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Zhengwei Song, Zhi-Hui Xie
One of the biggest challenges in corrosion investigation is foreseeing precisely how and where materials will degenerate in a designated condition owing to scarceness of accurate corrosion mechanisms. Recent fast development of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique makes it achievable to better understand the corrosion mechanism and physicochemical processes at the interfaces between samples and gases or electrolytes by dynamical capture the microstructural and chemical changes with high resolution within a realistic or near-realistic environment...
June 18, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Youqiang Fu, Xujian Yang, Hong Shen
Iron plaque (IP) on root surface can enhance the tolerance of plants to environmental stresses. However, it remains unclear the impact of Fe2+ on cadmium (Cd) toxicity to rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings. In this study, the effects of different Fe2+ and Cd2+ concentration combinations on rice growth were examined hydroponically. Results indicated that Fe2+ concentration up to 3.2 mM did not damage rice roots while induced IP formation obviously. Cd2+ of 10 μM repressed rice growth significantly, while the addition of 0...
June 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Bo Zhang, Chenyan Fang, Dehou Deng, Liang Xia
As targeted drug therapy is increasingly applied in the treatment of colon cancer, understanding and managing the adverse reactions of patients is becoming increasingly important. The present review examines the mechanisms of and adverse reactions to the most commonly used targeted drugs for colon cancer, and discusses methods of coping with these adverse reactions. Approved targeted drugs for metastatic colon cancer include monoclonal antibodies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), including bevacizumab, ziv-aflibercept and regorafenib, and monoclonal antibodies targeting epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), including cetuximab and panitumumab...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Jennie T Grainger, Yasuko Maeda, Suzanne C Donnelly, Carolynne J Vaizey
Intestinal failure (IF) is a condition characterized by the inability to maintain a state of adequate nutrition, or fluid and electrolyte balance due to an anatomical or a physiological disorder of the gastrointestinal system. IF can be an extremely debilitating condition, significantly affecting the quality of life of those affected. The surgical management of patients with acute and chronic IF requires a specialist team who has the expertise in terms of technical challenges and decision-making. A dedicated IF unit will have the expertise in patient selection for surgery, investigative workup and planning, operative risk assessment with relevant anesthetic expertise, and a multidisciplinary team with support such as nutritional expertise and interventional radiology...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
John-Paul Jones, Simon Christopher Jones, Frederick C Krause, Jasmina Pasalic, Ratnakumar V Bugga
Lithium sulfur batteries promise significant improvements in specific energy compared to Li-ion, but are limited by capacity fade upon cycling. Efforts to improve durability focused on suppressing the solubility of intermediate polysulfides in the electrolyte. Here we describe an in situ electrochemical polysulfide detection method based on the cyclic volatmmetric response. The voltammetric peaks correlate with increased discharge, consistent with increased polysulfide species in the electrolyte as demonstrated by prior literature measurements using spectroscopic methods...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Jesse Gatten McDaniel, Chang Yun Son
Quantifying ion association and collective dynamical processes in organic electrolytes is essential for fundamental property interpretation and optimization for electrochemical applications. The extent of ion correlation depends on both the ion concentration and dielectric strength of the solvent; ions may be largely uncorrelated in sufficiently high dielectric solvents at low concentration, but properties of concentrated electrolytes are dictated by correlated and collective ion processes. In this work, we utilize molecular dynamics simulations to characterize ion association and collective ion dynamics in organic electrolytes composed of binary mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIM][BF4 ] and 1,2-dichloroethane, acetone, acetonitrile, and water solvents...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Rodrigo Dias de Meira, Cinthia Esbrile Moraes Carbonara, Kélcia Rosana da Silva Quadros, Carolina Urbini Dos Santos, Patrícia Schincariol, Gustavo de Souza Pêssoa, Marco Aurélio Zezzi Arruda, Vanda Jorgetti, Rodrigo Bueno de Oliveira
About four decades ago, the relationship between dialysis-dementia and aluminum (Al) began to be established. The restriction of drugs containing Al and improvements on water quality used for dialysis resulted in the clinical disappearance of Al intoxication. However, high prevalence of Al deposition in bone tissue from Brazilian dialysis patients is still being detected. Through the case report of a patient on hemodialysis (HD) for one year, presenting significant Al deposition in bone tissue, we speculated if this problem is not being underestimated...
