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Information theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817712/study-of-the-cross-market-effects-of-brexit-based-on-the-improved-symbolic-transfer-entropy-garch-model-an-empirical-analysis-of-stock-bond-correlations
#1
Xiurong Chen, Yixiang Tian, Rubo Zhao
In this paper, we study the cross-market effects of Brexit on the stock and bond markets of nine major countries in the world. By incorporating information theory, we introduce the time-varying impact weights based on symbolic transfer entropy to improve the traditional GARCH model. The empirical results show that under the influence of Brexit, flight-to-quality not only commonly occurs between the stocks and bonds of each country but also simultaneously occurs among different countries. We also find that the accuracy of the time-varying symbolic transfer entropy GARCH model proposed in this paper has been improved compared to the traditional GARCH model, which indicates that it has a certain practical application value...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817359/developing-the-storyline-for-an-advance-care-planning-video-for-surgery-patients-patient-centered-outcomes-research-engagement-from-stakeholder-summit-to-state-fair
#2
Rebecca A Aslakson, Anne L R Schuster, Thomas J Lynch, Matthew J Weiss, Lydia Gregg, Judith Miller, Sarina R Isenberg, Norah L Crossnohere, Alison M Conca-Cheng, Angelo E Volandes, Thomas J Smith, John F P Bridges
BACKGROUND: Patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) methods and social learning theory (SLT) require intensive interaction between researchers and stakeholders. Advance care planning (ACP) is valuable before major surgery, but a systematic review found no extant perioperative ACP tools. Consequently, PCOR methods and SLT can inform the development of an ACP educational video for patients and families preparing for major surgery. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to develop and test acceptability of an ACP video storyline...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817296/patients-views-on-price-shopping-and-price-transparency
#3
Hannah L Semigran, Rebecca Gourevitch, Anna D Sinaiko, David Cowling, Ateev Mehrotra
OBJECTIVES: Driven by the growth of high deductibles and price transparency initiatives, patients are being encouraged to search for prices before seeking care, yet few do so. To understand why this is the case, we interviewed individuals who were offered access to a widely used price transparency website through their employer. STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative interviews. METHODS: We interviewed individuals enrolled in a preferred provider organization product through their health plan about their experience using the price transparency tool (if they had done so), their past medical experiences, and their opinions on shopping for care...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817114/trauma-informed-care-in-the-newborn-intensive-care-unit-promoting-safety-security-and-connectedness
#4
M R Sanders, S L Hall
Both babies and their parents may experience a stay in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU) as a traumatic or a 'toxic stress,' which can lead to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and ultimately to poorly controlled cortisol secretion. Toxic stresses in childhood or adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are strongly linked to poor health outcomes across the lifespan and trauma-informed care is an approach to caregiving based on the recognition of this relationship. Practitioners of trauma-informed care seek to understand clients' or patients' behaviors in light of previous traumas they have experienced, including ACEs...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816491/promoting-justice-or-perpetuating-prejudice-interrupting-external-motivation-in-multicultural-training
#5
George V Gushue, Kimberly A Hinman
The effects of responding to social pressure (external motivation) are short-lived. Multicultural training, however, seeks to promote change in students and trainees that will be transformative and long-lasting. To this end, understanding the motivational factors that inform training is key. The present study was an investigation of the factors underlying external motivation to respond without prejudice for White individuals from the perspective of Higgins's regulatory focus (promotion and prevention) and regulatory mode (assessment and locomotion) theories...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816479/alternation-blindness-in-the-representation-of-binary-sequences
#6
Ru Qi Yu, Daniel Osherson, Jiaying Zhao
Binary information is prevalent in the environment and contains 2 distinct outcomes. Binary sequences consist of a mixture of alternation and repetition. Understanding how people perceive such sequences would contribute to a general theory of information processing. In this study, we examined how people process alternation and repetition in binary sequences. Across 4 paradigms involving estimation, working memory, change detection, and visual search, we found that the number of alternations is underestimated compared with repetitions (Experiment 1)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816478/towards-a-unified-model-of-vision-and-attention-effects-of-visual-landmarks-and-identity-cues-on-covert-and-overt-attention-movements
