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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892462/ecology-of-sleeping-the-microbial-and-arthropod-associates-of-chimpanzee-beds
#1
Megan S Thoemmes, Fiona A Stewart, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Matthew A Bertone, David A Baltzegar, Russell J Borski, Naomi Cohen, Kaitlin P Coyle, Alexander K Piel, Robert R Dunn
The indoor environment created by the construction of homes and other buildings is often considered to be uniquely different from other environments. It is composed of organisms that are less diverse than those of the outdoors and strongly sourced by, or dependent upon, human bodies. Yet, no one has ever compared the composition of species found in contemporary human homes to that of other structures built by mammals, including those of non-human primates. Here we consider the microbes and arthropods found in chimpanzee beds, relative to the surrounding environment ( n  = 41 and 15 beds, respectively)...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765596/an-evolutionary-perspective-on-night-terrors
#2
Sean D Boyden, Martha Pott, Philip T Starks
Night terrors, also known as sleep terrors, are an early childhood parasomnia characterized by screams or cries, behavioral manifestations of extreme fear, difficulty waking and inconsolability upon awakening. The mechanism causing night terrors is unknown, and a consistently successful treatment has yet to be documented. Here, we argue that cultural practices have moved us away from an ultimate solution: cosleeping. Cosleeping is the norm for closely related primates and for humans in non-Western cultures...
2018: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720564/evidence-that-sedative-effects-of-benzodiazepines-involve-unexpected-gaba-a-receptor-subtypes-quantitative-observation-studies-in-rhesus-monkeys
#3
Angela N Duke, Zhiqiang Meng, Donna M Platt, John R Atack, Gerard R Dawson, David S Reynolds, V V N Phani Babu Tiruveedhula, Guanguan Li, Michael Rajesh Stephen, Werner Sieghart, James M Cook, James K Rowlett
Using non-human primates, we introduced a new set of behavioral categories for observable sedative effects based on pediatric anesthesiology classifications. We examined the effects of alprazolam and diazepam (non-selective benzodiazepines), zolpidem (preferential binding to α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptors), HZ-166 (8-ethynyl-6-(2'-pyridine)-4H-2,5,10b-triaza-benzo[e]azulene-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester; functionally selective for α2 and α3 subunit-containing GABAA receptors), MRK-696 (7-cyclobutyl-6-(2-methyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-2-ylmethoxy)-3-(2-flurophenyl)-1,2,4-triazolo(4,3-b)pyridazine; no selectivity but partial intrinsic activity), and TPA023B (6,2'-difluro-5'-(3-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)imidazo(1,2-b((1,2,4)triazin-7-yl)(1,1'-biphenyl)-2-carbonitrile; selectivity for α2, α3, α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors) using quantitative behavioral observation techniques in rhesus monkeys...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623905/compact-standalone-platform-for-neural-recording-with-real-time-spike-sorting-and-data-logging
#4
Song Luan, Ian Williams, Michal Maslik, Yan Liu, Felipe De Carvalho, Andrew Jackson, Rodrigo Quian Quiroga, Timothy G Constandinou
OBJECTIVE: Longitudinal observation of single unit neural activity from large numbers of cortical neurons in awake and mobile animals is often a vital step in studying neural network behaviour and towards the prospect of building effective brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). These recordings generate enormous amounts of data for transmission and storage, and typically require offline processing to tease out the behaviour of individual neurons. Our aim was to create a compact system capable of: (1) reducing the data bandwidth by circa 2 to 3 orders of magnitude (greatly improving battery lifetime and enabling low power wireless transmission in future versions); (2) producing real-time, low-latency, spike sorted data; and (3) long term untethered operation...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606199/gps-identified-vulnerabilities-of-savannah-woodland-primates-to-leopard-predation-and-their-implications-for-early-hominins
#5
Lynne A Isbell, Laura R Bidner, Eric K Van Cleave, Akiko Matsumoto-Oda, Margaret C Crofoot
Predation is thought to have been a key selection pressure in primate evolution, especially in the savannah-woodland habitats where several early hominin species lived. However, predator-primate prey relationships are still poorly understood because human presence often deters predators, limiting our ability to quantify the impact of predation. Synchronized high-resolution tracking of leopards (Panthera pardus), vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), and olive baboons (Papio anubis) during a 14-month study in Kenya revealed that increased vulnerability to leopard predation was not associated with higher encounter rates, smaller body size, smaller group size, or greater distance from refuges, contrary to long-standing inferences...
