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Mediterranean diet and weight loss

D L Ellsworth, N S Costantino, H L Blackburn, R J M Engler, M Kashani, M N Vernalis
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic dysfunction characterized by insulin resistance (IR) is an important risk factor for type-2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to determine if clinical lifestyle interventions differing in scope and intensity improve IR, defined by the lipoprotein IR (LPIR) score, in individuals differing in the severity of metabolic dysfunction. METHODS: Subjects with diagnosed type-2 diabetes, CAD or significant risk factors participated in one of two clinical lifestyle modification interventions: (i) intensive non-randomized programme with a strict vegetarian diet (n = 90 participants, 90 matched controls) or (ii) moderate randomized trial following a Mediterranean-style diet (n = 89 subjects, 58 controls)...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
Rachel Golan, Ilan Shelef, Elad Shemesh, Yaakov Henkin, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Yftach Gepner, Ilana Harman-Boehm, Shula Witkow, Michael Friger, Yoash Chassidim, Idit F Liberty, Benjamin Sarusi, Dana Serfaty, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Noa Cohen, Sivan Ben-Avraham, Uta Ceglarek, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Meir J Stampfer, Assaf Rudich, Iris Shai
OBJECTIVE: To generate evidence-based conclusions about the effect of wine consumption on weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation and distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: In the 2-year randomized controlled CASCADE (CArdiovaSCulAr Diabetes & Ethanol) trial, patients following a Mediterranean diet were randomly assigned to drink 150 ml of mineral water, white wine or red wine with dinner for 2 years. Visceral adiposity and abdominal fat distribution were measured in a subgroup of sixty-five participants, using abdominal MRI...
October 3, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
Thomas C Keyserling, Carmen D Samuel-Hodge, Stephanie Jilcott Pitts, Beverly A Garcia, Larry F Johnston, Ziya Gizlice, Cassandra L Miller, Danielle F Braxton, Kelly R Evenson, Janice C Smith, Gwen B Davis, Emmanuelle L Quenum, Nadya T Majette Elliott, Myron D Gross, Katrina E Donahue, Jacqueline R Halladay, Alice S Ammerman
BACKGROUND: Because residents of the southeastern United States experience disproportionally high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD), it is important to develop effective lifestyle interventions for this population. METHODS: The primary objective was to develop and evaluate a dietary, physical activity (PA) and weight loss intervention for residents of the southeastern US. The intervention, given in eastern North Carolina, was evaluated in a 2 year prospective cohort study with an embedded randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a weight loss maintenance intervention...
2016: BMC Public Health
E Kelaiditi, A Jennings, C J Steves, J Skinner, A Cassidy, A J MacGregor, A A Welch
: The age-related loss of skeletal muscle and function are risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures. We found that higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet score was significantly associated with greater fat-free mass and leg explosive power suggesting a role for the Mediterranean Diet in prevention of loss of muscle outcomes. INTRODUCTION: The loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function with age are contributing risk factors for the onset of sarcopenia, frailty, osteoporosis, fractures, and mortality...
July 14, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Allen F Shaughnessy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2016: American Family Physician
Anna L Beavis, Anna Jo Bodurtha Smith, Amanda Nickles Fader
Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as obesity, lack of physical activity, and smoking, contribute greatly to cancer and chronic disease morbidity and mortality worldwide. This review appraises recent evidence on modifiable lifestyle factors in the prevention of endometrial cancer (EC) and ovarian cancer (OC) as well as new evidence for lifestyle management of EC and OC survivors. For EC, obesity continues to be the strongest risk factor, while new evidence suggests that physical activity, oral contraceptive pills, and bariatric surgery may be protective against EC...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
Heidi P Fransen, Petra H M Peeters, Joline W J Beulens, Jolanda M A Boer, G Ardine de Wit, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Yvonne T van der Schouw, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jeljer Hoekstra, Sjoerd G Elias, Anne M May
BACKGROUND: A healthy diet is important for normal growth and development. Exposure to undernutrition during important developmental periods such as childhood and adolescence can have effects later in life. Inhabitants of the west of the Netherlands were exposed to severe undernutrition during the famine in the last winter of the second World War (1944-1945). OBJECTIVE: We investigated if exposure of women to the Dutch famine during childhood and adolescence was associated with an unhealthy lifestyle later in life...
