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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913966/validating-presupposed-versus-focused-text-information
#1
Murray Singer, Kevin G Solar, Jackie Spear
There is extensive evidence that readers continually validate discourse accuracy and congruence, but that they may also overlook conspicuous text contradictions. Validation may be thwarted when the inaccurate ideas are embedded sentence presuppositions. In four experiments, we examined readers' validation of presupposed ("given") versus new text information. Throughout, a critical concept, such as a truck versus a bus, was introduced early in a narrative. Later, a character stated or thought something about the truck, which therefore matched or mismatched its antecedent...
December 2, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913590/control-of-spike-transfer-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-in-vivo-by-gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-mediated-inhibition
#2
Stefano Zucca, Marilena Griguoli, Meryl Malézieux, Noëlle Grosjean, Mario Carta, Christophe Mulle
: Despite extensive studies in hippocampal slices and incentive from computational theories, the synaptic mechanisms underlying information transfer at mossy fiber (mf) connections between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons in vivo are still elusive. Here we used an optogenetic approach in mice to selectively target and control the activity of DG granule cells (GCs) while performing whole cell and juxtacellular recordings of CA3 neurons in vivo In CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), mf-CA3 synaptic responses consisted predominantly of an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) at low stimulation frequency (0...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911096/evaluating-health-advice-in-a-web-2-0-environment-the-impact-of-multiple-user-generated-factors-on-hiv-advice-perceptions
#3
Joseph B Walther, Jeong-Woo Jang, Ashley A Hanna Edwards
Unlike traditional media, social media systems often present information of different types from different kinds of contributors within a single message pane, a juxtaposition of potential influences that challenges traditional health communication processing. One type of social media system, question-and-answer advice systems, provides peers' answers to health-related questions, which yet other peers read and rate. Responses may appear good or bad, responders may claim expertise, and others' aggregated evaluations of an answer's usefulness may affect readers' judgments...
December 2, 2016: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910866/biomechanical-analysis-of-normal-brain-development-during-the-first-year-of-life-using-finite-strain-theory
#4
Jeong Chul Kim, Li Wang, Dinggang Shen, Weili Lin
The first year of life is the most critical time period for structural and functional development of the human brain. Combining longitudinal MR imaging and finite strain theory, this study aimed to provide new insights into normal brain development through a biomechanical framework. Thirty-three normal infants were longitudinally imaged using MRI from 2 weeks to 1 year of age. Voxel-wise Jacobian determinant was estimated to elucidate volumetric changes while Lagrange strains (both normal and shear strains) were measured to reveal directional growth information every 3 months during the first year of life...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910723/powered-mobility-intervention-understanding-the-position-of-tool-use-learning-as-part-of-implementing-the-alp-tool
#5
Lisbeth Nilsson, Josephine Durkin
PURPOSE: To explore the knowledge necessary for adoption and implementation of the Assessment of Learning Powered mobility use (ALP) tool in different practice settings for both adults and children. To consult with a diverse population of professionals working with adults and children, in different countries and various settings; who were learning about or using the ALP tool, as part of exploring and implementing research findings. METHOD: Classical grounded theory with a rigorous comparative analysis of data from informants together with reflections on our own rich experiences of powered mobility practice and comparisons with the literature...
December 2, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910576/measurement-of-local-internal-magnetic-fluctuations-via-cross-polarization-scattering-in-the-diii-d-tokamak-invited
#6
K Barada, T L Rhodes, N A Crocker, W A Peebles
We present new measurements of internal magnetic fluctuations obtained with a novel eight channel cross polarization scattering (CPS) system installed on the DIII-D tokamak. Measurements of internal, localized magnetic fluctuations provide a window on an important physics quantity that we heretofore have had little information on. Importantly, these measurements provide a new ability to challenge and test linear and nonlinear simulations and basic theory. The CPS method, based upon the scattering of an incident microwave beam into the opposite polarization by magnetic fluctuations, has been significantly extended and improved over the method as originally developed on the Tore Supra tokamak...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910465/accelerated-reconstruction-of-electrical-impedance-tomography-images-via-patch-based-sparse-representation
#7
Qi Wang, Zhijie Lian, Jianming Wang, Qingliang Chen, Yukuan Sun, Xiuyan Li, Xiaojie Duan, Ziqiang Cui, Huaxiang Wang
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) reconstruction is a nonlinear and ill-posed problem. Exact reconstruction of an EIT image inverts a high dimensional mathematical model to calculate the conductivity field, which causes significant problems regarding that the computational complexity will reduce the achievable frame rate, which is considered as a major advantage of EIT imaging. The single-step method, state estimation method, and projection method were always used to accelerate reconstruction process. The basic principle of these methods is to reduce computational complexity...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910202/isopropanol-dehydration-on-amorphous-silica-alumina-synergy-of-br%C3%A3-nsted-and-lewis-acidities-at-pseudo-bridging-silanols
#8
Kim Larmier, Céline Chizallet, Sylvie Maury, Nicolas Cadran, Johnny Abboud, Anne-Félicie Lamic-Humblot, Eric Marceau, Hélène Lauron-Pernot
The mechanism of isopropanol dehydration on amorphous silica-alumina (ASA) was unraveled by a combination of experimental kinetic measurements and periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We show that pseudo-bridging silanols (PBS-Al) are the most likely active sites owing to the synergy between the Brønsted and Lewis acidic properties of these sites, which facilitates the activation of alcohol hydroxy groups as leaving groups. Isopropanol dehydration was used to specifically investigate these PBS-Al sites, whose density was estimated to be about 10(-1)  site nm(-2) on the silica-doped alumina surface under investigation, by combining information from experiments and theoretical calculations...
