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Information theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102792/a-study-exploring-the-protean-responses-of-nurses-transitioning-to-primary-healthcare
#1
Christine Ashley, Elizabeth Halcomb, Angela Brown
Background Healthcare systems are faced with changing community health profiles and ageing populations. Together with economic considerations, these factors have influenced the increase in provision of care in primary rather than other healthcare settings. Many nurses are electing to move from acute care to meet demands for a skilled primary healthcare workforce. However, little is reported about these nurses' experiences of transition. Aim To describe how role theory provides a theoretical framework to inform the design of a mixed-methods study exploring the transition of acute care nurses to roles in primary health care...
January 23, 2017: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101265/prevalence-and-persistence-of-misconceptions-in-tree-thinking
#2
Tyler A Kummer, Clinton J Whipple, Jamie L Jensen
Darwin described evolution as "descent with modification." Descent, however, is not an explicit focus of most evolution instruction and often leaves deeply held misconceptions to dominate student understanding of common ancestry and species relatedness. Evolutionary trees are ways of visually depicting descent by illustrating the relationships between species and groups of species. The ability to properly interpret and use evolutionary trees has become known as "tree thinking." We used a 20-question assessment to measure misconceptions in tree thinking and compare the proportion of students who hold these misconceptions in an introductory biology course with students in two higher-level courses including a senior level biology course...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100741/control-of-spike-transfer-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-in-vivo-by-gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-mediated-inhibition
#3
Stefano Zucca, Marilena Griguoli, Meryl Malézieux, Noëlle Grosjean, Mario Carta, Christophe Mulle
: Despite extensive studies in hippocampal slices and incentive from computational theories, the synaptic mechanisms underlying information transfer at mossy fiber (mf) connections between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons in vivo are still elusive. Here we used an optogenetic approach in mice to selectively target and control the activity of DG granule cells (GCs) while performing whole-cell and juxtacellular recordings of CA3 neurons in vivo In CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), mf-CA3 synaptic responses consisted predominantly of an IPSP at low stimulation frequency (0...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100734/does-the-superior-colliculus-control-perceptual-sensitivity-or-choice-bias-during-attention-evidence-from-a-multialternative-decision-framework
#4
Devarajan Sridharan, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Tirin Moore, Eric I Knudsen
: Distinct networks in the forebrain and the midbrain coordinate to control spatial attention. The critical involvement of the superior colliculus (SC)-the central structure in the midbrain network-in visuospatial attention has been shown by four seminal, published studies in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performing multialternative tasks. However, due to the lack of a mechanistic framework for interpreting behavioral data in such tasks, the nature of the SC's contribution to attention remains unclear...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100562/healthcare-organisation-and-delivery-for-people-with-dementia-and-comorbidity-a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-views-of-patients-carers-and-professionals
#5
Frances Bunn, Anne-Marie Burn, Louise Robinson, Marie Poole, Greta Rait, Carol Brayne, Johan Schoeman, Sam Norton, Claire Goodman
OBJECTIVES: People living with dementia (PLWD) have a high prevalence of comorbidty. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of dementia on access to non-dementia services and identify ways of improving service delivery for this population. DESIGN: Qualitative study involving interviews and focus groups. Thematic content analysis was informed by theories of continuity of care and access to care. SETTING: Primary and secondary care in the South and North East of England...
January 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100491/motor-control-by-precisely-timed-spike-patterns
#6
Kyle H Srivastava, Caroline M Holmes, Michiel Vellema, Andrea R Pack, Coen P H Elemans, Ilya Nemenman, Samuel J Sober
A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how sequences of action potentials ("spikes") encode information about sensory signals and motor outputs. Although traditional theories assume that this information is conveyed by the total number of spikes fired within a specified time interval (spike rate), recent studies have shown that additional information is carried by the millisecond-scale timing patterns of action potentials (spike timing). However, it is unknown whether or how subtle differences in spike timing drive differences in perception or behavior, leaving it unclear whether the information in spike timing actually plays a role in brain function...
January 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100374/-study-of-disease-burden-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-c-patients-in-shanghai-based-on-bronfenbrenner-s-ecological-systems-theory-a-community-based-survey
#7
H Ren, Y Shi, W Meng, J Y Hu, Y H Chen, Q C Pan
Objective: To systemically analyze family burden, quality of life of chronic hepatitis B and C patients in Shanghai and related influencing factors. Methods: A representative sample of chronic hepatitis patients (n=1 478) and their family members (n=1 478) was randomly selected through a multi-stage cluster sampling from 30 communities in 10 districts of Shanghai. One patient and one family member of each family were interviewed using different questionnaires to collect related information. Based on Bronfenbrenner' s ecological systems, psychological measurement, two-level random intercept model and multivariable structural equation model were applied to determine the effects and directions of the factors between life quality of chronic hepatitis patients and family burden...
