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Primate circadian rhythms

Alban Lemasson, Ronan Jubin, Philippe Bec, Martine Hausberger
How nonhuman primates deal with birth, at the moment of delivery, and during the following days, remains poorly explored because of the unpredictability of this event, particularly for forest-dwelling arboreal species. Available studies highlight intra- and interspecific variation which suggest flexibility of the timing of delivery, of behavior associated with labor contractions and parturition, and the social context and ambient noise surrounding delivery. Here, we present the findings of a two-decade survey of reproduction in a population of captive Campbell's monkeys...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
Flávia Cal Sabino, José Américo de Oliveira, Mario Pedrazzoli
We present a study of Per3 expression in six different tissues of the non-human primate Cebus apella (capuchin monkey). The aim of this study was to verify whether the expression of the Per3 gene in different tissues of capuchin monkey occurs in a circadian pattern, its phase and the phase relationships between these different tissues during the 24 h of a day. We observed that gene expression oscillated in all of the tissues studied during this time period, although only the liver and muscle presented a robust circadian pattern...
October 2016: Sleep Science
J Neitz, M Neitz
There are many ganglion cell types and subtypes in our retina that carry color information. These have appeared at different times over the history of the evolution of the vertebrate visual system. They project to several different places in the brain and serve a variety of purposes allowing wavelength information to contribute to diverse visual functions. These include circadian photoentrainment, regulation of sleep and mood, guidance of orienting movements, detection and segmentation of objects. Predecessors to some of the circuits serving these purposes presumably arose before mammals evolved and different functions are represented by distinct ganglion cell types...
February 2017: Eye
Takafumi Katsumura, Yukiko Fukuyo, Shoji Kawamura, Hiroki Oota
BACKGROUND: The circadian clock is set up around a 24-h period in humans who are awake in the daytime and sleep in the nighttime, accompanied with physiological and metabolic rhythms. Most haplorhine primates, including humans, are diurnal, while most "primitive" strepsirrhine primates are nocturnal, suggesting primates have evolved from nocturnal to diurnal habits. The mechanisms of physiological changes causing the habits and of genetic changes causing the physiological changes are, however, unknown...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Charles L Nunn, David R Samson, Andrew D Krystal
Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep-i.e. 'why' sleep evolved-remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalian sleep to better understand sleep along the human lineage and in the modern world. Compared to other primates, sleep in great apes has undergone substantial evolutionary change, with all great apes building a sleeping platform or 'nest'. Further evolutionary change characterizes human sleep, with humans having the shortest sleep duration, yet the highest proportion of rapid eye movement sleep among primates...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Sheena L Faherty, José Luis Villanueva-Cañas, Peter H Klopfer, M Mar Albà, Anne D Yoder
Hibernation is a complex physiological response that some mammalian species employ to evade energetic demands. Previous work in mammalian hibernators suggests that hibernation is activated not by a set of genes unique to hibernators, but by differential expression of genes that are present in all mammals. This question of universal genetic mechanisms requires further investigation and can only be tested through additional investigations of phylogenetically dispersed species. To explore this question, we use RNA-Seq to investigate gene expression dynamics as they relate to the varying physiological states experienced throughout the year in a group of primate hibernators-Madagascar's dwarf lemurs (genus Cheirogaleus)...
2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Emma L Lantz, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf, Matthew R Heintz, Carson M Murray, Iddi Lipende, Dominic A Travis, Rachel M Santymire
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the primary antibody responsible for mucosal defense in mammals and has been used as a marker for chronic stress and immune status. Therefore, this antibody may provide a more reliable indicator of an individual's immunocompetence than is currently available through other methods. Immunoglobulin A has never before been quantified in a wild population of non-human primates using non-invasive sample collection techniques. In this study, we present methodology for non-invasive IgA extraction in the field and provide quantification of mean fecal IgA concentrations in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)...
May 5, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Dorela D Shuboni, Amna A Agha, Thomas K H Groves, Andrew J Gall
Melatonin is a hormone rhythmically secreted at night by the pineal gland in vertebrates. In diurnal mammals, melatonin is present during the inactive phase of the rest/activity cycle, and in primates it directly facilitates sleep and decreases body temperature. However, the role of the pineal gland for the promotion of sleep at night has not yet been studied in non-primate diurnal mammalian species. Here, the authors directly examined the hypothesis that the pineal gland contributes to diurnality in Nile grass rats by decreasing activity and increasing sleep at night, and that this could occur via effects on circadian mechanisms or masking, or both...
