: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243342/achilles-heel-of-li-air-batteries-li2co3
#5
Zhiwei Zhao, Jun Huang, Zhangquan Peng
Lithium-air battery (LAB) is envisaged as an ultimate energy storage device because of its highest theoretical specific energy among all known battery chemistries. However, parasitic reactions bring about vexing issues on the efficiency and longevity of LAB, among which the formation and decomposition of lithium carbonate, Li_2 CO_3, is of paramount importance. The discovery of Li_2 CO_3 as the main discharge product in carbonate-based electrolytes once brought researchers to 'the end of the idyll' in the early 2010s...
December 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243314/a-self-repaired-cathode-material-for-lithium-selenium-battery-se-c-chemically-bonded-selenium-graphene-composite
#6
Linna Sha, Peng Gao, Xiaochen Ren, Yurong Yang, Yujin Chen, Piaoping Yang
Lithium-Selenium battery, using selenium as cathode material, has exhibited specially superior advantages, such as better discharging rate and cycling performance due to its high electrical conductivity, higher output voltages and the corresponding higher volumetric capacity density. However, an important problem, named as "shuttle effect", presiding over the capacity decaying exists in Li-Se cells (also in Li-S cells) due to an aggregation and an immigration of Se or S from cathode into electrolyte. In this work, in order to solve the above problem, a new self-repaired system has been provided, in which some Se atoms are chemically bonded with carbon atoms of graphene and act as the reclaiming points for dissociative Se atoms with a -Se-Se-Se- chain style...
December 15, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242249/acidosis-and-deafness-in-patients-with-recessive-mutations-in-foxi1
#7
Sven Enerbäck, Daniel Nilsson, Noel Edwards, Mikael Heglind, Sumaya Alkanderi, Emma Ashton, Asma Deeb, Feras E B Kokash, Abdulrahim R A Bakhsh, William Van't Hoff, Stephen B Walsh, Felice D'Arco, Arezoo Daryadel, Soline Bourgeois, Carsten A Wagner, Robert Kleta, Detlef Bockenhauer, John A Sayer
Maintenance of the composition of inner ear fluid and regulation of electrolytes and acid-base homeostasis in the collecting duct system of the kidney require an overlapping set of membrane transport proteins regulated by the forkhead transcription factor FOXI1. In two unrelated consanguineous families, we identified three patients with novel homozygous missense mutations in FOXI1 (p.L146F and p.R213P) predicted to affect the highly conserved DNA binding domain. Patients presented with early-onset sensorineural deafness and distal renal tubular acidosis...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242247/chip-regulates-aquaporin-2-quality-control-and-body-water-homeostasis
#8
Qi Wu, Hanne B Moeller, Donté A Stevens, Rebekah Sanchez-Hodge, Gabrielle Childers, Marleen L A Kortenoeven, Lei Cheng, Lena L Rosenbaek, Carrie Rubel, Cam Patterson, Trairak Pisitkun, Jonathan C Schisler, Robert A Fenton
The importance of the kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) is highlighted by various water and electrolyte disorders that arise when the unique transport properties of these segments are disturbed. Despite this critical role, little is known about which proteins have a regulatory role in these cells and how these cells can be regulated by individual physiologic stimuli. By combining proteomics, bioinformatics, and cell biology approaches, we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP is highly expressed throughout the collecting duct; is modulated in abundance by vasopressin; interacts with aquaporin-2 (AQP2), Hsp70, and Hsc70; and can directly ubiquitylate the water channel AQP2 in vitro shRNA knockdown of CHIP in CCD cells increased AQP2 protein t1/2 and reduced AQP2 ubiquitylation, resulting in greater levels of AQP2 and phosphorylated AQP2...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242059/usefulness-of-underwater-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-in-saline-solution-with-a-monopolar-knife-for-colorectal-tumors
#9
Mitsuru Nagata
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Generally, colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is performed with a monopolar knife with CO2 supply from an endoscope. There are few case reports about underwater ESD (UESD) in saline solution with a bipolar knife. The usefulness and safety of UESD in saline solution with a monopolar knife are unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the usefulness and safety of UESD in saline solution with a monopolar knife for colorectal tumors. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study on UESD for colorectal tumors...
