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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667703/hippocampal-gamma-slow-oscillation-coupling-in-macaques-during-sedation-and-sleep
#1
Andrew G Richardson, Xilin Liu, Pauline K Weigand, Eric D Hudgins, Joel M Stein, Sandhitsu R Das, Alexander Proekt, Max B Kelz, Milin Zhang, Jan Van der Spiegel, Timothy H Lucas
Behavioral and neurophysiological evidence suggests that the slow (≤ 1 Hz) oscillation (SO) during sleep plays a role in consolidating hippocampal (HIPP)-dependent memories. The effects of the SO on HIPP activity have been studied in rodents and cats both during natural sleep and during anesthetic administration titrated to mimic sleep-like slow rhythms. In this study, we sought to document these effects in primates. First, HIPP field potentials were recorded during ketamine-dexmedetomidine sedation and during natural sleep in three rhesus macaques...
July 1, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573721/gps-identified-low-level-nocturnal-activity-of-vervets-chlorocebus-pygerythrus-and-olive-baboons-papio-anubis-in-laikipia-kenya
#2
Lynne A Isbell, Laura R Bidner, Margaret C Crofoot, Akiko Matsumoto-Oda, Damien R Farine
OBJECTIVES: Except for owl monkeys (Aotus spp.), all anthropoid primates are considered strictly diurnal. Recent studies leveraging new technologies have shown, however, that some diurnal anthropoids also engage in nocturnal activity. Here we examine the extent to which vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) and olive baboons (Papio anubis) are active at night. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We deployed GPS collars with tri-axial accelerometer data loggers on 18 free-ranging adult females: 12 vervets spread among 5 social groups, and 6 olive baboons spread among 4 groups...
June 2, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464245/social-networks-dynamics-revealed-by-temporal-analysis-an-example-in-a-non-human-primate-macaca-sylvanus-in-la-for%C3%A3%C2%AAt-des-singes
#3
Sebastian Sosa, Peng Zhang, Guénaël Cabanes
This study applied a temporal social network analysis model to describe three affiliative social networks (allogrooming, sleep in contact, and triadic interaction) in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus. Three main social mechanisms were examined to determine interactional patterns among group members, namely preferential attachment (i.e., highly connected individuals are more likely to form new connections), triadic closure (new connections occur via previous close connections), and homophily (individuals interact preferably with others with similar attributes)...
June 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450831/cycle-triggered-cortical-stimulation-during-slow-wave-sleep-facilitates-learning-a-bmi-task-a-case-report-in-a-non-human-primate
#4
Irene Rembado, Stavros Zanos, Eberhard E Fetz
Slow wave sleep (SWS) has been identified as the sleep stage involved in consolidating newly acquired information. A growing body of evidence has shown that delta (1-4 Hz) oscillatory activity, the characteristic electroencephalographic signature of SWS, is involved in coordinating interaction between the hippocampus and the neocortex and is thought to take a role in stabilizing memory traces related to a novel task. This case report describes a new protocol that uses neuroprosthetics training of a non-human primate to evaluate the effects of surface cortical electrical stimulation triggered from SWS cycles...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407630/characterization-of-the-tree-holes-used-by-lepilemur-ruficaudatus-in-the-dry-deciduous-forest-of-kirindy-mitea-national-park
#5
Elvis J Rakotomalala, Felix Rakotondraparany, Amanda C Perofsky, Rebecca J Lewis
Knowledge of the key resources for a species is critical for developing an effective conservation strategy. Kirindy Mitea National Park is an important refuge for the red-tailed sportive lemur (Lepilemur ruficaudatus), a nocturnal folivorous lemur endemic to the dry deciduous forest of western Madagascar. Because L. ruficaudatus sleeps in tree holes during the day, sleeping trees may be an important resource for this species. Our goal was to characterize the sleeping sites used by L. ruficaudatus at the Ankoatsifaka Research Station in Kirindy Mitea National Park...
April 14, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398464/caloric-restriction-and-healthy-life-span-frail-phenotype-of-nonhuman-primates-in-the-wisconsin-national-primate-research-center-caloric-restriction-study
#6
Yosuke Yamada, Joseph W Kemnitz, Richard Weindruch, Rozalyn M Anderson, Dale A Schoeller, Ricki J Colman
Calorie restriction without malnutrition increases longevity and delays the onset of age-associated disorders in multiple species. Recently, greater emphasis has been placed on healthy life span and preventing frailty than on longevity. Here, we show the beneficial effect of long-term calorie restriction on frailty in later life in a nonhuman primate. Frail phenotypes were evaluated using metabolic and physical activity data and defined using the Fried index. Shrinking was defined as unintentional weight loss of greater than 5% of body weight...