May 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473029/fluoxetine-administration-in-juvenile-monkeys-implications-for-pharmacotherapy-in-children
#6
REVIEW
Mari S Golub, Casey E Hogrefe, Richard J Sherwood, Christoph W Turck
Fluoxetine therapy has been approved for children with major depressive disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder for over 14 years and has expanded to other childhood behavior disorders. As use increases, more detail on fluoxetine effects during juvenile brain development can help maintain safe and effective use of this therapy. Here, a narrative review is provided of previously published findings from a large nonhuman primate project. Fluoxetine was administered to juvenile male rhesus monkeys for an extended period (2 years) prior to puberty...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456505/deletion-of-trace-amine-associated-receptor-1-attenuates-behavioral-responses-to-caffeine
#7
Michael D Schwartz, Jeremiah B Palmerston, Diana L Lee, Marius C Hoener, Thomas S Kilduff
Trace amines (TAs), endogenous amino acid metabolites that are structurally similar to the biogenic amines, are endogenous ligands for trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a GPCR that modulates dopaminergic, serotonergic, and glutamatergic activity. Selective TAAR1 full and partial agonists exhibit similar pro-cognitive, antidepressant- and antipsychotic-like properties in rodents and non-human primates, suggesting TAAR1 as a novel target for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We previously reported that TAAR1 partial agonists are wake-promoting in rats and mice, and that TAAR1 knockout (KO) and overexpressing mice exhibit altered sleep-wake and EEG spectral composition...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446072/sleep-in-a-comparative-context-investigating-how-human-sleep-differs-from-sleep-in-other-primates
#8
Charles L Nunn, David R Samson
OBJECTIVES: Primates vary in their sleep durations and, remarkably, humans sleep the least per 24-hr period of the 30 primates that have been studied. Using phylogenetic methods that quantitatively situate human phenotypes within a broader primate comparative context, we investigated the evolution of human sleep architecture, focusing on: total sleep duration, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep duration, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep duration, and proportion of sleep in REM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used two different Bayesian methods: phylogenetic prediction based on phylogenetic generalized least squares and a multistate Onrstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) evolutionary model of random drift and stabilizing selection...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417991/nocturnal-behavior-by-a-diurnal-ape-the-west-african-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes-verus-in-a-savanna-environment-at-fongoli-senegal
#9
Jill D Pruetz
OBJECTIVES: I report on the nocturnal behavior of Fongoli chimpanzees in a savanna mosaic during different seasons and lunar phases and test the hypothesis that hot daytime temperatures influence activity at night. I predicted that apes would be more active at night during periods of greater lunar illuminosity given diurnal primates' lack of visual specializations for low-light conditions and in dry season months when water scarcity exacerbated heat stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: I observed chimpanzees for 403 hrs on 40 nights between 2007 and 2013 and categorized their activity as social, movement, or vocalization...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240762/rethinking-3r-strategies-digging-deeper-into-animaltestinfo-promotes-transparency-in-in-vivo-biomedical-research
#10
Bettina Bert, Antje Dörendahl, Nora Leich, Julia Vietze, Matthias Steinfath, Justyna Chmielewska, Andreas Hensel, Barbara Grune, Gilbert Schönfelder
In the European Union (EU), animal welfare is seen as a matter of great importance. However, with respect to animal experimentation, European citizens feel quite uninformed. The European Directive 2010/63/EU for the protection of laboratory animals aims for greater transparency and requires that a comprehensible, nontechnical summary (NTS) of each authorised research project involving animals is published by the respective Member State. However, the NTSs remain sleeping beauties if their contents are not easily and systematically accessible...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190329/cortical-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-a-progressive-model-of-parkinsonism-in-nonhuman-primates
#11
Annaelle Devergnas, M Caiola, D Pittard, T Wichmann
Parkinson's disease is associated with abnormal oscillatory electrical activities of neurons and neuronal ensembles throughout the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network. It has recently been documented in patients with advanced parkinsonism that the amplitude of gamma-band oscillations (50-200 Hz) in electrocorticogram recordings from the primary motor cortex is abnormally coupled to the phase of beta band oscillations within the same signals. It is not known when in the course of the disease the abnormal phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) arises, and whether it is influenced by arousal or prior exposure to dopaminergic medications...
November 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110757/a-brief-history-of-apol1-a-gene-evolving
#12
REVIEW
David J Friedman
APOL1 kidney risk variants lead to high rates of kidney disease in people of recent African ancestry. These risk variants are very common and confer a large increase in risk of kidney disease. This unusual combination of high frequency and large effect size occurs because the risk variants also appear to have beneficial properties. The risk variants show enhanced protective effects against certain pathogens, particularly the trypanosomes that cause African sleeping sickness. Here, we consider the origins and evolution of the primate-only APOL1 gene...
November 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106402/selective-neuronal-lapses-precede-human-cognitive-lapses-following-sleep-deprivation
#13
Yuval Nir, Thomas Andrillon, Amit Marmelshtein, Nanthia Suthana, Chiara Cirelli, Giulio Tononi, Itzhak Fried
Sleep deprivation is a major source of morbidity with widespread health effects, including increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, heart attack, and stroke. Moreover, sleep deprivation brings about vehicle accidents and medical errors and is therefore an urgent topic of investigation. During sleep deprivation, homeostatic and circadian processes interact to build up sleep pressure, which results in slow behavioral performance (cognitive lapses) typically attributed to attentional thalamic and frontoparietal circuits, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
December 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072318/cortical-beta-eeg-oscillations-related-to-changes-in-muscle-tone-activity-during-sleep-in-spider-monkey-ateles-geoffroyi
#14
Manuel Alejandro Cruz-Aguilar, Miguel Angel Guevara, Marisela Hernández-González, Ignacio Ramírez-Salado, Enrique Hernández-Arteaga, Fructuoso Ayala-Guerrero
BACKGROUND: The physiological mechanisms that allow for sleeping in a vertical position, which is primordial for arboreal primates, have not been studied yet. METHODS: A non-invasive polysomnographic study of 6 spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) was conducted. The relative beta power of the motor cortex and its linear relation with muscle tone in the facial mentalis muscle and the abductor caudae medialis muscle of the tail during wakefulness and sleep stages were calculated...