June 4, 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Fangqing Xie, Andreas Peukert, Thorsten Bender, Christian Obermair, Florian Wertz, Philipp Schmieder, Thomas Schimmel
The single-atom transistor represents a quantum electronic device at room temperature, allowing the switching of an electric current by the controlled and reversible relocation of one single atom within a metallic quantum point contact. So far, the device operates by applying a small voltage to a control electrode or "gate" within the aqueous electrolyte. Here, the operation of the atomic device in the quasi-solid state is demonstrated. Gelation of pyrogenic silica transforms the electrolyte into the quasi-solid state, exhibiting the cohesive properties of a solid and the diffusive properties of a liquid, preventing the leakage problem and avoiding the handling of a liquid system...
June 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
Erika Johnson, Long Vu, Laura E Matarese
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) occurs in patients who have had extensive resection. The primary physiologic consequence is malabsorption, resulting in fluid and electrolyte abnormalities and malnutrition. Nutrient digestion, absorption, and assimilation may also be diminished by disturbances in the production of bile acids and digestive enzymes. Small bowel dilation, dysmotility, loss of ileocecal valve, and anatomical changes combined with acid suppression and antimotility drugs increase the risk of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, further contributing to malabsorption...
June 21, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Ivan N Derbenev, Anatoly V Filippov, Anthony J Stace, Elena Besley
The problem of electrostatic interactions between colloidal particles in an electrolyte solution has been solved within the Debye-Hückel approximation using the boundary condition of constant potential. The model has been validated in two independent ways - by considering the limiting cases obtained from DLVO theory and comparison with the available experimental data. The presented methodology provides the final part of a complete theory of pairwise electrostatic interactions between spherical colloidal particles; one that embraces all possible chemical scenarios within the boundary conditions of constant potential and constant charge...
June 21, 2018: Soft Matter
Pranati Nayak, Qiu Jiang, Rajeshkumar Mohanraman, Dalaver Anjum, Mohamed Nejib Hedhili, Husam N Alshareef
We report the effect of the Ti3C2Tx MXene flake thickness on its inherent electrochemistry and heterogeneous charge transfer characteristics. It is shown that Ti3C2Tx undergoes irreversible oxidation in a positive potential window, which strongly depends on the flake thickness and pH of the electrolyte. Few-layered Ti3C2Tx exhibits faster electron transfer kinetics (k0 = 0.09533 cm s-1) with a [Fe(CN)6]4-/3- redox mediator compared to multi-layered Ti3C2Tx (k0 = 0.00503 cm s-1). In addition, the few-layered free standing Ti3C2Tx film electrode remains intact after enduring irreversible oxidation...
June 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Bin Huang, Jin-Mei Zhang, Xiao-Ling Chen, Xia Xin, Guang-Kun Yin, Juan-Juan He, Xin-Xiong Lu, Yuan-Chang Zhou
Cu/Zn SOD and other genes may be critical indicators of a stress response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in 48 h germinated rice embryos subjected to vitrification cryopreservation. In the current study, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was investigated in 48 h germinated rice embryos during the vitrification-cryopreservation process. We found that vitrification-cryopreservation significantly affected ROS levels, especially superoxide anion levels, in 48 h germinated rice embryos...
June 20, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Abeer Enaiet Allah, Haibo Tan, Xingtao Xu, Ahmed A Farghali, Mohamed Hamdy Khedr, Abdulmohsen Ali Alshehri, Yoshio Bando, Nanjundan Ashok Kumar, Yusuke Yamauchi
Ordered mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon (OMNC) materials are considered as the most promising material for supercapacitors. In this study, a highly ordered two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal mesostructured polymer was synthesized through a facile assembly of triblock polymer micelles and phenol-melamine/formaldehyde resin via an organic-organic assembly process in aqueous solution. After calcination, the novel OMNC materials with 2D hexagonal mesostructures were obtained. By further KOH activation, the surface area and the porosity of the OMNC significantly improved, and the internal mesoporous structures were maintained...