#7
Anthony J Lambert, Jaimie Wilkie, Andrea Greenwood, Nathan Ryckman, Evatte Sciberras-Lim, Laura-Jane Booker, Lenore Tahara-Eckl
To what extent are shifts of attention driven by encoding of visual-spatial landmarks, associated with useful locations, or by encoding of environmental cues that act as symbolic representations, providing information about where to look next? In Experiment 1 we found that when cues were presented with a long exposure time (300 ms) attention shifts were driven by the symbolic identity of cue stimuli, independently of their visual-spatial (landmark) features; but when cues were exposed very briefly, (66 ms), attention shifts were independent of symbolic information, and were driven instead by visual landmark features...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816094/theories-of-health-care-decision-making-at-the-end-of-life-a-meta-ethnography
#8
Kyounghae Kim, Katherine Heinze, Jiayun Xu, Melissa Kurtz, Hyunjeong Park, Megan Foradori, Marie T Nolan
The aim of this meta-ethnography is to appraise the types and uses of theories relative to end-of-life decision making and to develop a conceptual framework to describe end-of-life decision making among patients with advanced cancers, heart failure, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and their caregivers or providers. We used PubMed, Embase, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases to extract English-language articles published between January 2002 and April 2015...
August 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815580/deciding-to-come-out-to-parents-toward-a-model-of-sexual-orientation-disclosure-decisions
#9
Erika L Grafsky
The purpose of this study was to conduct research to understand nonheterosexual youths' decision to disclose their sexual orientation information to their parents. The sample for this study includes 22 youth between the ages of 14 and 21. Constructivist grounded theory guided the qualitative methodology and data analysis. The findings from this study posit an emerging model of sexual orientation disclosure decisions comprised of four interrelated factors that influence the decision to disclose or not disclose, as well as a description of the mechanism through which disclosure either does or does not occur...
August 16, 2017: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815229/edge-mode-amplification-in-disordered-elastic-networks
#10
Le Yan, Jean-Philippe Bouchaud, Matthieu Wyart
Understanding how mechanical systems can be designed to efficiently transport elastic information is important in a variety of fields, including in materials science and biology. Recently, it has been discovered that certain crystalline lattices present "topologically-protected" edge modes that can amplify elastic signals. Several observations suggest that edge modes are important in disordered systems as well, an effect not well understood presently. Here we build a theory of edge modes in disordered isostatic materials and compute the distribution g(κ) of Lyapunov exponents κ characterizing how modes penetrate in the bulk, and find good agreement with numerical results...
August 17, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813800/the-effects-of-control-signal-noise-on-simultaneous-submovements
#11
Kathleen R Wilson, Kevin B Englehart, Jon W Sensinger
Understanding the stereotypical characteristics of human movement can better inform rehabilitation practices by providing a template of healthy and expected human motor control. Multiplicative noise is inherent in goal-directed movement, such as reaching to grasp an object. Multiplicative noise plays an important role in computational motor control models to help support phenomena such as stereotypical kinematic profiles in time-constrained and unconstrained tasks. Most tasks are not carried out along an isolated degree-of-freedom (DOF), and modelling the contribution of noise can be difficult...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813356/athlete-leadership-a-review-of-the-theoretical-measurement-and-empirical-literature
#12
REVIEW
Todd M Loughead
Athlete leadership is defined as an athlete who occupies a formal or informal leadership role within a team and influences team members to achieve a common objective. The area of athlete leadership has been shaped by theories and measurement tools from organizational and sport coaching literatures. The present article describes the conceptual developments within athlete leadership by providing an operational definition of this construct, followed by the theories and measurement tools used to examine athlete leadership...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813353/motor-cognition-and-neuroscience-in-sport-psychology
#13
REVIEW
Paul S Holmes, David J Wright
Advances in technology have allowed research in cognitive neuroscience to contribute significantly to the discipline of sport psychology. In most cases, the research has become more rigorous and has directed current thinking on the mechanisms subserving a number of psychological theories and models of practice. Currently, the three most common neuroscience techniques informing sport and exercise research are electroencephalography, transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813344/mental-toughness-progress-and-prospects
#14
REVIEW
Daniel F Gucciardi