July 2016: Behavioural Processes
Yan Zhang, Wen Zheng, Yuli Liu, Jue Wang, Ying Peng, Haibao Shang, Ning Hou, Xiaomin Hu, Yi Ding, Yao Xiao, Can Wang, Fanxin Zeng, Jiaming Mao, Jun Zhang, Dongwei Ma, Xueting Sun, Chuanyun Li, Rui-Ping Xiao, Xiuqin Zhang
Hypertension is often associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and serves as a risk factor of MetS and its complications. Blood pressure circadian rhythm in hypertensive patients has been suggested to contribute to cardiovascular consequences and organ damage of hypertension. But circadian changes of BP and their response to drugs have not been clearly investigated in non-human primates (NHPs) of MetS with hypertension. Here, we identified 16 elderly, hypertensive MetS rhesus monkeys from our in-house cohort...
April 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
Timothy G Bromage, Youssef Idaghdour, Rodrigo S Lacruz, Thomas D Crenshaw, Olexandra Ovsiy, Björn Rotter, Klaus Hoffmeier, Friedemann Schrenk
The paradigm of chronobiology is based almost wholly upon the daily biological clock, or circadian rhythm, which has been the focus of intense molecular, cellular, pharmacological, and behavioral, research. However, the circadian rhythm does not explain biological timings related to fundamental aspects of life history such as rates of tissue/organ/body size development and control of the timing of life stages such as gestation length, age at maturity, and lifespan. This suggests that another biological timing mechanism is at work...
2016: PloS One
M A Contín, M M Benedetto, M L Quinteros-Quintana, M E Guido
Light is the visible part of the electromagnetic radiation within a range of 380-780 nm; (400-700 on primates retina). In vertebrates, the retina is adapted to capturing light photons and transmitting this information to other structures in the central nervous system. In mammals, light acts directly on the retina to fulfill two important roles: (1) the visual function through rod and cone photoreceptor cells and (2) non-image forming tasks, such as the synchronization of circadian rhythms to a 24 h solar cycle, pineal melatonin suppression and pupil light reflexes...
February 2016: Eye
Anja Widdig, Matthew J Kessler, Fred B Bercovitch, John D Berard, Christine Duggleby, Peter Nürnberg, Richard G Rawlins, Ulrike Sauermann, Qian Wang, Michael Krawczak, Jörg Schmidtke
Genetic studies not only contribute substantially to our current understanding of the natural variation in behavior and health in many species, they also provide the basis of numerous in vivo models of human traits. Despite the many challenges posed by the high level of biological and social complexity, a long lifespan and difficult access in the field, genetic studies of primates are particularly rewarding because of the close evolutionary relatedness of these species to humans. The free-ranging rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) population on Cayo Santiago (CS), Puerto Rico, provides a unique resource in this respect because several of the abovementioned caveats are of either minor importance there, or lacking altogether, thereby allowing long-term genetic research in a primate population under constant surveillance since 1956...
January 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Irina V Zhdanova, Jeffrey Rogers, Janis González-Martínez, Lindsay A Farrer
The circadian clock disorders in humans remain poorly understood. However, their impact on the development and progression of major human conditions, from cancer to insomnia, metabolic or mental illness becomes increasingly apparent. Addressing human circadian disorders in animal models is, in part, complicated by inverse temporal relationship between the core clock and specific physiological or behavioral processes in diurnal and nocturnal animals. Major advantages of a macaque model for translational circadian research, as a diurnal vertebrate phylogenetically close to humans, are further emphasized by the discovery of the first familial circadian disorder in non-human primates among the rhesus monkeys originating from Cayo Santiago...
January 2016: American Journal of Primatology
L M G Campos, Roelf J Cruz-Rizzolo, L Pinato
The main Zeitgeber, the day-night cycle, synchronizes the central oscillator which determines behaviors rhythms as sleep-wake behavior, body temperature, the regulation of hormone secretion, and the acquisition and processing of memory. Thus, actions such as acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval performed in the hippocampus are modulated by the circadian system and show a varied dependence on light and dark. To investigate changes in the hippocampus' cellular mechanism invoked by the day and night in a diurnal primate, this study analyzed the expression of PER2 and the calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin in the hippocampus of Sapajus apella, a diurnal primate, at two different time points, one during the day and one during the dark phase...
