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Information theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332265/review-of-a-parent-s-influence-on-pediatric-procedural-distress-and-recovery
#1
REVIEW
Erin A Brown, Alexandra De Young, Roy Kimble, Justin Kenardy
Understanding how parents influence their child's medical procedures can inform future work to reduce pediatric procedural distress and improve recovery outcomes. Following a pediatric injury or illness diagnosis, the associated medical procedures can be potentially traumatic events that are often painful and distressing and can lead to the child experiencing long-term physical and psychological problems. Children under 6 years old are particularly at risk of illness or injury, yet their pain-related distress during medical procedures is often difficult to manage because of their young developmental level...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331276/analyzing-recommender-systems-for-health-promotion-using-a-multidisciplinary-taxonomy-a-scoping-review
#2
Santiago Hors-Fraile, Octavio Rivera-Romero, Francine Schneider, Luis Fernandez-Luque, Francisco Luna-Perejon, Anton Civit-Balcells, Hein de Vries
BACKGROUND: Recommender systems are information retrieval systems that provide users with relevant items (e.g., through messages). Despite their extensive use in the e-commerce and leisure domains, their application in healthcare is still in its infancy. These systems may be used to create tailored health interventions, thus reducing the cost of healthcare and fostering a healthier lifestyle in the population. OBJECTIVE: This paper identifies, categorizes, and analyzes the existing knowledge in terms of the literature published over the past 10 years on the use of health recommender systems for patient interventions...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331134/coarse-grained-model-of-nanoscale-segregation-water-diffusion-and-proton-transport-in-nafion-membranes
#3
Aleksey Vishnyakov, Runfang Mao, Ming-Tsung Lee, Alexander V Neimark
We present a coarse-grained model of the acid form of Nafion membrane that explicitly includes proton transport. This model is based on a soft-core bead representation of the polymer implemented into the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation framework. The proton is introduced as a separate charged bead that forms dissociable Morse bonds with water beads. Morse bond formation and breakup artificially mimics the Grotthuss hopping mechanism of proton transport. The proposed DPD model is parameterized to account for the specifics of the conformations and flexibility of the Nafion backbone and sidechains; it treats electrostatic interactions in the smeared charge approximation...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331064/controlling-the-temporal-structure-of-brain-oscillations-by-focused-attention-meditation
#4
Mona Irrmischer, Simon J Houtman, Huibert D Mansvelder, Michael Tremmel, Ulrich Ott, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen
Our focus of attention naturally fluctuates between different sources of information even when we desire to focus on a single object. Focused attention (FA) meditation is associated with greater control over this process, yet the neuronal mechanisms underlying this ability are not entirely understood. Here, we hypothesize that the capacity of attention to transiently focus and swiftly change relates to the critical dynamics emerging when neuronal systems balance at a point of instability between order and disorder...
January 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330764/the-failing-measurement-of-attitudes-how-semantic-determinants-of-individual-survey-responses-come-to-replace-measures-of-attitude-strength
#5
Jan Ketil Arnulf, Kai Rune Larsen, Øyvind Lund Martinsen, Thore Egeland
The traditional understanding of data from Likert scales is that the quantifications involved result from measures of attitude strength. Applying a recently proposed semantic theory of survey response, we claim that survey responses tap two different sources: a mixture of attitudes plus the semantic structure of the survey. Exploring the degree to which individual responses are influenced by semantics, we hypothesized that in many cases, information about attitude strength is actually filtered out as noise in the commonly used correlation matrix...
January 12, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329727/parent-activation-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department-theory-vs-reality
#6
Danica B Liberman, Phung K Pham
OBJECTIVE: To measure parent activation and test for its associations with sociodemographics, clinical factors, and short-term outcomes. METHODS: By convenience sampling, 246 parents of children treated in an emergency department (ED) of a children's hospital completed the Parent-Patient Activation Measure (P-PAM) and answered sociodemographic questions. Clinical information was abstracted from medical records. Phone calls to parents and primary care physician offices were conducted within one-month post-ED visit for information about short-term outcomes...
January 8, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329423/development-and-early-validation-of-a-patient-reported-outcome-measure-to-assess-sleep-amongst-people-experiencing-problems-with-alcohol-or-other-drugs
#7
Joanne Neale, Silia Vitoratou, Paul Lennon, Robert Meadows, Sarah Nettleton, Daria Panebianco, John Strang, John Marsden
Study Objectives: To develop a patient reported outcome measure to assess sleep amongst people experiencing problems with alcohol or other drugs. Methods: Item development included secondary analyses of qualitative interviews with drug/alcohol users in residential treatment, a review of validated sleep measures, focus groups with drug/alcohol users in residential treatment, and feedback from drug/alcohol users recruited from community and residential settings. An initial version of the measure was completed by 549 current and former drug/alcohol users (442 in person [IP] and 107 online [OL])...