January 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099478/small-is-big-interactive-trumps-passive-information-in-breaking-information-barriers-and-impacting-behavioral-antecedents
#8
Ariane L Beck, Kiran Lakkaraju, Varun Rai
The wealth of information available on seemingly every topic creates a considerable challenge both for information providers trying to rise above the noise and discerning individuals trying to find relevant, trustworthy information. We approach this information problem by investigating how passive versus interactive information interventions can impact the antecedents of behavior change using the context of solar energy adoption, where persistent information gaps are known to reduce market potential. We use two experiments to investigate the impact of both passive and interactive approaches to information delivery on the antecedents (attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control in the Theory of Planned Behavior) of intentions and behavior, as well as their effect on intentions and behavior directly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098750/cluster-based-maximum-consensus-time-synchronization-for-industrial-wireless-sensor-networks
#9
Zhaowei Wang, Peng Zeng, Mingtuo Zhou, Dong Li, Jintao Wang
Time synchronization is one of the key technologies in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs), and clustering is widely used in WSNs for data fusion and information collection to reduce redundant data and communication overhead. Considering IWSNs' demand for low energy consumption, fast convergence, and robustness, this paper presents a novel Cluster-based Maximum consensus Time Synchronization (CMTS) method. It consists of two parts: intra-cluster time synchronization and inter-cluster time synchronization...
January 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098523/effects-of-psychological-distance-and-need-for-cognitive-closure-on-impression-formation
#10
Ivan Tomić, Mirjana Tonković, Dragutin Ivanec
Based on theoretical and empirical similarities between Construal level theory of psychological distance and the Need for cognitive closure (NFC) theory, it could be hypothesized that psychological distance and NFC represent constructs that overlap to some degree. Since both theories describe judgmental behavior in terms of schematic processing, we hypothesized that primacy effect, a schema-driven phenomenon, is strengthened under the heightened NFC and psychological distance. We tested this hypothesis in an impression formation experiment while manipulating psychological distance and measuring NFC...
January 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098398/depression-and-discrimination-in-the-lives-of-women-transgender-and-gender-liminal-people-in-ontario-canada
#11
Charmaine C Williams, Deone Curling, Leah S Steele, Margaret F Gibson, Andrea Daley, Datejie Cheko Green, Lori E Ross
This article uses an intersectionality lens to explore how experiences of race, gender, sexuality, class and their intersections are associated with depression and unmet need for mental healthcare in a population of 704 women and transgender/gender liminal people from Ontario, Canada. A survey collecting demographic information, information about mental health and use of mental healthcare services, and data for the Everyday Discrimination Scale and the PHQ-9 Questionnaire for Depression was completed by 704 people via Internet or pen-and-paper between June 2011 and June 2012...
January 18, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097736/restoration-and-management-for-plant-diversity-enhances-the-rate-of-belowground-ecosystem-recovery
#12
Ryan P Klopf, Sara G Baer, Elizabeth M Bach, J Six
The positive relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem functioning has been criticized for its applicability at large scales and in less controlled environments that are relevant to land management. To inform this gap between ecological theory and application, we compared recovery rates of belowground properties using two chronosequences consisting of continuously cultivated and independently restored fields with contrasting diversity management strategies: grasslands restored with high plant richness and managed for diversity with frequent burning (n=20) and grasslands restored with fewer species that were infrequently burned (n=15)...
January 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097604/theory-based-explanation-as-intervention
#13
Kara Weisman, Ellen M Markman
Cogent explanations are an indispensable means of providing new information and an essential component of effective education. Beyond this, we argue that there is tremendous untapped potential in using explanations to motivate behavior change. In this article we focus on health interventions. We review four case studies that used carefully tailored explanations to address gaps and misconceptions in people's intuitive theories, providing participants with a conceptual framework for understanding how and why some recommended behavior is an effective way of achieving a health goal...