February 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943886/sleeping-site-ecology-but-not-sex-affect-ecto-and-hemoparasite-risk-in-sympatric-arboreal-primates-avahi-occidentalis-and-lepilemur-edwardsi
#15
May Hokan, Christina Strube, Ute Radespiel, Elke Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: A central question in evolutionary parasitology is to what extent ecology impacts patterns of parasitism in wild host populations. In this study, we aim to disentangle factors influencing the risk of parasite exposure by exploring the impact of sleeping site ecology on infection with ectoparasites and vector-borne hemoparasites in two sympatric primates endemic to Madagascar. Both species live in the same dry deciduous forest of northwestern Madagascar and cope with the same climatic constraints, they are arboreal, nocturnal, cat-sized and pair-living but differ prominently in sleeping site ecology...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924146/apols-with-low-ph-dependence-can-kill-all-african-trypanosomes
#16
Frédéric Fontaine, Laurence Lecordier, Gilles Vanwalleghem, Pierrick Uzureau, Nick Van Reet, Martina Fontaine, Patricia Tebabi, Benoit Vanhollebeke, Philippe Büscher, David Pérez-Morga, Etienne Pays
The primate-specific serum protein apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) is the only secreted member of a family of cell death promoting proteins 1-4 . APOL1 kills the bloodstream parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei, but not the human sleeping sickness agents T.b. rhodesiense and T.b. gambiense 3 . We considered the possibility that intracellular members of the APOL1 family, against which extracellular trypanosomes could not have evolved resistance, could kill pathogenic T. brucei subspecies. Here we show that recombinant APOL3 (rAPOL3) kills all African trypanosomes, including T...
November 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922421/effects-of-acute-administration-of-donepezil-or-memantine-on-sleep-deprivation-induced-spatial-memory-deficit-in-young-and-aged-non-human-primate-grey-mouse-lemurs-microcebus-murinus
#17
Anisur Rahman, Yves Lamberty, Esther Schenker, Massimo Cella, Solène Languille, Régis Bordet, Jill Richardson, Fabien Pifferi, Fabienne Aujard
The development of novel therapeutics to prevent cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is facing paramount difficulties since the translational efficacy of rodent models did not resulted in better clinical results. Currently approved treatments, including the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (DON) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist memantine (MEM) provide marginal therapeutic benefits to AD patients. There is an urgent need to develop a predictive animal model that is phylogenetically proximal to humans to achieve better translation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802936/nonmotor-symptoms-in-experimental-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Nataliya Titova, Anthony H V Schapira, K Ray Chaudhuri, Mubasher A Qamar, Elena Katunina, Peter Jenner
Nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) range from neuropsychiatric, cognitive to sleep and sensory disorders and can arise from the disease process as well as from drug treatment. The clinical heterogeneity of nonmotor symptoms of PD is underpinned by a wide range of neuropathological and molecular pathology, affecting almost the entire range of neurotransmitters present in brain and the periphery. Understanding the neurobiology and pathology of nonmotor symptoms is crucial to the effective treatment of PD and currently a key unmet need...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667703/hippocampal-gamma-slow-oscillation-coupling-in-macaques-during-sedation-and-sleep
#19
Andrew G Richardson, Xilin Liu, Pauline K Weigand, Eric D Hudgins, Joel M Stein, Sandhitsu R Das, Alexander Proekt, Max B Kelz, Milin Zhang, Jan Van der Spiegel, Timothy H Lucas
Behavioral and neurophysiological evidence suggests that the slow (≤1 Hz) oscillation (SO) during sleep plays a role in consolidating hippocampal (HIPP)-dependent memories. The effects of the SO on HIPP activity have been studied in rodents and cats both during natural sleep and during anesthetic administration titrated to mimic sleep-like slow rhythms. In this study, we sought to document these effects in primates. First, HIPP field potentials were recorded during ketamine-dexmedetomidine sedation and during natural sleep in three rhesus macaques...
November 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573721/gps-identified-low-level-nocturnal-activity-of-vervets-chlorocebus-pygerythrus-and-olive-baboons-papio-anubis-in-laikipia-kenya
#20
Lynne A Isbell, Laura R Bidner, Margaret C Crofoot, Akiko Matsumoto-Oda, Damien R Farine
OBJECTIVES: Except for owl monkeys (Aotus spp.), all anthropoid primates are considered strictly diurnal. Recent studies leveraging new technologies have shown, however, that some diurnal anthropoids also engage in nocturnal activity. Here we examine the extent to which vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) and olive baboons (Papio anubis) are active at night. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We deployed GPS collars with tri-axial accelerometer data loggers on 18 free-ranging adult females: 12 vervets spread among 5 social groups, and 6 olive baboons spread among 4 groups...
September 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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