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Sleep in primates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041797/sharp-wave-ripples-in-primates-are-enhanced-near-remembered-visual-objects
#1
Timothy K Leonard, Kari L Hoffman
The hippocampus plays an important role in memory for events that are distinct in space and time. One of the strongest, most synchronous neural signals produced by the hippocampus is the sharp-wave ripple (SWR), observed in a variety of mammalian species during offline behaviors, such as slow-wave sleep [1-3] and quiescent waking and pauses in exploration [4-8], leading to long-standing and widespread theories of its contribution to plasticity and memory during these inactive or immobile states [9-14]. Indeed, during sleep and waking inactivity, hippocampal SWRs in rodents appear to support spatial long-term and working memory [4, 15-23], but so far, they have not been linked to memory in primates...
December 21, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986974/effects-of-a-serotonin-2c-agonist-and-a-2a-antagonist-on-actigraphy-based-sleep-parameters-disrupted-by-methamphetamine-self-administration-in-rhesus-monkeys
#2
Maylen Perez Diaz, Monica L Andersen, Kenner C Rice, Leonard L Howell
Sleep disorders and substance abuse are highly comorbid and we have previously shown that methamphetamine self-administration significantly disrupts activity-based sleep parameters in rhesus monkeys. To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated the effectiveness of any pharmacological intervention to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on nighttime activity under well-controlled conditions in laboratory animals. Thus, we examined the effects of a 5-HT2C receptor agonist, WAY163909, and a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, M100907, given alone and in combination, on actigraphy-based sleep parameters disrupted by methamphetamine self-administration in nonhuman primates...
December 16, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956208/anatomical-evidence-for-functional-diversity-in-the-mesencephalic-locomotor-region-of-primates
#3
Sophie B Sébille, Hayat Belaid, Anne-Charlotte Philippe, Arthur André, Brian Lau, Chantal François, Carine Karachi, Eric Bardinet
The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) is a highly preserved brainstem structure in vertebrates. The MLR performs a crucial role in locomotion but also controls various other functions such as sleep, attention, and even emotion. The MLR comprises the pedunculopontine (PPN) and cuneiform nuclei (CuN) but their specific roles are still unknown in primates. Here, we sought to characterise the inputs and outputs of the PPN and CuN to and from the basal ganglia, thalamus, amygdala and cortex, with a specific interest in identifying functional anatomical territories...
December 9, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935605/evolution-of-the-circuitry-for-conscious-color-vision-in-primates
#4
J Neitz, M Neitz
There are many ganglion cell types and subtypes in our retina that carry color information. These have appeared at different times over the history of the evolution of the vertebrate visual system. They project to several different places in the brain and serve a variety of purposes allowing wavelength information to contribute to diverse visual functions. These include circadian photoentrainment, regulation of sleep and mood, guidance of orienting movements, detection and segmentation of objects. Predecessors to some of the circuits serving these purposes presumably arose before mammals evolved and different functions are represented by distinct ganglion cell types...
December 9, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853604/hibernation-in-a-primate-does-sleep-occur
#5
Marina B Blanco, Kathrin H Dausmann, Sheena L Faherty, Peter Klopfer, Andrew D Krystal, Robert Schopler, Anne D Yoder
During hibernation, critical physiological processes are downregulated and thermogenically induced arousals are presumably needed periodically to fulfil those physiological demands. Among the processes incompatible with a hypome tabolic state is sleep. However, one hibernating primate, the dwarf lemur Cheirogaleus medius, experiences rapid eye movement (REM)-like states during hibernation, whenever passively reaching temperatures above 30°C, as occurs when it hibernates in poorly insulated tree hollows under tropical conditions...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760892/investigation-of-sleep-wake-rhythm-in-non-human-primates-without-restraint-during-data-collection
#6
Akiyoshi Ishikawa, Keita Sakai, Takehiro Maki, Yuri Mizuno, Kimie Niimi, Yasuhiro Oda, Eiki Takahashi
To understand sleep mechanisms and develop treatments for sleep disorders, investigations using animal models are essential. The sleep architecture of rodents differs from that of diurnal mammals including humans and non-human primates. Sleep studies have been conducted in non-human primates; however, these sleep assessments were performed on animals placed in a restraint chair connected via the umbilical area to the recording apparatus. To avoid restraints, cables, and other stressful apparatuses and manipulations, telemetry systems have been developed...
October 18, 2016: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728905/use-and-selection-of-sleeping-sites-by-proboscis-monkeys-nasalislarvatus-along-the-kinabatangan-river-sabah-malaysia
#7
Valentine Thiry, Danica J Stark, Benoît Goossens, Jean-Louis Slachmuylder, Régine Vercauteren Drubbel, Martine Vercauteren
The choice of a sleeping site is crucial for primates and may influence their survival. In this study, we investigated several tree characteristics influencing the sleeping site selection by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) along Kinabatangan River, in Sabah, Malaysia. We identified 81 sleeping trees used by one-male and all-male social groups from November 2011 to January 2012. We recorded 15 variables for each tree. Within sleeping sites, sleeping trees were taller, had a larger trunk, with larger and higher first branches than surrounding trees...
