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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945054/intracranial-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#1
Andrew A Fanous, Dheerendra Prasad, David Mathieu, Andrew J Fabiano
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is the use of a single high dose of radiation, stereotactically directed to an intracranial region of interest, in order to create a lesion or obliterate a preexisting one. This technology has evolved over the years into the use of multiple radiation sources oriented at a variety of angles, thus permitting the creation of various treatment target shapes. This allows for non-open surgical treatment of intracranial pathologies, which significantly decreases the risk of morbidity...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944980/failure-mode-and-effects-analysis-a-community-practice-perspective
#2
Bradley W Schuller, Angi Burns, Elizabeth A Ceilley, Alan King, Joan LeTourneau, Alexander Markovic, Lynda Sterkel, Brigid Taplin, Jennifer Wanner, Jeffrey M Albert
PURPOSE: To report our early experiences with failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) in a community practice setting. METHODS: The FMEA facilitator received extensive training at the AAPM Summer School. Early efforts focused on department education and emphasized the need for process evaluation in the context of high profile radiation therapy accidents. A multidisciplinary team was assembled with representation from each of the major department disciplines. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was identified as the most appropriate treatment technique for the first FMEA evaluation, as it is largely self-contained and has the potential to produce high impact failure modes...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944954/multicentre-cohort-study-to-define-and-validate-pathological-assessment-of-response-to-neoadjuvant-therapy-in-oesophagogastric-adenocarcinoma
#3
F Noble, M A Lloyd, R Turkington, E Griffiths, M O'Donovan, J R O'Neill, S Mercer, S L Parsons, R C Fitzgerald, T J Underwood
BACKGROUND: This multicentre cohort study sought to define a robust pathological indicator of clinically meaningful response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in oesophageal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to 11 UK upper gastrointestinal cancer centres to determine the use of assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Records of consecutive patients undergoing oesophagogastric resection at seven centres between January 2000 and December 2013 were reviewed...
September 25, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944952/bypassing-agent-prophylaxis-in-people-with-hemophilia-a-or-b-with-inhibitors
#4
REVIEW
Chatree Chai-Adisaksopha, Sarah J Nevitt, Mindy L Simpson, Maissaa Janbain, Barbara A Konkle
BACKGROUND: People with hemophilia A or B with inhibitors are at high risk of bleeding complications. Infusion of bypassing agents, such as recombinant activated FVII (rFVIIa) and plasma-derived activated prothrombin complex concentrate, are suggested as alternative therapies to factor VIII (haemophilia A) or IX (haemophilia B) for individuals who no longer respond to these treatments because they develop inhibitory antibodies. The ultimate goal of treatment is to preserve the individual's joints, otherwise destroyed by recurrent bleeds...
September 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944771/the-spectrum-of-t-cell-metabolism-in-health-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Glenn R Bantug, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Guido Kroemer, Christoph Hess
In healthy individuals, metabolically quiescent T cells survey lymph nodes and peripheral tissues in search of cognate antigens. During infection, T cells that encounter cognate antigens are activated and - in a context-specific manner - proliferate and/or differentiate to become effector T cells. This process is accompanied by important changes in cellular metabolism (known as metabolic reprogramming). The magnitude and spectrum of metabolic reprogramming as it occurs in T cells in the context of acute infection ensure host survival...
September 25, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944752/a-randomised-controlled-study-of-the-effectiveness-of-breathing-retraining-exercises-taught-by-a-physiotherapist-either-by-instructional-dvd-or-in-face-to-face-sessions-in-the-management-of-asthma-in-adults
#6
Mike Thomas, Anne Bruton, Paul Little, Stephen Holgate, Amanda Lee, Lucy Yardley, Steve George, James Raftery, Jennifer Versnel, David Price, Ian Pavord, Ratko Djukanovic, Michael Moore, Sarah Kirby, Guiqing Yao, Shihua Zhu, Emily Arden-Close, Manimekalai Thiruvothiyur, Frances Webley, Mark Stafford-Watson, Elizabeth Dixon, Lynda Taylor
BACKGROUND: Asthma control is suboptimal, resulting in quality of life (QoL) impairment and costs. Breathing retraining exercises have evidence of effectiveness as adjuvant treatment, but are infrequently used. OBJECTIVES: To transfer the contents of a brief (three-session) physiotherapist-delivered breathing retraining programme to a digital versatile disc (DVD) and booklet format; to compare the effectiveness of the self-guided intervention with that of 'face-to-face' physiotherapy and usual care for QoL and other asthma-related outcomes; to perform a health economic assessment of both interventions; and to perform a process evaluation using quantitative and qualitative methods...
