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A P Zakharov, L M Pismen
We describe reshaping of active textiles actuated by bending of Janus fibres comprising both active and passive components. A great variety of shapes, determined by minimising the overall energy of the fabric, can be produced by varying bending directions determined by the orientation of Janus fibres. Under certain conditions, alternative equilibrium states, one absolutely stable and the other metastable coexist, and their relative energy may flip its sign as system parameters, such as the extension upon actuation, change...
January 17, 2018: Soft Matter
Asuka Nanbo, Junki Maruyama, Masaki Imai, Michiko Ujie, Yoichiro Fujioka, Shinya Nishide, Ayato Takada, Yusuke Ohba, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Cell surface receptors for phosphatidylserine contribute to the entry of Ebola virus (EBOV) particles, indicating that the presence of phosphatidylserine in the envelope of EBOV is important for the internalization of EBOV particles. Phosphatidylserine is typically distributed in the inner layer of the plasma membrane in normal cells. Progeny virions bud from the plasma membrane of infected cells, suggesting that phosphatidylserine is likely flipped to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane in infected cells for EBOV virions to acquire it...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Lindsay Johnston, Susan B Williams, Anne Ades
A well-organized educational curriculum for the training of both novice and experienced ECMO providers is critical for the continued function of an institutional ECMO program. ELSO provides guidance for the education for ECMO specialists, physicians and staff, which incorporates "traditional" instructor-centered educational methods, such as didactic lectures and technical skill training. Novel research suggests utilization of strategies that align with principles of adult learning to promote active learner involvement and reflection on how the material can be applied to understand existing and new constructs may be more effective...
January 11, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Temel Tirkes, Chen Lin, Enming Cui, Yu Deng, Paul R Territo, Kumaresan Sandrasegaran, Fatih Akisik
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if extracellular volume fraction and T1 mapping can be used to diagnose chronic pancreatitis (CP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This HIPAA-compliant study analyzed 143 consecutive patients with and without CP who underwent MR imaging between May 2016 and February 2017. Patients were selected for the study according to inclusion and exclusion criteria that considered history and clinical and laboratory findings. Eligible patients (n = 119) were grouped as normal (n = 60) or with mild (n = 22), moderate (n = 27), or severe (n = 10) CP on the basis of MRCP findings using the Cambridge classification as the reference standard...
January 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Daniel P Radin, Yong-Xin Li, Gary Rogers, Richard Purcell, Arnold Lippa
It was previously reported that Stargazin (STG) enhances the surface expression of AMPA receptors, controls receptor gating and slows channel desensitization as an auxiliary subunit of the receptors. Ampakines are a class of AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators that modify rates of transmitter binding, channel activity and desensitization parameters. As such, they have shown efficacy in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, where excitatory synaptic transmission is compromised. Given the functional similarities between STG and ampakines, the current study sought to probe interactions between STG and ampakine gating properties...
January 9, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Ying Li, Jianglei Di, Chaojie Ma, Jiwei Zhang, Jinzhan Zhong, Kaiqiang Wang, Teli Xi, Jianlin Zhao
We demonstrate a simple method for quantitative phase imaging of tiny transparent objects such as living cells based on the transport of intensity equation. The experiments are performed using an inverted bright field microscope upgraded with a flipping imaging module, which enables to simultaneously create two laterally separated images with unequal defocus distances. This add-on module does not include any lenses or gratings and is cost-effective and easy-to-alignment. The validity of this method is confirmed by the measurement of microlens array and human osteoblastic cells in culture, indicating its potential in the applications of dynamically measuring living cells and other transparent specimens in a quantitative, non-invasive and label-free manner...
January 8, 2018: Optics Express
Richa Nigam, Roy Anindya
Repair of alkylation damage in DNA is essential for maintaining genome integrity. Escherichia coli (E.coli) protein AlkB removes various alkyl DNA adducts including N1-methyladenine (N1meA) and N3-methylcytosine (N3meC) by oxidative demethylation. Previous studies showed that AlkB preferentially removes N1meA and N3meC from single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). It can also remove N1meA and N3meC from double-stranded DNA by base-flipping. Notably, ssDNA produced during DNA replication and recombination, remains bound to E...