December 2, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909853/impact-of-irt-item-misfit-on-score-estimates-and-severity-classifications-an-examination-of-promis-depression-and-pain-interference-item-banks
#9
Yue Zhao
PURPOSE: In patient-reported outcome research that utilizes item response theory (IRT), using statistical significance tests to detect misfit is usually the focus of IRT model-data fit evaluations. However, such evaluations rarely address the impact/consequence of using misfitting items on the intended clinical applications. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of IRT item misfit on score estimates and severity classifications and to demonstrate a recommended process of model-fit evaluation...
December 1, 2016: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909429/temperature-sensitivity-as-a-microbial-trait-using-parameters-from-macromolecular-rate-theory
#10
Charlotte J Alster, Peter Baas, Matthew D Wallenstein, Nels G Johnson, Joseph C von Fischer
The activity of soil microbial extracellular enzymes is strongly controlled by temperature, yet the degree to which temperature sensitivity varies by microbe and enzyme type is unclear. Such information would allow soil microbial enzymes to be incorporated in a traits-based framework to improve prediction of ecosystem response to global change. If temperature sensitivity varies for specific soil enzymes, then determining the underlying causes of variation in temperature sensitivity of these enzymes will provide fundamental insights for predicting nutrient dynamics belowground...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909418/risk-and-ambiguity-in-information-seeking-eye-gaze-patterns-reveal-contextual-behavior-in-dealing-with-uncertainty
#11
Peter Wittek, Ying-Hsang Liu, Sándor Darányi, Tom Gedeon, Ik Soo Lim
Information foraging connects optimal foraging theory in ecology with how humans search for information. The theory suggests that, following an information scent, the information seeker must optimize the tradeoff between exploration by repeated steps in the search space vs. exploitation, using the resources encountered. We conjecture that this tradeoff characterizes how a user deals with uncertainty and its two aspects, risk and ambiguity in economic theory. Risk is related to the perceived quality of the actually visited patch of information, and can be reduced by exploiting and understanding the patch to a better extent...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909250/conditional-disclosure-on-pathways-to-care-coping-preferences-of-young-people-at-risk-of-psychosis
#12
Petra C Gronholm, Graham Thornicroft, Kristin R Laurens, Sara Evans-Lacko
The interrelationship between stigma and help-seeking is under-researched among children and adolescents. This study explored stigma in relation to pathways to care among young people putatively in an early stage of increased risk of developing psychotic disorders. "Pathways to care" was defined as help-seeking and support from informal and formal resources, and increased risk was determined through the presence of persistent psychotic-like experiences and internalizing/externalizing psychopathology. Twenty-nine qualitative interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis...
November 30, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908844/quittr-the-design-of-a-video-game-to-support-smoking-cessation
#13
Ivan Bindoff, Kristy de Salas, Gregory Peterson, Tristan Ling, Ian Lewis, Lindsay Wells, Peter Gee, Stuart G Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Smoking is recognized as the largest, single, preventable cause of death and disease in the developed world. While the majority of smokers report wanting to quit, and many try each year, smokers find it difficult to maintain long-term abstinence. Behavioral support, such as education, advice, goal-setting, and encouragement, is known to be beneficial in improving the likelihood of succeeding in a quit attempt, but it remains difficult to effectively deliver this behavioral support and keep the patient engaged with the process for a sufficient duration...