2016: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680326/a-comparative-study-on-the-regulatory-region-of-the-period1-gene-among-diurnal-nocturnal-primates
#8
Takafumi Katsumura, Yukiko Fukuyo, Shoji Kawamura, Hiroki Oota
BACKGROUND: The circadian clock is set up around a 24-h period in humans who are awake in the daytime and sleep in the nighttime, accompanied with physiological and metabolic rhythms. Most haplorhine primates, including humans, are diurnal, while most "primitive" strepsirrhine primates are nocturnal, suggesting primates have evolved from nocturnal to diurnal habits. The mechanisms of physiological changes causing the habits and of genetic changes causing the physiological changes are, however, unknown...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650279/haptoglobin
#9
Christian Brix Folsted Andersen, Kristian Stødkilde, Kirstine Lindhart Sæderup, Anne Kuhlee, Stefan Raunser, Jonas Heilskov Graversen, Søren Kragh Moestrup
SIGNIFICANCE: Haptoglobin (Hp) is an abundant human plasma protein that tightly captures hemoglobin (Hb) during hemolysis. The Hb-Hp complex formation reduces the oxidative properties of heme/Hb and promotes recognition by the macrophage receptor CD163. This leads to Hb-Hp breakdown and heme catabolism by heme oxygenase. Gene duplications of a part of or the entire Hp gene in the primate evolution has led to variant Hp gene products that collectively may be designated 'the haptoglobins' as they all bind Hb...
September 21, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546936/use-of-mangroves-by-lemurs
#10
Charlie J Gardner
Despite an increasing recognition of the ecosystem services provided by mangroves, we know little about their role in maintaining terrestrial biodiversity, including primates. Madagascar's lemurs are a top global conservation priority, with 94 % of species threatened with extinction, but records of their occurrence in mangroves are scarce. I used a mixed-methods approach to collect published and unpublished observations of lemurs in mangroves: I carried out a systematic literature search and supplemented this with a targeted information request to 1243 researchers, conservation and tourism professionals, and others who may have visited mangroves in Madagascar...
2016: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494254/a-primate-apol1-variant-that-kills-trypanosoma-brucei-gambiense
#11
Anneli Cooper, Paul Capewell, Caroline Clucas, Nicola Veitch, William Weir, Russell Thomson, Jayne Raper, Annette MacLeod
Humans are protected against infection from most African trypanosomes by lipoprotein complexes present in serum that contain the trypanolytic pore-forming protein, Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1). The human-infective trypanosomes, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in East Africa and T. b. gambiense in West Africa have separately evolved mechanisms that allow them to resist APOL1-mediated lysis and cause human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, in man. Recently, APOL1 variants were identified from a subset of Old World monkeys, that are able to lyse East African T...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470330/shining-evolutionary-light-on-human-sleep-and-sleep-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Charles L Nunn, David R Samson, Andrew D Krystal
Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep-i.e. 'why' sleep evolved-remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalian sleep to better understand sleep along the human lineage and in the modern world. Compared to other primates, sleep in great apes has undergone substantial evolutionary change, with all great apes building a sleeping platform or 'nest'. Further evolutionary change characterizes human sleep, with humans having the shortest sleep duration, yet the highest proportion of rapid eye movement sleep among primates...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397568/spatiotemporal-organization-and-cross-frequency-coupling-of-sleep-spindles-in-primate-cerebral-cortex
#13
Saori Takeuchi, Rie Murai, Hideki Shimazu, Yoshikazu Isomura, Tatsuya Mima, Toru Tsujimoto
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The sleep spindle has been implicated in thalamic sensory gating, cortical development, and memory consolidation. These multiple functions may depend on specific spatiotemporal emergence and interactions with other spindles and other forms of brain activity. Therefore, we measured sleep spindle cortical distribution, regional heterogeneity, synchronization, and phase relationships with other electroencephalographic components in freely moving primates. METHODS: Transcortical field potentials were recorded from Japanese monkeys via telemetry and were analyzed using the Hilbert-Huang transform...
2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216823/the-primate-pedunculopontine-nucleus-region-towards-a-dual-role-in-locomotion-and-waking-state
#14
Laurent Goetz, Brigitte Piallat, Manik Bhattacharjee, Hervé Mathieu, Olivier David, Stéphan Chabardès
The mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF) mainly composed by the pedunculopontine and the cuneiform nuclei is involved in the control of several fundamental brain functions such as locomotion, rapid eye movement sleep and waking state. On the one hand, the role of MRF neurons in locomotion has been investigated for decades in different animal models, including in behaving nonhuman primate (NHP) using extracellular recordings. On the other hand, MRF neurons involved in the control of waking state have been consistently shown to constitute the cholinergic component of the reticular ascending system...