June 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Weihan Li, Minsi Li, Jin-An Shi, Xiongwu Zhong, Lin Gu, Yan Yu
Silicon (Si) possesses the highest theoretical capacity as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, and many efforts have been made to address the poor cycling stability issue that is associated with its huge volume changes during Li-Si alloying/de-alloying processes, mostly through the design of nanostructured materials. Herein, we report a simple cell configuration approach to improve the lithium storage performance of commercial nano-Si through the insertion of carbon nanofiber films (CNFs) as interlayers between the Si electrodes and separators...
June 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Kikuko Hayamizu, Shiro Seki, Tomoyuki Haishi
The migration behaviours of Li+ in three garnet- and one NASICON-type solid oxide electrolytes were studied on the micrometre scale by pulsed-gradient spin-echo (PGSE) 7Li NMR diffusion spectroscopy to clarify common and specific characteristics of each electrolyte. In these solid electrolytes, clear evidences of grain boundary effects in the diffusion of Li+ were not observed. The Li+ diffusion constants were dependent on parameters such as observation time (Δ) and pulsed field gradient (PFG) strength (g) for all the studied inorganic solid electrolytes...
June 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Carlise Hannel Ferreira, Sabrina Candido Nunes, Vidiany Aparecida Queiroz Santos, Ernesto Chaves Pereira, Mariana de Souza Sikora
Photocatalysis over TiO2 substrates is widely used in effluent treatment specially for organic compounds and for inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms. In the present work, TiO2 coatings were synthesized by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) and its pathogenic bacteria inhibitory photoactivity was investigated. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 coatings were investigated for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella bongori and the results were correlated with pore diameter and crystallite size...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Technology
Aniruddha M Dive, Chris J Benmore, Martin Wilding, Steve W Martin, Scott P Beckman, Soumik Banerjee
Solid-state sodium batteries, a relatively safe and potentially cost-effective energy storage technology, have attracted increasing scientific attention recently for application in stationary grid-scale energy storage. Identifying solid electrolytes with high electrochemical stability and high Na+ ion conductivity at room temperature is critically important to enable high energy densities with enhanced rate capabilities. We evaluated sodium sulfide-silicon sulfide, x Na2S + (1-x) SiS2, glasses as potential glassy solid electrolytes (GSEs) using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Yecan Pi, Qi Shao, Xing Zhu, Xiaoqing Huang
The anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is central to various energy conversion devices, but the investigation of the dynamic evolution of catalysts in different OER conditions remains quite limited, which is unfavorable for the understanding of the actual structure-activity relationship and catalyst optimization. Herein, we constructed monodispersed IrNix nanoparticles (NPs) with distinct composition-segregated features and captured their structural evolution in various OER environments. We decoded the interesting self-reconstruction of IrNix NPs during the OER, in which an Ir-skin framework is generated in an acidic electrolyte, while a Ni-rich surface layer is observed in an alkaline electrolyte owing to Ni migration...
June 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Andrew Todd Ham, Jill Mackey, Gary Semb
Continuous electroencephalography (CEEG) is chiefly performed at The Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) for identifying seizures, including its refined use within the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) as a differentiator between epileptic and psychogenic etiologies. CEEG also provides critical data that carry implications outside the bounds of both epilepsy and psychogenic events, such as the characterization of unorthodox clinical phenomena that are of physiological (though nonepileptic) origins. Although nonepileptic events (NEEs) are primarily linked with psychogenic phenomena (conversion disorder, malingering) that can mimic epileptic activity, they, like seizures, have diverse semiologies and etiologies...
2018: Neurodiagnostic Journal
Aylin R Rodan
WNK (With No Lysine (K)) kinases regulate renal epithelial ion transport to maintain homeostasis of electrolyte concentrations, extracellular volume and blood pressure. The SLC12 cation-chloride cotransporters, including the sodium-potassium-2-chloride (NKCC) and sodium-chloride (NCC) cotransporters, are targets of WNK regulation via the intermediary kinases SPAK (Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) and OSR1 (oxidative stress response). The pathway is activated by low dietary potassium intake, resulting in increased phosphorylation and activity of NCC...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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