September 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944728/performance-based-risk-sharing-arrangements-u-s-payer-experience
#7
Joseph A Goble, Brian Ung, Sascha van Boemmel-Wegmann, Robert P Navarro, Andrew Parece
BACKGROUND: As a result of global concern about rising drug costs, many U.S. payers and European agencies such as the National Health Service have partnered with pharmaceutical companies in performance-based risk-sharing arrangements (PBRSAs) by which manufacturers share financial risk with health care purchasing entities and authorities. However, PBRSAs present many administrative and legal challenges that have minimized successful contract experiences in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To (a) identify drug and disease characteristics and contract components that contribute to successful PBRSA experiences and the primary barriers to PBRSA execution and (b) explore solutions to facilitate contract negotiation and execution...
October 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944726/paying-for-cures-how-can-we-afford-it-managed-care-pharmacy-stakeholder-perceptions-of-policy-options-to-address-affordability-of-prescription-drugs
#8
Kai Yeung, Kangho Suh, Anirban Basu, Louis P Garrison, Aasthaa Bansal, Josh J Carlson
BACKGROUND: High-priced medications with curative potential, such as the newer hepatitis C therapies, have contributed to the recent growth in pharmaceutical expenditure. Despite the obvious benefits, health care decision makers are just beginning to grapple with questions of how to value and pay for curative therapies that may feature large upfront cost, followed by health benefits that are reaped over a patient's lifespan. Alternative policy options have been proposed to promote high value and financially sustainable use of these therapies...
October 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944686/remission-of-chronic-headache-rates-potential-predictors-and-the-role-of-medication-follow-up-results-of-the-german-headache-consortium-ghc-study
#9
Verena Henning, Zaza Katsarava, Mark Obermann, Susanne Moebus, Sara Schramm
Objectives To estimate remission rates of chronic headache (CH), focusing on potential predictors of headache remission and medication. Methods We used data from the longitudinal population-based German Headache Consortium (GHC) Study (n = 9,944, 18-65 years). Validated questionnaires were used at baseline (t0, 2003-2007, response rate: 55.2%), first follow-up after 1.87 ± 0.39 years (t1, 37.2%) and second follow-up after 3.26 ± 0.60 years (t2, 38.8%) to assess headache type and frequency, use of analgesics and anti-migraine drugs, medication overuse, education, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944662/tunable-electroosmosis-based-femto-liter-pipette-a-promising-tool-toward-living-cell-surgery
#10
Apeng Chen, Kyle Lynch, Jiangtao Ren, Zhijian Jia, Yu Yang, Joann Juan Lu, Shaorong Liu
Single-cell analysis has attracted increasing attention because of cell heterogeneities. Various strategies have been developed for analyzing single cells but most of these analytical processes kill the cells. Tools that can qualitatively and quantitatively measure the cellular contents without killing the cell are highly demanding because they enable us to conduct single-cell time-course studies (e.g., to examine how a cell responds to a therapy before, during and after a treatment). Here we develop a femto-liter (fL) pipette to serve for this purpose...
September 25, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944609/hypertension-management-research-priorities-from-patients-caregivers-and-healthcare-providers-a-report-from-the-hypertension-canada-priority-setting-partnership-group
#11
Nadia Khan, Simon L Bacon, Samia Khan, Sara Perlmutter, Carline Gerlinsky, Mark Dermer, Lonni Johnson, Finderson Alves, Donna McLean, Andreas Laupacis, Mandy Pui, Angelique Berg, Felicia Flowitt
Patient- and stakeholder-oriented research is vital to improving the relevance of research. The authors aimed to identify the 10 most important research priorities of patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers (family physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, pharmacists, and dietitians) for hypertension management. Using the James Lind Alliance approach, a national web-based survey asked patients, caregivers, and care providers to submit their unanswered questions on hypertension management. Questions already answered from randomized controlled trial evidence were removed...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944604/the-social-practice-of-medical-guanxi-personal-connections-and-patient-physician-trust-in-china-an-anthropological-and-ethical-tsudy
#12
Xiang Zou, Yu Cheng, Jing-Bao Nie
In China's healthcare sector, a popular and socio-culturally distinctive phenomenon known as guanxi jiuyi (medical guanxi), whereby patients draw on their guanxi (personal connections) with physicians when seeking healthcare, is thriving. Integrating anthropological investigation with normative inquiry, this paper examines medical guanxi through the lens of patient-physician trust and mistrust. The first-hand empirical data acquired - on the lived experiences and perspectives of both patients and physicians - is based on six months' fieldwork carried out in a county hospital in Guangdong, southern China, which included in-depth interviews with 20 patients and 20 medical professionals...