July 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147647/on-the-role-of-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-and-mesencephalic-reticular-formation-in-locomotion-in-nonhuman-primates
#15
Laurent Goetz, Brigitte Piallat, Manik Bhattacharjee, Hervé Mathieu, Olivier David, Stéphan Chabardès
UNLABELLED: The mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF) is formed by the pedunculopontine and cuneiform nuclei, two neuronal structures thought to be key elements in the supraspinal control of locomotion, muscle tone, waking, and REM sleep. The role of MRF has also been advocated in modulation of state of arousal leading to transition from wakefulness to sleep and it is further considered to be a main player in the pathophysiology of gait disorders seen in Parkinson's disease. However, the existence of a mesencephalic locomotor region and of an arousal center has not yet been demonstrated in primates...
May 4, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27050418/measuring-hair-cortisol-concentrations-to-assess-the-effect-of-anthropogenic-impacts-on-wild-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#16
Esther H D Carlitz, Robert Miller, Clemens Kirschbaum, Wei Gao, Daniel C Hänni, Carel P van Schaik
Non-human primates face major environmental changes due to increased human impacts all over the world. Although some species are able to survive in certain landscapes with anthropogenic impact, their long-term viability and fitness may be decreased due to chronic stress. Here we assessed long-term stress levels through cortisol analysis in chimpanzee hair obtained from sleeping nests in northwestern Uganda, in order to estimate welfare in the context of ecotourism, forest fragmentation with human-wildlife conflicts, and illegal logging with hunting activity (albeit not of primates), compared with a control without human contact or conflict...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038859/the-contribution-of-the-pineal-gland-on-daily-rhythms-and-masking-in-diurnal-grass-rats-arvicanthis-niloticus
#17
Dorela D Shuboni, Amna A Agha, Thomas K H Groves, Andrew J Gall
Melatonin is a hormone rhythmically secreted at night by the pineal gland in vertebrates. In diurnal mammals, melatonin is present during the inactive phase of the rest/activity cycle, and in primates it directly facilitates sleep and decreases body temperature. However, the role of the pineal gland for the promotion of sleep at night has not yet been studied in non-primate diurnal mammalian species. Here, the authors directly examined the hypothesis that the pineal gland contributes to diurnality in Nile grass rats by decreasing activity and increasing sleep at night, and that this could occur via effects on circadian mechanisms or masking, or both...
July 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26956991/sleep-disturbance-as-detected-by-actigraphy-in-pre-pubertal-juvenile-monkeys-receiving-therapeutic-doses-of-fluoxetine
#18
Mari S Golub, Casey E Hogrefe
Sleep disturbance is a reported side effect of antidepressant drugs in children. Using a nonhuman primate model of childhood selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy, sleep was studied quantitatively with actigraphy. Two 48-h sessions were recorded in the home cage environment of juvenile male rhesus monkeys at two and three years of age, after one and two years of treatment with a therapeutic dose of the SSRI fluoxetine, and compared to vehicle treated controls. A third session was conducted one year after discontinuation of treatment at four years of age...
May 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26943466/inhibition-of-orexin-signaling-promotes-sleep-yet-preserves-salient-arousability-in-monkeys
#19
Pamela L Tannenbaum, Spencer J Tye, Joanne Stevens, Anthony L Gotter, Steven V Fox, Alan T Savitz, Paul J Coleman, Jason M Uslaner, Scott D Kuduk, Richard Hargreaves, Christopher J Winrow, John J Renger
STUDY OBJECTIVES: In addition to enhancing sleep onset and maintenance, a desirable insomnia therapeutic agent would preserve healthy sleep's ability to wake and respond to salient situations while maintaining sleep during irrelevant noise. Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) promote sleep by selectively inhibiting wake-promoting neuropeptide signaling, unlike global inhibition of central nervous system excitation by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor (GABAaR) modulators. We evaluated the effect of DORA versus GABAaR modulators on underlying sleep architecture, ability to waken to emotionally relevant stimuli versus neutral auditory cues, and performance on a sleepiness-sensitive cognitive task upon awakening...
March 1, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26941613/white-matter-neurons-in-young-adult-and-aged-rhesus-monkey
#20
Farzad Mortazavi, Xiyue Wang, Douglas L Rosene, Kathleen S Rockland
In humans and non-human primates (NHP), white matter neurons (WMNs) persist beyond early development. Their functional importance is largely unknown, but they have both corticothalamic and corticocortical connectivity and at least one subpopulation has been implicated in vascular regulation and sleep. Several other studies have reported that the density of WMNs in humans is altered in neuropathological or psychiatric conditions. The present investigation evaluates and compares the density of superficial and deep WMNs in frontal (FR), temporal (TE), and parietal (Par) association regions of four young adult and four aged male rhesus monkeys...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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