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Nervous system lyme disease

Amy L Johnson, Laura K Johnstone, Darko Stefanovski
BACKGROUND: The accuracy of the Lyme multiplex assay for the diagnosis of neuroborreliosis in horses is unknown. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To describe Lyme multiplex results in horses with a postmortem diagnosis of neuroborreliosis. The hypothesis was that paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results and a CSF : serum ratio would allow differentiation of horses with neuroborreliosis from those with other neurologic diseases. ANIMALS: Ninety horses that had neurologic examinations, serum and CSF Lyme multiplex analyses, and postmortem examination of the nervous system performed...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Geetha Parthasarathy, Mario T Philipp
Lyme neuroborreliosis, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, may affect the central and/or peripheral nervous systems. In previous studies, we showed that human oligodendrocytes exposed to the bacteria undergo apoptosis in an inflammatory environment, and that inflammatory pathways trigger cell-death pathways. We further demonstrated that several receptor tyrosine kinases were involved in triggering downstream effects, leading to inflammation and apoptosis. Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR5, which are commonly studied receptors in Lyme disease, only had a minimal role in inflammatory processes...
February 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Paolo Maccallini, Serena Bonin, Giusto Trevisan
Some patients with a history of Borrelia burgdorferi infection develop a chronic symptomatology characterized by cognitive deficits, fatigue, and pain, despite antibiotic treatment. The pathogenic mechanism that underlines this condition, referred to as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), is currently unknown. A debate exists about whether PTLDS is due to persistent infection or to post-infectious damages in the immune system and the nervous system. We present the case of a patient with evidence of exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi sl and a long history of debilitating fatigue, cognitive abnormalities and autonomic nervous system issues...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
John J Halperin
The nervous system is involved in 10-15% of patients infected with B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii and B. garinii. This review will address widespread misconceptions about the clinical phenomenology, diagnostic approach and response to treatment of neuroborreliosis. Areas covered: Improvements in diagnostic testing have allowed better definition of the clinical spectrum of neuroborreliosis, with lymphocytic meningitis and uni- or multifocal inflammation of peripheral/cranial nerves predominating. Despite widespread concern that post-treatment cognitive/behavioral symptoms might be attributable to persisting infection or aberrant inflammation within the central nervous system a large body of evidence indicates this is extremely improbable...
January 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Cheryl Novak, Andrew Harrison, John Aucott
Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi . When untreated, infection may spread to the heart, nervous system, and joints. Cardiac involvement usually manifests as abnormalities of the conduction system and bradycardia. Treatment of Lyme disease is generally effective, with a subset of patients experiencing persistent, sometimes long-term symptoms called posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome.
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Andreas Lossius, Alina Tomescu-Baciu, Trygve Holmøy, Christian A Vedeler, Egil Røsjø, Åslaug R Lorentzen, Ilaria Casetta, Frode Vartdal
Immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) heavy chain genes are associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) and IgG levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, how these variants are implicated in disease mechanisms remains unknown. Here, we show that proliferating plasmablasts expressing the G1m1 allotype of IgG1 are selectively enriched in CSF of G1m1/G1m3 heterozygous MS patients, whereas plasmablasts expressing either G1m1 or G1m3 are evenly distributed in blood. Moreover, there was a preferential intrathecal synthesis of oligoclonal IgG1 of the G1m1 allotype in heterozygous patients, whereas controls with Lyme neuroborreliosis displayed oligoclonal IgG1 of both allotypes...
October 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Istvan Katona, Joachim Weis
This chapter reviews the diseases of the peripheral nerves from a neuropathologic point of view, with a special focus on specific morphologic changes, and includes a summary of the histopathologic methods available for their diagnosis. As the rate of obesity and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes increase, diabetic neuropathy is the most common cause of peripheral neuropathy. Many systemic disorders with metabolic origin, like amyloidosis, hepatic failure, vitamin deficiencies, uremia, lipid metabolism disorders, and others, can also cause axonal or myelin alterations in the peripheral nervous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Jiaru Yang, Xinlin Han, Aihua Liu, Fukai Bao, Yun Peng, Lüyan Tao, Mingbiao Ma, Ruolan Bai, Xiting Dai
Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), which is the most common neurological manifestation of Lyme disease (LD), seriously impairs both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Current LNB diagnostic methods and criteria are not very effective. Recently, several studies have indicated that a high concentration of the chemokine CXC ligand 13 (CXCL13) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could be used as a new biomarker for the diagnosis of LNB. Thus, we carried out a meta-analysis to systematically analyze the data from these studies to evaluate the value of CXCL13 as an LNB biomarker...
October 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
B Kříž, M Malý, M Daniel
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The objective was to analyse and evaluate a cohort of Lyme borreliosis (LB) patients with neuroborreliosis (LNB) hospitalised in the Czech Republic in 2003-2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data analysed in this study were obtained from the National Register of Hospitalised Patients, which is a nationwide population register maintained at the Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic. Data collection from all departments of bed care establishments are regularly processed every year...
2017: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Hua Zhao, Aihua Liu, Yuhui Cui, Zhang Liang, Bingxue Li, Fukai Bao
Lyme neuroborreliosis is a nervous system infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi). It has been demonstrated that cytokines induced by B. burgdorferi are related to Lyme neuroborreliosis. Microglia is known as a key player in the immune responses that occur within the central nervous system. In response to inflammation, it will be activated and generate cytokines and chemokines. Experiments in vitro cells have showed that B. Burgdorferi membrane protein A (BmpA), a major immunogen of B...