January 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Catherine J Dowell, J Farley Norman, Jackie R Moment, Lindsey M Shain, Hideko F Norman, Flip Phillips, Astrid M L Kappers
In three experiments participants haptically discriminated object shape using unimanual (single hand explored two objects) and bimanual exploration (both hands were used, but each hand, left or right, explored a separate object). Such haptic exploration (one versus two hands) requires somatosensory processing in either only one or both cerebral hemispheres; previous studies related to the perception of shape/curvature found superior performance for unimanual exploration, indicating that shape comparison is more effective when only one hemisphere is utilized...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elisabetta Moroni, David A Agard, Giorgio Colombo
The Hsp90 family of molecular chaperones oversees the folding of a wide range of client proteins. Hsp90 is a homodimer, whose conformational states and functions are regulated by ATP-binding and hydrolysis. The crystal structure of mitochondrial Hsp90 (Trap1) showed that one of the two protomers in the active state is buckled, resulting in an asymmetric conformation. The asymmetry between the two protomers corresponds to the broadly conserved region responsible for client binding. Moreover, asymmetry determines differential hydrolysis for each protomer, with the buckled conformation favoring ATP processing...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Ai Ping Chen, Julian Gonzalez, Konstantin Guslienko
Micromagnetic simulations of magnetization reversal were performed for magnetic nanotubes of a finite length, L, equal to 1 and 2 μm, 50 and 100 nm radii, R, and uniaxial anisotropy with "easy axis" parallel to the tube length. I.e., we considered relatively short nanotubes with the aspect ratio L/R in the range 10-40. The non-uniform curling magnetization states on both ends of the nanotubes can be treated as vortex domain walls (DW). The domain wall length, Lc, depends on the tube geometric parameters and the anisotropy constant Ku, and determines the magnetization reversal mode, as well as the switching field value...
January 10, 2018: Materials
Joani Mato, Mark S Gordon
A new, general spin-correct spin-flip configuration interaction (SF-CI) method is introduced by extending the occupation restricted multiple active spaces (ORMAS) CI method in GAMESS. SF-ORMAS is a single reference CI method that utilizes a high-spin restricted open shell determinant on which an arbitrary amount of spin-flipped excitations are carried out to generate a wave function of desired multiplicity. Furthermore, the SF-ORMAS method allows for a flexible design of the active space(s) to fit the chemical problem at hand...
January 10, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Bradley J Voss, M Stephen Trent
Lipopolysaccharide synthesis and transport pathways are attractive targets for the development of new antimicrobial therapeutics. The ABC (ATP Binding Cassette) transporter MsbA has been recently described as employing a 'trap and flip' mechanism of lipopolysaccharide transport. This represents a novel mechanism amongst known lipid ABC transporters.
January 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
T Smoleński, Ł Cywiński, P Kossacki
We provide a theoretical description of the optical orientation of a single Mn2+ ion spin under quasi-resonant excitation demonstrated experimentally by Goryca et al (2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 087401). We build and analyze a hierarchy of models by starting with the simplest assumptions (transfer of perfectly spin-polarized excitons from Mn-free dot to the other dot containing a single Mn2+ spin, followed by radiative recombination) and subsequently adding more features, such as spin relaxation of electrons and holes...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Courtney D Eleazer, Rebecca Scopa Kelso
Many pre-health professional programs require completion of an undergraduate anatomy course with a laboratory component, yet grades in these courses are often low. Many students perceive anatomy as a more challenging subject than other coursework, and the resulting anxiety surrounding this perception may be a significant contributor to poor performance. Well-planned and deliberate guidance from instructors, as well as thoughtful course design, may be necessary to assist students in finding the best approach to studying for anatomy...