April 8, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160289/melanopsin-expressing-human-retinal-ganglion-cells-subtypes-distribution-and-intraretinal-connectivity
#7
Jens Hannibal, Anders Tolstrup Christiansen, Steffen Heegaard, Jan Fahrenkrug, Jens Folke Kiilgaard
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin belong to a heterogenic population of RGCs which regulate the circadian clock, masking behavior, melatonin suppression, the pupillary light reflex, and sleep/wake cycles. The different functions seem to be associated to different subtypes of melanopsin cells. In rodents, subtype classification has associated subtypes to function. In primate and human retina such classification has so far, not been applied. In the present study using antibodies against N- and C-terminal parts of human melanopsin, confocal microscopy and 3D reconstruction of melanopsin immunoreactive (-ir) RGCs, we applied the criteria used in mouse on human melanopsin-ir RGCs...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159659/day-night-expression-of-mt1-and-mt2-receptors-in-hypothalamic-nuclei-of-the-primate-sapajus-apella
#8
Luciana Pinato, Dayane Ramos, Alessandre Hataka, Patricia S Rossignoli, Marcos Donisete Granado, Marina Cardoso Mazzetto, Leila M G Campos
Melatonin is involved in the temporal organization of several physiological and behavioral events, controlled by hypothalamic nuclei, like sleep, feeding, reproduction and metabolic modulation and acts through two types of high-affinity G protein-coupled membrane receptors: MT1 and MT2. This study aimed to investigate the expression of MT1 and MT2 receptors proteins in four hypothalamic nuclei, i.e., SCN, supraoptic (SON), paraventricular (PVN) and anteroventral periventricular nuclei (AVPV), of the diurnal primate Sapajus apella using immunohistochemistry...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096295/does-selection-for-short-sleep-duration-explain-human-vulnerability-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Randolph M Nesse, Caleb E Finch, Charles L Nunn
Compared with other primates, humans sleep less and have a much higher prevalence of Alzheimer 's disease (AD) pathology. This article reviews evidence relevant to the hypothesis that natural selection for shorter sleep time in humans has compromised the efficacy of physiological mechanisms that protect against AD during sleep. In particular, the glymphatic system drains interstitial fluid from the brain, removing extra-cellular amyloid beta (eAβ) twice as fast during sleep. In addition, melatonin - a peptide hormone that increases markedly during sleep - is an effective antioxidant that inhibits the polymerization of soluble eAβ into insoluble amyloid fibrils that are associated with AD...
January 16, 2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041797/sharp-wave-ripples-in-primates-are-enhanced-near-remembered-visual-objects
#10
Timothy K Leonard, Kari L Hoffman
The hippocampus plays an important role in memory for events that are distinct in space and time. One of the strongest, most synchronous neural signals produced by the hippocampus is the sharp-wave ripple (SWR), observed in a variety of mammalian species during offline behaviors, such as slow-wave sleep [1-3] and quiescent waking and pauses in exploration [4-8], leading to long-standing and widespread theories of its contribution to plasticity and memory during these inactive or immobile states [9-14]. Indeed, during sleep and waking inactivity, hippocampal SWRs in rodents appear to support spatial long-term and working memory [4, 15-23], but so far, they have not been linked to memory in primates...
January 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986974/effects-of-a-serotonin-2c-agonist-and-a-2a-antagonist-on-actigraphy-based-sleep-parameters-disrupted-by-methamphetamine-self-administration-in-rhesus-monkeys
#11
Maylen Perez Diaz, Monica L Andersen, Kenner C Rice, Leonard L Howell
Sleep disorders and substance abuse are highly comorbid and we have previously shown that methamphetamine self-administration significantly disrupts activity-based sleep parameters in rhesus monkeys. To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated the effectiveness of any pharmacological intervention to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on nighttime activity under well-controlled conditions in laboratory animals. Thus, we examined the effects of a 5-HT2C receptor agonist, WAY163909, and a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, M100907, given alone and in combination, on actigraphy-based sleep parameters disrupted by methamphetamine self-administration in non-human primates...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956208/anatomical-evidence-for-functional-diversity-in-the-mesencephalic-locomotor-region-of-primates
#12
Sophie B Sébille, Hayat Belaid, Anne-Charlotte Philippe, Arthur André, Brian Lau, Chantal François, Carine Karachi, Eric Bardinet
The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) is a highly preserved brainstem structure in vertebrates. The MLR performs a crucial role in locomotion but also controls various other functions such as sleep, attention, and even emotion. The MLR comprises the pedunculopontine (PPN) and cuneiform nuclei (CuN) but their specific roles are still unknown in primates. Here, we sought to characterise the inputs and outputs of the PPN and CuN to and from the basal ganglia, thalamus, amygdala and cortex, with a specific interest in identifying functional anatomical territories...
February 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935605/evolution-of-the-circuitry-for-conscious-color-vision-in-primates
#13
J Neitz, M Neitz
There are many ganglion cell types and subtypes in our retina that carry color information. These have appeared at different times over the history of the evolution of the vertebrate visual system. They project to several different places in the brain and serve a variety of purposes allowing wavelength information to contribute to diverse visual functions. These include circadian photoentrainment, regulation of sleep and mood, guidance of orienting movements, detection and segmentation of objects. Predecessors to some of the circuits serving these purposes presumably arose before mammals evolved and different functions are represented by distinct ganglion cell types...