September 25, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944500/social-cognitive-and-physiological-aspects-of-humour-perception-from-4-to-8-months-two-longitudinal-studies
#13
Gina C Mireault, Susan C Crockenberg, Keri Heilman, John E Sparrow, Kassandra Cousineau, Brady Rainville
Infants laugh by 4 months, but whether they understand humour based on social or cognitive factors is unclear. We conducted two longitudinal studies of 4-, 6-, and 8-month-olds (N = 60), and 5-, 6-, and 7-month-olds (N = 53) to pinpoint the onset of independent humour perception and determine when social and cognitive factors are most salient. Infants were shown six events in randomized repeated-measures designs: two ordinary events and two absurd iterations of those events, with parents' affect manipulated (laugh or neutral) during the latter...
September 25, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944467/olfactory-dysfunction-predicts-subsequent-dementia-in-older-u-s-adults
#14
Dara R Adams, David W Kern, Kristen E Wroblewski, Martha K McClintock, William Dale, Jayant M Pinto
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between olfactory dysfunction and subsequent diagnosis of dementia. DESIGN: Longitudinal study of a population representative of U.S. older adults. SETTING: Home interviews (National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project). PARTICIPANTS: Men and women aged 57 to 85 (N = 2,906). MEASUREMENTS: Objective odor identification ability was measured at baseline using a validated five-item test...
September 25, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944449/cannabis-use-among-patients-at-a-comprehensive-cancer-center-in-a-state-with-legalized-medicinal-and-recreational-use
#15
Steven A Pergam, Maresa C Woodfield, Christine M Lee, Guang-Shing Cheng, Kelsey K Baker, Sara R Marquis, Jesse R Fann
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is purported to alleviate symptoms related to cancer treatment, although the patterns of use among cancer patients are not well known. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and methods of use among cancer patients, the perceived benefits, and the sources of information in a state with legalized cannabis. METHODS: A cross-sectional, anonymous survey of adult cancer patients was performed at a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center in Washington State...
September 25, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944324/surgeons-approach-toward-clinical-nutrition-a-survey-based-study
#16
Bahadır Osman Bozkırlı, Rıza Haldun Gündoğdu, Soner Akbaba, Turgay Sayın, Pamir Eren Ersoy
OBJECTIVE: Although many surgical patients face postoperative problems due to a poor nutritional status, there is evidence that many cases of malnutrition still go unnoticed and untreated in surgical wards. This study aims to define the current attitudes of surgeons toward nutritional screening and support. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire with 13 questions was e-mailed to 1500 surgeons. Cross-queries were made over the responses. RESULTS: The response rate was 20...
2017: Turk J Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944277/secondhand-smoke-exposure-and-smoke-free-policy-in-philadelphia-public-housing
#17
Ann C Klassen, Nora L Lee, Aaron Pankiewicz, Rikki Ward, Michelle Shuster, Bethany Townsend Ogbenna, Anita Wade, Maxwell Boamah, Olufunlayo Osayameh, Ana M Rule, Dorota Szymkowiak, Ryan Coffman, Virginius Bragg, Giridhar Mallya
OBJECTIVES: Multi-unit housing environments remain significant sources of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, especially for vulnerable populations in subsidized housing. In Philadelphia, the largest US housing authority to implement smoke-free policies, we measured baseline resident smoking-related behaviors and attitudes, and longitudinal exposures to airborne nicotine, during policy development and implementation. METHODS: In 4 communities, we collected data in 2013, 2014, and 2016, before and after introduction of comprehensive smoke-free policies, interviewing persons in 172 households, and monitoring air-borne nicotine in non-smoking homes and public areas...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944225/conserved-inhibition-of-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-release-by-clinical-candida-albicans-biofilms
#18
John F Kernien, Chad J Johnson, Jeniel E Nett
Candida albicans biofilms are difficult to eradicate due to their resistance to host defenses and antifungal drugs. Although neutrophils are the primary responder to C. albicans during invasive candidiasis, biofilms resist killing by neutrophils. Prior investigation, with the commonly used laboratory strain SC5314, linked this phenotype to the impaired release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are structures of DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins involved in extracellular microbial killing...
September 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944163/weathering-the-storm-improving-therapeutic-interventions-for-cytokine-storm-syndromes-by-targeting-disease-pathogenesis
#19
Lehn K Weaver, Edward M Behrens
Cytokine storm syndromes require rapid diagnosis and treatment to limit the morbidity and mortality caused by the hyperinflammatory state that characterizes these devastating conditions. Herein, we discuss the current knowledge that guides our therapeutic decision-making and personalization of treatment for patients with cytokine storm syndromes. Firstly, ICU-level supportive care is often required to stabilize patients with fulminant disease while additional diagnostic evaluations proceed to determine the underlying cause of cytokine storm...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944157/problem-gambling-among-ethnic-minorities-results-from-an-epidemiological-study
#20
Kyle R Caler, Jose Ricardo Vargas Garcia, Lia Nower
A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341) to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394), Black (n = 261), or Asian/other (n = 177)...
2017: Asian journal of gambling issues and public health
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