January 10, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328703/asymptotic-one-point-functions-in-gauge-string-duality-with-defects
#8
Isak Buhl-Mortensen, Marius de Leeuw, Asger C Ipsen, Charlotte Kristjansen, Matthias Wilhelm
We take the first step in extending the integrability approach to one-point functions in AdS/dCFT to higher loop orders. More precisely, we argue that the formula encoding all tree-level one-point functions of SU(2) operators in the defect version of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, dual to the D5-D3 probe-brane system with flux, has a natural asymptotic generalization to higher loop orders. The asymptotic formula correctly encodes the information about the one-loop correction to the one-point functions of nonprotected operators once dressed by a simple flux-dependent factor, as we demonstrate by an explicit computation involving a novel object denoted as an amputated matrix product state...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328692/role-of-the-pair-correlation-function-in-the-dynamical-transition-predicted-by-mode-coupling-theory
#9
Manoj Kumar Nandi, Atreyee Banerjee, Chandan Dasgupta, Sarika Maitra Bhattacharyya
In a recent study, we have found that for a large number of systems the configurational entropy at the pair level S_{c2}, which is primarily determined by the pair correlation function, vanishes at the dynamical transition temperature T_{c}. Thus, it appears that the information of the transition temperature is embedded in the structure of the liquid. In order to investigate this, we describe the dynamics of the system at the mean field level and, using the concepts of the dynamical density functional theory, show that the dynamical transition temperature depends only on the pair correlation function...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328297/detecting-fast-signals-beyond-bandwidth-of-detectors-based-on-computational-temporal-ghost-imaging
#10
Yao-Kun Xu, Shi-Hai Sun, Wei-Tao Liu, Guang-Zhao Tang, Ji-Ying Liu, Ping-Xing Chen
Measurement of fast signal is getting more and more important in many fields. In this paper, we propose to detect a temporal signal based on the idea of computational ghost imaging (GI), which can greatly reduce requirements on bandwidth of detectors. In experiments, we implement retrieving of a temporal signal with time scale of 50ns using a detector of 1kHz bandwidth, which is much lower than the requirement on bandwidth of detector according to information theory. The performance of our technique are also investigated under different detection bandwidths...
January 8, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328272/direct-laser-writing-combined-with-a-phase-delay-probe
#11
Shaobei Li, Chao Liang, Feifei Li, Lihong Shi, Chengwei Du, Bolin Fan, Xuliang Wang, Zhitao Zan, Hongjian Chen, Wenbo Yan
We develop on lithium niobate crystals a photorefractive direct-laser-writing approach, in which we combine in one beam both direct writing and phase-delay probing functionalities to extract the in situ information of the refractive index or the electrostatic field. The phase-delay signal, predicted well by the photorefractive theory, is used as feedback for tuning the exposure time or scanning speed of the focused laser in order to control the refractive index change (Δn) at single points and scanning lines...
January 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326428/human-germline-gene-editing-recommendations-of-eshg-and-eshre
#12
Guido de Wert, Guido Pennings, Angus Clarke, Ursula Eichenlaub-Ritter, Carla G van El, Francesca Forzano, Mariëtte Goddijn, Björn Heindryckx, Heidi C Howard, Dragica Radojkovic, Emmanuelle Rial-Sebbag, Basil C Tarlatzis, Martina C Cornel
Technological developments in gene editing raise high expectations for clinical applications, first of all for somatic gene editing but in theory also for germline gene editing (GLGE). GLGE is currently not allowed in many countries. This makes clinical applications in these countries impossible now, even if GLGE would become safe and effective. What were the arguments behind this legislation, and are they still convincing? If a technique can help to avoid serious genetic disorders, in a safe and effective way, would this be a reason to reconsider earlier standpoints? The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) together developed a Background document and Recommendations to inform and stimulate ongoing societal debates...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326003/the-efficacy-of-infection-prevention-and-control-committees-in-lesotho-a-qualitative-study
#13
Eltony Mugomeri
BACKGROUND: The implementation of the core components of infection prevention and control (IPC) recommended by the World Health Organization faces severe challenges, particularly in developing countries. Given that hospital IPC committees in these countries are the key implementers of IPC, there is a need to evaluate their effectiveness. This study qualitatively evaluated the effectiveness of IPC committees in the southern African country of Lesotho with the aim of identifying themes for policy discourse on improving IPC practice in the country...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325662/farmers-market-manager-s-level-of-communication-and-influence-on-electronic-benefits-transfer-ebt-adoption-at-midwest-farmers-markets
#14
Afroza Hasin, Sylvia Smith
OBJECTIVE: To understand market managers' level of communication and use of technology that might influence decision to adopt Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT) at farmers' markets. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using the Theory of Diffusion of Innovation. SETTING: Electronic survey administered in midwest states of Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. PARTICIPANTS: Farmers' market managers in Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin...