February 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853604/hibernation-in-a-primate-does-sleep-occur
#14
Marina B Blanco, Kathrin H Dausmann, Sheena L Faherty, Peter Klopfer, Andrew D Krystal, Robert Schopler, Anne D Yoder
During hibernation, critical physiological processes are downregulated and thermogenically induced arousals are presumably needed periodically to fulfil those physiological demands. Among the processes incompatible with a hypome tabolic state is sleep. However, one hibernating primate, the dwarf lemur Cheirogaleus medius, experiences rapid eye movement (REM)-like states during hibernation, whenever passively reaching temperatures above 30°C, as occurs when it hibernates in poorly insulated tree hollows under tropical conditions...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760892/investigation-of-sleep-wake-rhythm-in-non-human-primates-without-restraint-during-data-collection
#15
Akiyoshi Ishikawa, Keita Sakai, Takehiro Maki, Yuri Mizuno, Kimie Niimi, Yasuhiro Oda, Eiki Takahashi
To understand sleep mechanisms and develop treatments for sleep disorders, investigations using animal models are essential. The sleep architecture of rodents differs from that of diurnal mammals including humans and non-human primates. Sleep studies have been conducted in non-human primates; however, these sleep assessments were performed on animals placed in a restraint chair connected via the umbilical area to the recording apparatus. To avoid restraints, cables, and other stressful apparatuses and manipulations, telemetry systems have been developed...
January 27, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728905/use-and-selection-of-sleeping-sites-by-proboscis-monkeys-nasalislarvatus-along-the-kinabatangan-river-sabah-malaysia
#16
Valentine Thiry, Danica J Stark, Benoît Goossens, Jean-Louis Slachmuylder, Régine Vercauteren Drubbel, Martine Vercauteren
The choice of a sleeping site is crucial for primates and may influence their survival. In this study, we investigated several tree characteristics influencing the sleeping site selection by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) along Kinabatangan River, in Sabah, Malaysia. We identified 81 sleeping trees used by one-male and all-male social groups from November 2011 to January 2012. We recorded 15 variables for each tree. Within sleeping sites, sleeping trees were taller, had a larger trunk, with larger and higher first branches than surrounding trees...
2016: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680326/a-comparative-study-on-the-regulatory-region-of-the-period1-gene-among-diurnal-nocturnal-primates
#17
Takafumi Katsumura, Yukiko Fukuyo, Shoji Kawamura, Hiroki Oota
BACKGROUND: The circadian clock is set up around a 24-h period in humans who are awake in the daytime and sleep in the nighttime, accompanied with physiological and metabolic rhythms. Most haplorhine primates, including humans, are diurnal, while most "primitive" strepsirrhine primates are nocturnal, suggesting primates have evolved from nocturnal to diurnal habits. The mechanisms of physiological changes causing the habits and of genetic changes causing the physiological changes are, however, unknown...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650279/haptoglobin
#18
Christian Brix Folsted Andersen, Kristian Stødkilde, Kirstine Lindhardt Sæderup, Anne Kuhlee, Stefan Raunser, Jonas H Graversen, Søren Kragh Moestrup
Haptoglobin (Hp) is an abundant human plasma protein that tightly captures hemoglobin (Hb) during hemolysis. The Hb-Hp complex formation reduces the oxidative properties of heme/Hb and promotes recognition by the macrophage scavenger receptor CD163. This leads to Hb-Hp breakdown and heme catabolism by heme oxygenase and biliverdin reductase. Gene duplications of a part of or the entire Hp gene in the primate evolution have led to variant Hp gene products that collectively may be designated "the haptoglobins (Hps)" as they all bind Hb...
May 10, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546936/use-of-mangroves-by-lemurs
#19
Charlie J Gardner
Despite an increasing recognition of the ecosystem services provided by mangroves, we know little about their role in maintaining terrestrial biodiversity, including primates. Madagascar's lemurs are a top global conservation priority, with 94 % of species threatened with extinction, but records of their occurrence in mangroves are scarce. I used a mixed-methods approach to collect published and unpublished observations of lemurs in mangroves: I carried out a systematic literature search and supplemented this with a targeted information request to 1243 researchers, conservation and tourism professionals, and others who may have visited mangroves in Madagascar...
2016: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494254/a-primate-apol1-variant-that-kills-trypanosoma-brucei-gambiense
#20
Anneli Cooper, Paul Capewell, Caroline Clucas, Nicola Veitch, William Weir, Russell Thomson, Jayne Raper, Annette MacLeod
Humans are protected against infection from most African trypanosomes by lipoprotein complexes present in serum that contain the trypanolytic pore-forming protein, Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1). The human-infective trypanosomes, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in East Africa and T. b. gambiense in West Africa have separately evolved mechanisms that allow them to resist APOL1-mediated lysis and cause human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, in man. Recently, APOL1 variants were identified from a subset of Old World monkeys, that are able to lyse East African T...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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