Mental toughness (MT) has become a popular area of investigation and practice within sport and exercise psychology over the past two decades. Since the turn of the twenty first century, there have been hundreds of studies published on mental toughness, yet concerns remain about the conceptualisation and measurement of mental toughness. In this paper, I take stock of past work with the goal of clarifying and elaborating the most fundamental and common aspects of MT. I also look to the future and outline key substantive and methodological issues that may offer the greatest potential for refining the conceptualisation of MT and contributing to theory building on this concept...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813338/self-talk-effectiveness-and-attention
#15
REVIEW
Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Evangelos Galanis
Self-talk interventions in sport have been receiving increased research attention in recent years. The findings have provided robust support that self-talk strategies enhance sport performance. Identifying the mechanisms that explain the beneficial effects of self-talk is important for developing a comprehensive self-talk theory and informing practice. Among the mechanisms proposed to explaining the effectiveness of self-talk, is its attentional effects. This article reviews the literature considering the effects of self-talk on attention...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813322/anger-and-aggression-in-ptsd
#16
REVIEW
Casey T Taft, Suzannah K Creech, Christopher M Murphy
Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder have massive negative consequences; associated anger and aggression are particularly damaging. This overview focuses on these relationships and their potential mechanisms, and offers treatment considerations. Research and theory suggests that trauma impacts anger and aggression through social information processing mechanisms, and an aggression model incorporating impelling, instigating, and disinhibiting factors helps us understand who is at risk under specific circumstances...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813309/theory-driven-models-of-self-directed-violence-among-individuals-with-ptsd
#17
REVIEW
Craig J Bryan, Jeremy L Grove, Nathan A Kimbrel
PTSD is a well-established risk factor for the full range of self-directed violence (SDV). It is also one of the few psychological conditions that distinguish those who think about suicide from those who attempt suicide. Despite considerable evidence supporting these points, very little is understood about the mechanisms by which PTSD increases the risk for SDV at the present time. This knowledge gap is largely due to the absence of research driven by empirically-supported models of suicide. More recently, this knowledge gap has been slowly filled by a growing number of studies informed by two particular conceptual models: the fluid vulnerability theory and the interpersonal psychological theory...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813168/examining-women-s-alcohol-consumption-the-theory-of-planned-behavior-and-self-identity
#18
Helen M Haydon, Patricia L Obst, Ioni Lewis
BACKGROUND: Changing trends demonstrate that women, in several economically developed countries, are drinking at higher levels than ever before. OBJECTIVE: This study applied an extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), including self-identity, to examine women's intentions to consume alcohol. METHODS: Women (N = 1069) aged 18-87 years, completed a questionnaire measuring their intentions to engage in binge drinking and frequent drinking...
August 16, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812843/collaboration-between-researchers-and-knowledge-users-in-health-technology-assessment-a-qualitative-exploratory-study
#19
Mylène Tantchou Dipankui
BACKGROUND: Collaboration between researchers and knowledge users is increasingly promoted because it could enhance more evidence-based decision-making and practice. These complex relationships differ in form, in the particular goals they are trying to achieve, and in whom they bring together. Although much is understood about why partnerships form, relatively little is known about how collaboration works: how the collaborative process is shaped through the partners' interactions, especially in the field of health technology assessment (HTA)? This study aims at addressing this gap in the literature in the specific context of HTA...
December 16, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812672/rapid-and-direct-recoveries-of-predators-and-prey-through-synchronized-ecosystem-management
#20
Jameal F Samhouri, Adrian C Stier, Shannon M Hennessey, Mark Novak, Benjamin S Halpern, Phillip S Levin
One of the twenty-first century's greatest environmental challenges is to recover and restore species, habitats and ecosystems. The decision about how to initiate restoration is best-informed by an understanding of the linkages between ecosystem components and, given these linkages, an appreciation of the consequences of choosing to recover one ecosystem component before another. However, it remains difficult to predict how the sequence of species' recoveries within food webs influences the speed and trajectory of restoration, and what that means for human well-being...
March 1, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
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