July 10, 2015: Brain Research
Alejandro Ibáñez-Costa, José Córdoba-Chacón, Manuel D Gahete, Rhonda D Kineman, Justo P Castaño, Raúl M Luque
Melatonin (MT) is secreted by the pineal gland and exhibits a striking circadian rhythm in its release. Depending on the species studied, some pituitary hormones also display marked circadian/seasonal patterns and rhythms of secretion. However, the precise relationship between MT and pituitary function remains controversial, and studies focusing on the direct role of MT in normal pituitary cells are limited to nonprimate species. Here, adult normal primate (baboons) primary pituitary cell cultures were used to determine the direct impact of MT on the functioning of all pituitary cell types from the pars distalis...
March 2015: Endocrinology
N D Goncharova
The article presents a review of the results of the author's works that examine the character of age-related changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in primates during aging in basal conditions, including disturbances of its circadian rhythms and in conditions of its inhibition and activation by specific stimuli. In addition, the original data are presented on the peculiarities of the HPA axis functioning under acute psycho-emotional stress taking into account the time of day and individual features of the adaptive behavior of animals, severe chronic stress caused by hemoblastosis process and repeated mild psycho-emotional stress impact...
2014: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
Flávia Cal Sabino, Amanda Oliveira Ribeiro, Sérgio Tufik, Laila Brito Torres, José Américo Oliveira, Luiz Eugênio Araújo Moraes Mello, Jeferson Souza Cavalcante, Mario Pedrazzoli
The PER3 gene is one of the clock genes, which function in the core mammalian molecular circadian system. A variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) locus in the 18th exon of this gene has been strongly associated to circadian rhythm phenotypes and sleep organization in humans, but it has not been identified in other mammals except primates. To better understand the evolution and the placement of the PER3 VNTR in a phylogenetical context, the present study enlarges the investigation about the presence and the structure of this variable region in a large sample of primate species and other mammals...
2014: PloS One
Rovena Clara G J Engelberth, Kayo Diogenes de A Silva, Carolina V de M Azevedo, Elaine Cristina Gavioli, Jose Ronaldo dos Santos, Joacil Germano Soares, Expedito S Nascimento Junior, Judney C Cavalcante, Miriam Stela M O Costa, Jeferson S Cavalcante
The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) are pointed to as the mammals central circadian pacemaker. Aged animals show internal time disruption possibly caused by morphological and neurochemical changes in SCN components. Some studies reported changes of neuronal cells and neuroglia in the SCN of rats and nonhuman primates during aging. The effects of senescence on morphological aspects in SCN are important for understanding some alterations in biological rhythms expression. Therefore, our aim was to perform a comparative study of the morphological aspects of SCN in adult and aged female marmoset...
2014: BioMed Research International
J Hannibal, L Kankipati, C E Strang, B B Peterson, D Dacey, P D Gamlin
Circadian rhythms generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin and the neuropeptide PACAP. The ipRGCs regulate other non-image-forming visual functions such as the pupillary light reflex, masking behaviour and light induced melatonin suppression. To evaluate whether PACAP immunoreactive retinal projections are useful as a marker for central projection of ipRGCs in the monkey brain, we characterized the occurrence of PACAP in melanopsin expressing ipRGCs and in the retinal target areas in the brain visualized by the anterograde tracer Cholera Toxin subunit B (CtB) in combination with PACAP staining...
February 6, 2014: Journal of Comparative Neurology
J Hannibal, L Kankipati, C E Strang, B B Peterson, D Dacey, P D Gamlin
Circadian rhythms generated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin and the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). The ipRGCs regulate other nonimage-forming visual functions such as the pupillary light reflex, masking behavior, and light-induced melatonin suppression. To evaluate whether PACAP-immunoreactive retinal projections are useful as a marker for central projection of ipRGCs in the monkey brain, we characterized the occurrence of PACAP in melanopsin-expressing ipRGCs and in the retinal target areas in the brain visualized by the anterograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (CtB) in combination with PACAP staining...
July 1, 2014: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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