December 11, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240966/sustainable-carbon-carbon-supercapacitors-operating-down-to-40%C3%A2-c-in-aqueous-electrolyte-made-with-cholinium-salt
#10
Qamar Abbas, François Béguin
Cholinium chloride at a concentration of 5 mol kg-1 in water is proposed as low cost and environmentally friendly aqueous electrolyte enabling to extend the operating range of carbon/carbon supercapacitors (SCs) down to -40°C. This solution exhibits a pH close to neutrality (pH = 6.1) and high conductivity of 88 mS cm-1 at 24°C. The supercapacitors demonstrate a high capacitance of 126 F g-1 (per mass of one electrode) and long life span at voltages up to 1.5 V. At -40°C, the carbon/carbon SCs display excellent electrochemical characteristics featured by slightly reduced capacitance of 106 F g-1 and negligible ohmic losses...
December 14, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240294/achieving-efficient-electrocatalytic-hydrogen-evolution-activity-based-on-ultrafine-and-highly-dispersed-rupx-encapsulated-in-n-p-co-doped-hollow-carbon-nanospheres
#11
Jing-Qi Chi, Wen-Kun Gao, Jia-Hui Lin, Bin Dong, Kai-Li Yan, Jun-Feng Qin, Bin Liu, Yong-Ming Chai, Chen-Guang Liu
The ultrafine RuPx nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated in uniform N, P co-doped hollow carbon nanospheres (RuPx@NPC) have been synthesized through a facile route of using aniline-pyrrole polymer nanospheres to disperse Ru ions with followed gas phosphorization process. The as-prepared RuPx@NPC exhibits uniform core-shell hollow nanospherical structures with ultrafine RuPx NPs as core and N, P co-doped carbon (NPC) as shell. So this strategy integrates many advantages of designing hollow nanostructures, providing conductive substrate and doping non-metal element...
December 14, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239604/nitrosoreductase-like-nanocatalyst-for-ultrasensitive-and-stable-biosensing
#12
Ponnusamy Nandhakumar, Byeongyoon Kim, Nam-Sihk Lee, Young Ho Yoon, Kwangyeol Lee, Haesik Yang
Enzyme-like nanocatalytic reactions developed for high signal amplification in biosensors are of limited use because of their low reaction rates and/or unwanted side reactions in aqueous electrolyte solutions containing dissolved O2. Herein, we report a nitrosoreductase-like catalytic reaction, employing 4-nitroso-1-naphthol, Pd nanoparticles, and H3N-BH3, which affords a high reaction rate and minimal side reactions, enabling its use in ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensors. 4-Nitroso-1-naphthol was chosen after five hydroxy-nitro(so)arene compounds were compared in terms of high signal and low background levels...
December 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239438/ultrafast-interfacial-charge-transfer-from-the-lumo-1-in-ruthenium-ii-polypyridyl-quinoxaline-sensitized-solar-cells
#13
Hashem Shahroosvand, Mortaza Eskandari
This paper describes the implementation of robust and modular sensitizers containing aromatic-amphiphilic ligands to provide new insights into the relationship between the molecular structure and electron injection process governing the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The significance of this work lies in the combination of favorable experimental and theoretical results in a new class of Ru(ii) polypyridyl complexes with the molecular formula of [Ru(E101)(Dicnq)x(Y)] which is named M101-M104 when X = 1 and Y = bpy, X = 1 and Y = phen, X = 2, and X = 1 and Y = 2 NCS, respectively...
December 14, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239434/suppressing-the-effect-of-lithium-dendritic-growth-by-the-addition-of-magnesium-bis-trifluoromethanesulfonyl-amide
#14
Masahiro Shimizu, Makoto Umeki, Susumu Arai
Practical applications of Li-S and Li-air batteries require the morphology of the Li metal negative electrode during charge/discharge (i.e., Li-deposition/dissolution) cycling to be precisely controlled. Herein, we used magnesium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide [Mg(TFSA)2] as an electrolyte additive to suppress the growth of Li dendrites, utilizing the occurrence of an alloying reaction between the initially substrate-deposited Mg and the subsequently deposited Li. Notably, no metallic Mg formation and no change in Li deposition morphology were observed at an electrolyte composition of 0...