October 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
M M Remy, N Schöbi, L Kottanattu, S Pfister, A Duppenthaler, F Suter-Riniker
BACKGROUND: Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is a frequent manifestation of Lyme disease in children and its current diagnosis has limitations. The elevation of the chemokine CXCL13 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of adult patients with LNB has been demonstrated and suggested as a new diagnostic marker. Our aim was to evaluate this marker in the CSF of children with suspected LNB and to determine a CXCL13 cut-off concentration that would discriminate between LNB and other central nervous system (CNS) infections...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Kenneth Blum, Edward J Modestino, Marcelo Febo, Bruce Steinberg, Thomas McLaughlin, Lyle Fried, David Baron, David Siwicki, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
The principal vector of Lyme disease in the United States is Ixodes scapularis: black legged or deer ticks. There is increased evidence that those infected may be plagued by anxiety or depression as well. Researchers have identified transcripts coding for two putative cytosolic sulfotransferases in these ticks, which recognized phenolic monoamines as their substrates. It is hypothesized that protracted Lyme disease sequelae may be due to impairment of dopaminergic function of the brain reward circuitry. The subsequent recombinant proteins exhibited sulfotransferase function against two neurotransmitters: dopamine and octopamine...
May 2017: Journal of Systems and Integrative Neuroscience
Francisco Javier Carod-Artal
OBJECTIVES: To review infectious diseases that may cause autonomic dysfunction. METHODS: Review of published papers indexed in medline/embase. RESULTS: Autonomic dysfunction has been reported in retrovirus (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus), herpes viruses, flavivirus, enterovirus 71 and lyssavirus infections. Autonomic dysfunction is relatively common in HIV-infected patients and heart rate variability is reduced even in early stages of infection...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Feras Akbik, Marcelo Matiello, Amanda Piquet, Tracey Cho, Adam Cohen, Nagagopal Venna
Nervous system involvement occurs in up to 15% of patients with Lyme disease, most commonly manifested as cranial neuropathy, lymphocytic meningitis, and or radiculoneuritis. We describe a patient with subacute radiculopoliomyelitis-myelitis matching the selective involvement of the anterior horns and roots of the cervical spinal cord seen on MRI and on electrodiagnostic studies. We demonstrate positive CSF Lyme antibodies and document a near-complete recovery with antibiotics. This case highlights the importance of recognizing an atypical presentation of Lyme disease in the setting of initial radiculitis and or myelitis, particularly given the potential for favorable outcomes with appropriate treatment...
July 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Adam Garkowski, Joanna Zajkowska, Agata Zajkowska, Alina Kułakowska, Olga Zajkowska, Bożena Kubas, Dorota Jurgilewicz, Marcin Hładuński, Urszula Łebkowska
BACKGROUND: Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is a disease caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, involving the nervous system. It usually manifests as lymphocytic meningoradiculitis, but in rare cases, it can also lead to cerebrovascular complications. We aimed to perform a systematic review of all reported cases of LNB complicated by central nervous system vasculitis and stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of literature between May 1987 and December 2016 with patients who presented with cerebrovascular course of LNB...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Barbara Oczko-Grzesik, Lucjan Kępa, Monika Puszcz-Matlińska, Robert Pudło, Anna Żurek, Teresa Badura-Głąbik
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a disease caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi. The most common symptoms are related to the skin, musculo-scelatal system, central and peripheral nervous system, rarely to the heart muscle and the eye, and may occur in the multistage course of the disease. LB may additionally be accompanied by psychopathological symptoms. The aim of the study is estimation of the cognitive and affective disorders occurence in patients with LB...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Ana Brás, Nuno Marques, Beatriz Santiago, Anabela Matos, Fradique Moreira
Neurological manifestations of Lyme disease are reported in 3% - 12% of patients, with the most common form of presentation being meningoradiculitis. Other symptoms involving the central nervous system, such as myelitis or encephalitis, are rare (< 5 %). We report a case of a 66-year-old male, with a subacute extensive transverse myelitis, secondary to Borrelia burgdorferi infection. The patient underwent antibiotic therapy filed for neuroborreliosis with a good clinical outcome. The rareness in clinical symptoms and imaging presentation, based on a treatable infectious disease, highlights the importance of the inclusion of neuroborreliosis in the differential diagnosis of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis...
September 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Mohammad Zubair Alam, Qamre Alam, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Asif Ahmad Jiman-Fatani, Esam I Azhar, Mohammad Azhar Khan, Absarul Haque
Recent studies have shown that bacterial and viral infections are risk factors for various neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Lyme disease (LD). However, it is still controversial how the infections play a role in neurological diseases progression. Infections in central nervous system may lead multiple damages in infected and neighboring cells. The infection leads to the activation of inflammatory processes and host immune responses, which acts as defense mechanism and also causes damage to the host neuronal functions and viability...
2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Geeta Shroff
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease in which the myelin sheath of nerve cells is damaged. It can cause delayed neurologic symptoms similar to those seen in Lyme disease (LD) patients. Thymus derived T-cells (myelin reactive) migrate to the blood brain barrier and stimulate an inflammatory cascade in the central nervous system. Cell based therapies play an important role in treating neurological diseases such as MS and LD. CASE REPORT Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) therapy was used to treat two patients with both MS and LD...
December 13, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Diego Cadavid, Paul G Auwaerter, Jeffrey Rumbaugh, Harald Gelderblom
BACKGROUND: Various central nervous system-penetrant antibiotics are bactericidal in vitro and in vivo against the causative agent of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), Borrelia burgdorferi. These antibiotics are routinely used clinically to treat LNB, but their relative efficacy is not clear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antibiotics for the treatment of LNB. SEARCH METHODS: On 25 October 2016 we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase...
December 8, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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