January 4, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Ya-Jun Ma, Xing Lu, Michael Carl, Yanchun Zhu, Nikolaus M Szeverenyi, Graeme M Bydder, Eric Y Chang, Jiang Du
PURPOSE: To develop an accurate T1 measurement method for short T2 tissues using a combination of a 3-dimensional ultrashort echo time cones actual flip angle imaging technique and a variable repetition time technique (3D UTE-Cones AFI-VTR) on a clinical 3T scanner. METHODS: First, the longitudinal magnetization mapping function of the excitation pulse was obtained with the 3D UTE-Cones AFI method, which provided information about excitation efficiency and B1 inhomogeneity...
January 3, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Hala U Gali-Muhtasib, Mona Diab-Assaf, Makhluf J Haddadin
The authors have retracted this article because of overlap in images within the publication and with another previously published article. It was brought to our attention that there are inconsistencies in Figs. 3, 5 and 6. The left middle panel in Fig. 3, labeled "Ctrl", is the same as the left panel in Fig. 6, labeled "PD98059", except that the latter is flipped upside down and right-left. In Fig. 5, the gel in the middle left panel labeled TGF-β2 has been cropped in two different ways and used in Figs...
January 8, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Kazumitsu Onizuka, Akira Usami, Yudai Yamaoki, Tomohito Kobayashi, Madoka E Hazemi, Tomoko Chikuni, Norihiro Sato, Kaname Sasaki, Masato Katahira, Fumi Nagatsugi
The alkylation of the specific higher-order nucleic acid structures is of great significance in order to control its function and gene expression. In this report, we have described the T-T mismatch selective alkylation with a vinyldiaminotriazine (VDAT)-acridine conjugate. The alkylation selectively proceeded at the N3 position of thymidine on the T-T mismatch. Interestingly, the alkylated thymidine induced base flipping of the complementary base in the duplex. In a model experiment for the alkylation of the CTG repeats DNA which causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), the observed reaction rate for one alkylation increased in proportion to the number of T-T mismatches...
January 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Pavel Yazhgur, Sampsa Vierros, Delphine Hannoy, Maria Sammalkorpi, Anniina Salonen
We have studied adsorbed layers of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at air-water interfaces in the presence of added electrolyte. Fast bubble compression/expansion measurements were used to obtain the surface equation of state, i.e. the surface tension vs CTAB surface concentration dependence. We show that while a simple model where the surfactant molecules are assumed to be non-interacting is insufficient to describe the measured response of the surfactant layer, a modified Frumkin equation where the local interactions between the molecular components depend on their surface concentration captures the response...
January 8, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Mayur Katariya, Dwayne Chung Kim Chung, Tristan Minife, Harshit Gupta, Alifa Afiah Ahmad Zahidi, Oi Wah Liew, Tuck Wah Ng
Autonomous systems for sample transport to the laboratory for analysis can be improved in terms of timeliness, cost and error mitigation in the pre-analytical testing phase. Drones have been reported for outdoor sample transport but incorporating devices on them to attain homogenous mixing of reagents during flight to enhance sample processing timeliness is limited by payload issues. It is shown here that flipping maneuvers conducted with quadcopters are able to facilitate complete and gentle mixing. This capability incorporated during automated sample transport serves to address an important factor contributing to pre-analytical variability which ultimately impacts on test result reliability...
January 4, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Ying Xu, Cheng-Cheng Gao, Zhen-Guo Pan, Chuan-Wen Zhou
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) holds promising value for cancer therapy due to its capacity to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Nevertheless, TRAIL therapy is greatly hampered by its resistance. Irigenin (Iri), isoflavonoids, can be isolated from the rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis, and has been shown anti-cancer properties. In this study, we explored if Iri could enhance TRAIL-regulated apoptosis in TRAIL resistant gastric cancer cells. Iri significantly potentiated TRAIL-triggered cytotoxicity...
January 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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