December 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239079/smart-solid-electrolyte-interphase-layer-for-long-life-lithium-metal-anodes
#15
Nian-Wu Li, Yang Shi, Ya-Xia Yin, Xian-Xiang Zeng, Jin-Yi Li, Cong-Ju Li, Li-Jun Wan, Rui Wen, Yu-Guo Guo
Lithium (Li) metal is a promising anode material for high-energy density batteries. However, the unstable and static solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) can be destroyed by the dynamic Li plating/stripping behavior on the Li anode surface, leading to side reactions and Li dendrites growth. Herein, we design a smart Li polyacrylic acid (LiPAA) SEI layer with high stretchability to address the dynamic Li plating/stripping processes by the self-adapting interface regulation, which is demonstrated by in situ AFM process...
December 14, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238653/formation-of-yttria-stabilized-zirconia-nanotubes-by-atomic-layer-deposition-toward-efficient-solid-electrolytes
#16
Eunsoo Kim, Hyunchul Kim, Changdeuck Bae, Daehee Lee, Jooho Moon, Joosun Kim, Hyunjung Shin
We describe a fabrication strategy for preparing yttria-stabilized zirconia nanotube (YSZ-NT) arrays embedded in porous alumina membranes by means of template-directed atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. The individual YSZ-NTs have a high aspect-ratio of well over 120, about ~ 110 nm in diameter, and ~ 14 µm in length. Interfacing the tube arrays with porous Pt was also introduced on the basis of partial etching technique in order to construct Pt/YSZ-NTs/Pt membrane electrode assembly (MEA) structures...
2017: Nano Convergence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238624/high-sensitivity-determination-of-k-ca-na-and-mg-in-salt-mines-samples-by-atomic-emission-spectrometry-with-a-miniaturized-liquid-cathode-glow-discharge
#17
Jie Yu, Zhichao Zhang, Quanfang Lu, Duixiong Sun, Shuwen Zhu, Xiaomin Zhang, Xing Wang, Wu Yang
An atomic emission spectrometer (AES) based on a novel atmospheric pressure liquid cathode glow discharge (LCGD) as one of the most promising miniaturized excitation sources has been developed, in which the glow discharge is produced between a needle-like Pt anode and the electrolyte (as cathode) overflowing from a quartz capillary. Lower energy consumption (<50 W) and higher excitation efficiency can be realized by point discharge of the needle-like Pt. The miniaturized LCGD seems particularly well suited to rapid and high-sensitivity determination of K, Ca, Na, and Mg in salt mines samples...
2017: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237822/potassium-regulated-distal-tubule-wnk-bodies-are-kidney-specific-wnk1-dependent
#18
Cary R Boyd-Shiwarski, Daniel J Shiwarski, Ankita Roy, Lubika J Nkashama, Hima N Namboodiri, Jian Xie, Kara L McClain, Allison Marciszyn, Thomas R Kleyman, Roderick J Tan, Donna B Stolz, Manojkumar A Puthenveedu, Chou-Long Huang, Arohan R Subramanya
With-No-Lysine (WNK) kinases coordinate volume and potassium homeostasis by regulating renal tubular electrolyte transport. In the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), potassium imbalance causes WNK signaling complexes to concentrate into large discrete foci, which we call "WNK bodies." Though these structures have been reported previously, the mechanisms that drive their assembly remain obscure. Here, we show that kidney-specific WNK1 (KS-WNK1), a truncated kinase-defective WNK1 isoform that is highly expressed in the DCT, is critical for WNK body formation...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236874/physiological-response-and-productivity-of-safflower-lines-under-water-deficit-and-rehydration
#19
Fernanda P A P Bortolheiro, Marcelo A Silva
Water deficit is one of the major stresses affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Plants induce various morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes to adapt to the changing environment. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), a potential oil producer, is highly adaptable to various environmental conditions, such as lack of rainfall and temperatures. The objective of this work was to study the physiological and production characteristics of six safflower lines in response to water deficit followed by rehydration...
December 7, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236516/trace-minerals-intake-risks-and-benefits-for-cardiovascular-health
#20
Noushin Mohammadifard, Karin H Humphries, Carolyn Gotay, Guillermo Mena-Sánchez, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Andrew Ignaszewski, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
Minerals play a major role in regulating cardiovascular function. Imbalances in electrolyte minerals are frequent and potentially hazardous occurrences that may lead to the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Transition metals, such as iron, zinc, copper and selenium, play a major role in cell metabolism. However, there is controversy over the effects of dietary and supplemental intake of these metals on cardiovascular risk factors and events. Since their pro-oxidant or antioxidant functions can have different effects on cardiovascular health...
December 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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