2016: PloS One
Giuseppe Castaldo, Luigi Monaco, Laura Castaldo, Giovanna Galdo, Emanuele Cereda
The impact of a rehabilitative multi-step dietary program consisting in different diets has been scantily investigated. In an open-label study, 73 obese patients underwent a two-phase weight loss (WL) program: a 3-week protein-sparing, very low-calorie, ketogenic diet (<500 kcal/day; Oloproteic(®) Diet) and a 6-week hypocaloric (25-30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight/day), low glycemic index, Mediterranean-like diet (hypo-MD). Both phases improved visceral adiposity, liver enzymes, GH levels, blood pressure and glucose and lipid metabolism...
September 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Ellen E Blaak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the recent research on the effects of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) content and quality in body weight control, glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular risk. RECENT FINDINGS: There is some evidence for a role of CHO content and glycemic index in long-term weight control. Prospective cohort studies show that a high glycemic index and a high glycemic load diet increase the risk for diabetes. A controlled short-term feeding study indicates that the glycemic index is less important in insulin sensitivity and cardio-metabolic risk in the context of an overall healthy diet in high-risk individuals...
July 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Graziano Cugno, José R Parreira, Enea Ferlizza, Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Mariana Carneiro, Jenny Renaut, Noemí Castro, Anastasio Arguello, Juan Capote, Alexandre M O Campos, André M Almeida
Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is the most important limitation to animal production in the Tropical and Mediterranean regions, conditioning producer's incomes and the nutritional status of rural communities. It is of importance to produce strategies to oppose adverse effects of SWL. Breeds that have evolved in harsh climates have acquired tolerance to SWL through selection. Most of the factors determining such ability are related to changes in biochemical pathways as affected by SWL. In this study, a gel based proteomics strategy (BN: Blue-Native Page and 2DE: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) was used to characterize the mitochondrial proteome of the secretory tissue of the goat mammary gland...
2016: PloS One
Mariana Palma, Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Noemí Castro, Anastasio Arguëllo, Juan Capote, Manolis Matzapetakis, André Martinho de Almeida
Goats are of special importance in the Mediterranean and tropical regions for producing a variety of dairy products. The scarcity of pastures during the dry season leads to seasonal weight loss (SWL), which affects milk production. In this work, we studied the effect of feed-restriction on two dairy goat breeds, with different tolerance levels to SWL: the Majorera breed (tolerant) and the Palmera breed (susceptible). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to compare the metabolome of an aqueous fraction of the mammary gland and milk serum from both breeds...
June 21, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
P J Smith, J A Blumenthal
Cognitive decline is an increasingly important public health problem, with more than 100 million adults worldwide projected to develop dementia by 2050. Accordingly, there has been an increased interest in preventive strategies that diminish this risk. It has been recognized that lifestyle factors including dietary patterns, may be important in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia in later life. Several dietary components have been examined, including antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins. In addition, whole dietary eating plans, including the Mediterranean diet (MeDi), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, with and without weight loss, have become areas of increasing interest...
March 2016: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
Secil Yazici-Tutunis, Ebru Gurel-Gurevin, Savas Ustunova, Cihan Demirci-Tansel, Filiz Mericli
Context Phillyrea latifolia L. (Oleaceae), commonly found in the Mediterranean region in Turkey, is used as medicinal teas for weight loss and hyperglycaemia in folk medicine. Objective The study investigated the possible effects of P. latifolia leaves aqueous extract's on weight loss and biochemical-histological changes in the rats fed a high-energy diet (HED), also isolated and determined the main phenolic compounds. Materials and methods Twenty-four male Wistar albino rats were divided into four equal groups such as the HED group fed a HED, the PLE group given only the extract of P...