January 17, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097472/proceedings-of-the-third-international-molecular-pathological-epidemiology-mpe-meeting
#14
REVIEW
Peter T Campbell, Timothy R Rebbeck, Reiko Nishihara, Andrew H Beck, Colin B Begg, Alexei A Bogdanov, Yin Cao, Helen G Coleman, Gordon J Freeman, Yujing J Heng, Curtis Huttenhower, Rafael A Irizarry, N Sertac Kip, Franziska Michor, Daniel Nevo, Ulrike Peters, Amanda I Phipps, Elizabeth M Poole, Zhi Rong Qian, John Quackenbush, Harlan Robins, Peter K Rogan, Martha L Slattery, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, Mingyang Song, Tyler J VanderWeele, Daniel Xia, Emily C Zabor, Xuehong Zhang, Molin Wang, Shuji Ogino
Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is a transdisciplinary and relatively new scientific discipline that integrates theory, methods, and resources from epidemiology, pathology, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and computational biology. The underlying objective of MPE research is to better understand the etiology and progression of complex and heterogeneous human diseases with the goal of informing prevention and treatment efforts in population health and clinical medicine. Although MPE research has been commonly applied to investigating breast, lung, and colorectal cancers, its methodology can be used to study most diseases...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097060/why-choose-random-forest-to-predict-rare-species-distribution-with-few-samples-in-large-undersampled-areas-three-asian-crane-species-models-provide-supporting-evidence
#15
Chunrong Mi, Falk Huettmann, Yumin Guo, Xuesong Han, Lijia Wen
Species distribution models (SDMs) have become an essential tool in ecology, biogeography, evolution and, more recently, in conservation biology. How to generalize species distributions in large undersampled areas, especially with few samples, is a fundamental issue of SDMs. In order to explore this issue, we used the best available presence records for the Hooded Crane (Grus monacha, n = 33), White-naped Crane (Grus vipio, n = 40), and Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis, n = 75) in China as three case studies, employing four powerful and commonly used machine learning algorithms to map the breeding distributions of the three species: TreeNet (Stochastic Gradient Boosting, Boosted Regression Tree Model), Random Forest, CART (Classification and Regression Tree) and Maxent (Maximum Entropy Models)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096028/a-psychometric-examination-of-an-instrument-to-measure-the-dimensions-of-champion-s-health-belief-model-scales-for-cervical-cancer-screening-in-women-living-with-hiv
#16
Crystal L Chapman Lambert, Andres Azuero, Comfort C Enah, Susan C McMillan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper was to examine the psychometric properties of Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for cervical cancer and screening among women living with HIV. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was conducted using data from an exploratory cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 300 women living with HIV receiving care at two HIV ambulatory care clinics in Florida. A 39-item adaptation of the Champion's Health Belief Model Scales was administered via paper and pencil...
February 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096023/communications-with-health-professionals-and-psychological-distress-in-family-caregivers-to-cancer-patients-a-model-based-on-stress-coping-theory
#17
Young Sam Oh
BACKGROUND: In cancer care settings, family caregivers often experience negative or little communication with the health professionals, and this negative communication and limited health-related information causes psychological distress in family caregivers to cancer patients. AIM: The first aim of this research is to investigate the relationship between communication with health professionals and psychological distress in family caregivers. The second aim is to investigate the mediating effects of self-efficacy in this hypothetical model...
February 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095781/link-prediction-in-drug-target-interactions-network-using-similarity-indices
#18
Yiding Lu, Yufan Guo, Anna Korhonen
BACKGROUND: In silico drug-target interaction (DTI) prediction plays an integral role in drug repositioning: the discovery of new uses for existing drugs. One popular method of drug repositioning is network-based DTI prediction, which uses complex network theory to predict DTIs from a drug-target network. Currently, most network-based DTI prediction is based on machine learning - methods such as Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBM) or Support Vector Machines (SVM). These methods require additional information about the characteristics of drugs, targets and DTIs, such as chemical structure, genome sequence, binding types, causes of interactions, etc...
January 17, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095591/a-critical-discussion-and-practical-recommendations-on-some-issues-relevant-to-the-nonprobabilistic-treatment-of-uncertainty-in-engineering-risk-assessment
#19
Nicola Pedroni, Enrico Zio, Alberto Pasanisi, Mathieu Couplet
Models for the assessment of the risk of complex engineering systems are affected by uncertainties due to the randomness of several phenomena involved and the incomplete knowledge about some of the characteristics of the system. The objective of this article is to provide operative guidelines to handle some conceptual and technical issues related to the treatment of uncertainty in risk assessment for engineering practice. In particular, the following issues are addressed: (1) quantitative modeling and representation of uncertainty coherently with the information available on the system of interest; (2) propagation of the uncertainty from the input(s) to the output(s) of the system model; (3) (Bayesian) updating as new information on the system becomes available; and (4) modeling and representation of dependences among the input variables and parameters of the system model...
January 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095334/predictors-and-mediators-of-trait-anger-across-the-psychosis-continuum-the-role-of-attachment-style-paranoia-and-social-cognition
#20
Hannah Darrell-Berry, Sandra Bucci, Jasper Palmier-Claus, Richard Emsley, Richard Drake, Katherine Berry
Anger in the context of psychosis has a significant impact on treatment outcomes and serious implications for risk management. Understanding mechanisms underlying anger will improve interventions and inform strategies for prevention. This study is the first to examine the relationships between anger and key theoretical drivers across different phases of the psychosis continuum. A battery including measures of theory of mind, attachment, hostile attribution bias, paranoia and anger was administered to 174 participants (14 ultra-high risk, 20 first-episode, 20 established psychosis, 120 non-clinical participants)...
January 4, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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