December 1, 2016: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908839/the-transition-of-acute-postoperative-pain-to-chronic-pain-an-integrative-overview-of-research-on-mechanisms
#14
C Richard Chapman, Charles J Vierck
The nature of the transition from acute to chronic pain still eludes explanation, but chronic pain resulting from surgery provides a natural experiment that invites both clinical epidemiological investigation and basic scientific inquiry into the mechanisms of this transition. The primary purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge and hypotheses on the transition from acute to persistent postsurgical pain, summarizing literature on clinical epidemiological studies of persistent postsurgical pain development, as well as basic neurophysiological studies targeting mechanisms in the periphery, spinal cord, and brain...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908577/the-use-of-predictive-models-to-optimize-risk-of-decisions
#15
József Baranyi, Nathália Buss da Silva
The purpose of this paper is to set up a mathematical framework that risk assessors and regulators could use to quantify the "riskiness" of a particular recommendation (choice/decision). The mathematical theory introduced here can be used for decision support systems. We point out that efficient use of predictive models in decision making for food microbiology needs to consider three major points: (1) the uncertainty and variability of the used information based on which the decision is to be made; (2) the validity of the predictive models aiding the assessor; and (3) the cost generated by the difference between the a-priory choice and the a-posteriori outcome...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908022/sampled-data-based-consensus-and-containment-control-of-multiple-harmonic-oscillators-a-motion-planning-approach
#16
Yongfang Liu, Yu Zhao, Guanrong Chen
This paper studies the distributed consensus and containment problems for a group of harmonic oscillators with a directed communication topology. First, for consensus without a leader, a class of distributed consensus protocols is designed by using motion planning and Pontryagin's principle. The proposed protocol only requires relative information measurements at the sampling instants, without requiring information exchange over the sampled interval. By using stability theory and the properties of stochastic matrices, it is proved that the distributed consensus problem can be solved in the motion planning framework...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907808/models-that-allow-us-to-perceive-the-world-more-accurately-also-allow-us-to-remember-past-events-more-accurately-via-differentiation
#17
Aslı Kılıç, Amy H Criss, Kenneth J Malmberg, Richard M Shiffrin
Differentiation is a theory that originally emerged from the perception literature and proposes that with experience, the representation of stimuli becomes more distinct from or less similar to the representation of other stimuli. In recent years, the role of differentiation has played a critical role in models of memory. Differentiation mechanisms have been implemented in episodic memory models by assuming that information about new experiences with a stimulus in a particular context accumulates in a single memory trace and these updated memory traces become more distinct from the representations of other stimuli...
November 28, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907024/utility-evaluation-based-on-one-to-n-mapping-in-the-prisoner-s-dilemma-game-for-interdependent-networks
#18
Juan Wang, Wenwen Lu, Lina Liu, Li Li, Chengyi Xia
In the field of evolutionary game theory, network reciprocity has become an important means to promote the level of promotion within the population system. Recently, the interdependency provides a novel perspective to understand the widespread cooperation behavior in many real-world systems. In previous works, interdependency is often built from the direct or indirect connections between two networks through the one-to-one mapping mode. However, under many realistic scenarios, players may need much more information from many neighboring agents so as to make a more rational decision...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907014/classification-and-verification-of-handwritten-signatures-with-time-causal-information-theory-quantifiers
#19
Osvaldo A Rosso, Raydonal Ospina, Alejandro C Frery
We present a new approach for handwritten signature classification and verification based on descriptors stemming from time causal information theory. The proposal uses the Shannon entropy, the statistical complexity, and the Fisher information evaluated over the Bandt and Pompe symbolization of the horizontal and vertical coordinates of signatures. These six features are easy and fast to compute, and they are the input to an One-Class Support Vector Machine classifier. The results are better than state-of-the-art online techniques that employ higher-dimensional feature spaces which often require specialized software and hardware...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906996/reach-the-person-behind-the-dementia-physical-therapists-reflections-and-strategies-when-composing-physical-training
#20
Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund, Ellinor Nordin, Dawn A Skelton, Lillemor Lundin-Olsson
Dementia is a disease characterized by cognitive impairment and physical decline that worsens over time. Exercise is one lifestyle factor that has been identified as a potential means of reducing or delaying progression of the symptoms of dementia, maximizing function and independence. The purpose of this study was to explore physical therapists' (PTs) experiences and reflections on facilitating high-intensity functional exercise with older people living with dementia, in residential care home settings. The study used a qualitative design based on interviews, individually or in small groups, with seven PTs engaged as leaders in the training of older people with dementia...
2016: PloS One
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