October 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Elena S Papamiltiadous, Stuart K Roberts, Amanda J Nicoll, Marno C Ryan, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Agus Salim, Audrey C Tierney
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, the most prevalent liver disease in developed countries, remains difficult to manage with no proven safe and effective pharmacotherapy available. While weight reduction is the most commonly practiced treatment strategy, this is difficult to both achieve and/or maintain in the majority. Furthermore evidence-based dietary recommendations to guide the nutritional management of these patients are lacking. Using a randomised controlled trial design, this study compares the effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet to a standard low fat diet in terms of differences in insulin sensitivity, hepatic steatosis and metabolic outcomes in participants with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Rhoda N Ndanuko, Linda C Tapsell, Karen E Charlton, Elizabeth P Neale, Marijka J Batterham
Hypertension is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease, stroke, and kidney disease. To lower blood pressure (BP), several lifestyle changes are recommended such as weight loss, exercise, and following a healthy diet. Investigating the effect of single nutrients may have positive results, but food is consumed as part of a whole diet, resulting in nutrient interactions. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of dietary patterns on BP in adults. Studies that were published between January 1999 and June 2014 were retrieved using Scopus, Web of Science, and the MEDLINE database...
January 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Claudia P Oliveira, Priscila de Lima Sanches, Erlon Oliveira de Abreu-Silva, Aline Marcadenti
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide and it is associated with other medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. The mechanisms of the underlying disease development and progression are not completely established and there is no consensus concerning the pharmacological treatment. In the gold standard treatment for NAFLD weight loss, dietary therapy, and physical activity are included. However, little scientific evidence is available on diet and/or physical activity and NAFLD specifically...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Joseph G Mancini, Kristian B Filion, Renée Atallah, Mark J Eisenberg
BACKGROUND: Although the long-term health benefits of the Mediterranean diet are well established, its efficacy for weight loss at ≥12 months in overweight or obese individuals is unclear. We therefore conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the effect of the Mediterranean diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor levels after ≥12 months. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library of Clinical Trials for RCTs published in English or French and with follow-up ≥12 months that examined the effect of the Mediterranean diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor levels in overweight or obese individuals trying to lose weight...
April 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Giulio Marchesini, Salvatore Petta, Riccardo Dalle Grave
Fatty liver accumulation results from an imbalance between lipid deposition and removal, driven by the hepatic synthesis of triglycerides and de novo lipogenesis. The habitual diet plays a relevant role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and both risky (e.g., fructose) and protective foods (Mediterranean diet) have been described, but the contribution of excess calories remains pivotal. Accordingly, weight loss is the most effective way to promote liver fat removal. Several controlled studies have confirmed that an intense approach to lifestyle changes, carried on along the lines of cognitive-behavior treatment, is able to attain the desired 7%-10% weight loss, associated with reduced liver fat, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remission, and also reduction of fibrosis...
June 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Tommy Cederholm, John E Morley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent conundrums in the interface of nutrition, biology and aging. RECENT FINDINGS: A Mediterranean diet with extra virgin olive oil, or similar plant-based diets, including five helpings of fruit and vegetables, exercise and nonsmoking are the mainstays of aging successfully. Recent studies have questioned the utility of weight loss in older persons, the use of antioxidant vitamin supplements as well as the appropriate level of sodium intake...
January 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Rubini Alessandro, Bosco Gerardo, Lodi Alessandra, Cenci Lorenzo, Parmagnani Andrea, Grimaldi Keith, Zhongjin Yang, Paoli Antonio
PURPOSE: The effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) on weight loss, metabolic, and respiratory parameters were investigated in healthy subjects. METHODS: Thirty-two healthy subjects were randomized into two groups. The KD group followed a ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t 0-t 20), then switched to a low-carbohydrate, no-ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t 20-t 40), and finally was on a Mediterranean diet (MD) for 2 more months (KD t 40-t 2m). The MD group followed a MD for 20 days (MD t 0-t 20), then followed a MD of 1400 kcal over the next 20 days (MD t 20-t 40), and completed the study with the MD for 2 months (MD t 40-t 2m)...
December 2015: Lung
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