January 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325401/performance-based-financing-to-strengthen-the-health-system-in-benin-challenging-the-mainstream-approach
#15
Elisabeth Paul, Mohamed Lamine Dramé, Jean-Pierre Kashala, Armand Ekambi Ndema, Marcel Kounnou, Julien Codjovi Aïssan, Karel Gyselinck
BACKGROUND: Performance-based financing (PBF) is often proposed as a way to improve health system performance. In Benin, PBF was launched in 2012 through a World Bank-supported project. The Belgian Development Agency (BTC) followed suit through a health system strengthening (HSS) project. This paper analyses and draws lessons from the experience of BTC-supported PBF alternative approach - especially with regards to institutional aspects, the role of demand-side actors, ownership, and cost-effectiveness - and explores the mechanisms at stake so as to better understand how the "PBF package" functions and produces effects...
April 15, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324559/nurse-experiences-of-medication-administration-to-people-with-swallowing-difficulties-living-in-aged-care-facilities-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#16
Aida Sefidani Forough, Simon Y M Wong, Esther T L Lau, Jose Manuel Serrano Santos, Greg J Kyle, Kathryn J Steadman, Julie A Y Cichero, Lisa M Nissen
OBJECTIVE: To identify nurses' experiences of administering oral medications to residents of aged care facilities (ACFs) with swallowing difficulties. INTRODUCTION: Administering medicines to older people with swallowing difficulties is a challenging task. Nurses frequently modify oral medications e.g. by crushing/splitting tablets or opening capsules, to facilitate the administration process. These practices are associated with an increased risk of medication administration errors...
January 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323938/rural-nurse-managers-perspectives-into-better-communication-practices
#17
Sheila Q Hartung, Mindi Miller
The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the communication perceptions of nurse managers in rural areas. Prior research in tertiary settings was the impetus for studying viewpoints in other settings. Grounded theory methods were used to collect and analyze interview data with nine managers from regional, critical access hospitals, and home health settings in central Pennsylvania. Nurse Managers associated successful communication with job satisfaction, work efficiency, and employee retention. Circumstances influencing communication involved discussion tones, techniques, resources, and environmental factors...
January 2018: Journal of Community Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323122/effect-of-rhythmic-auditory-cueing-on-parkinsonian-gait-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Shashank Ghai, Ishan Ghai, Gerd Schmitz, Alfred O Effenberg
The use of rhythmic auditory cueing to enhance gait performance in parkinsonian patients' is an emerging area of interest. Different theories and underlying neurophysiological mechanisms have been suggested for ascertaining the enhancement in motor performance. However, a consensus as to its effects based on characteristics of effective stimuli, and training dosage is still not reached. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to analyze the effects of different auditory feedbacks on gait and postural performance in patients affected by Parkinson's disease...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322400/general-mixture-item-response-models-with-different-item-response-structures-exposition-with-an-application-to-likert-scales
#19
Jesper Tijmstra, Maria Bolsinova, Minjeong Jeon
This article proposes a general mixture item response theory (IRT) framework that allows for classes of persons to differ with respect to the type of processes underlying the item responses. Through the use of mixture models, nonnested IRT models with different structures can be estimated for different classes, and class membership can be estimated for each person in the sample. If researchers are able to provide competing measurement models, this mixture IRT framework may help them deal with some violations of measurement invariance...
January 10, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322243/humanistic-burden-of-disease-for-patients-with-advanced-melanoma-in-canada
#20
Winson Y Cheung, Martha S Bayliss, Michelle K White, Angela Stroupe, Andrew Lovley, Bellinda L King-Kallimanis, Kathryn Lasch
BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer, often striking in the prime of life. This study provides new information directly from advanced melanoma (stage III and IV) patients on how their disease impacts their health-related quality of life (HRQL). METHODS: Twenty-nine in-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with adult patients with advanced melanoma in Canada. A semi-structured interview guide was used. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and key concepts were identified using a grounded theory analytic approach...
January 10, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
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