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# Information theory

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#1
Karin Wachter, Lauren E Gulbas
In 2016, researchers conducted a qualitative study in a mid-sized town in the United States to address gaps in research and practice related to psychosocial consequences of forced migration among women. The loss of social support and its impacts on the well-being of women are rarely addressed in refugee resettlement policy or practice overwhelmingly concerned with economic self-sufficiency. The study sought to develop theory to explain how women (n = 27) who migrated from the Democratic Republic of the Congo recreate social support post-resettlement in the United States...
May 3, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
#2
Sara E Borrelli, Denis Walsh, Helen Spiby
OBJECTIVE: To explore first-time mothers' expectations of labour and birth, coping strategies they adopt during pregnancy towards childbirth and coping strategies they expect to use during labour and birth. DESIGN: A qualitative Straussian grounded theory methodology was adopted, with data collected through semi-structured interviews in the third trimester of pregnancy. Ethical approval was gained. Data analysis included the processes of coding and conceptualising data, with constant comparison between data, literature and memos...
May 7, 2018: Midwifery
#3
Anja Broda, Juliane Krüger, Stephanie Schinke, Andreas Weber
OBJECTIVE: The current study uses two antipodal social science theories, the rational choice theory and the habitus theory, and applies these to describe how women choose between intraclinical (i.e., hospital-run birth clinics) and extraclinical (i.e., midwife-led birth centres or home births) delivery places. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, MEASUREMENTS: Data were collected in a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among 189 women. A list of 22 determinants, conceptualized to capture the two theoretical concepts, were rated on a 7-point Likert scale with 1 = unimportant to 7 = very important...
May 7, 2018: Midwifery
#4
Yuanyuan Liu, Kunzhi Lv, Yi Li, Qiuli Nan, Jinyuan Xu
A series of novel strobilurin analogues (1a-1f, 2a-2e, 3a-3e) containing arylpyrazole rings were synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The structures of 1f, 2b and 3b were also determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. These analogues were collected together with other twenty-eight similar compounds 4a-4f, 5a-5h, 6a-6h and 7a-7f from our previous studies, for in vitro bioassays and thorough structure-activity relationships (SARs) studies. Most compounds exhibited excellent-to-good fungicidal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, especially 5c, 7a, 6c, and 3b with 98...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
#5
Reimar H Leike, Torsten A Enßlin
Most simulation schemes for partial differential equations (PDEs) focus on minimizing a simple error norm of a discretized version of a field. This paper takes a fundamentally different approach; the discretized field is interpreted as data providing information about a real physical field that is unknown. This information is sought to be conserved by the scheme as the field evolves in time. Such an information theoretic approach to simulation was pursued before by information field dynamics (IFD). In this paper we work out the theory of IFD for nonlinear PDEs in a noiseless Gaussian approximation...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
#6
Michele Monti, David K Lubensky, Pieter Rein Ten Wolde
Circadian clocks are biochemical oscillators that allow organisms to estimate the time of the day. These oscillators are inherently noisy due to the discrete nature of the reactants and the stochastic character of their interactions. To keep these oscillators in sync with the daily day-night rhythm in the presence of noise, circadian clocks must be coupled to the dark-light cycle. In this paper, we study the entrainment of phase oscillators as a function of the intrinsic noise in the system. Using stochastic simulations, we compute the optimal coupling strength, intrinsic frequency, and shape of the phase-response curve, that maximize the mutual information between the phase of the clock and time...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
#7
Marta Bigus-Kwiatkowska, Agata Fronczak, Piotr Fronczak
Inspired by albatrosses that use thermal lifts to fly across oceans we develop a simple model of gliders that serves us to study theoretical limitations of unlimited exploration of the Earth. Our studies, grounded in physical theory of continuous percolation and biased random walks, allow us to identify a variety of percolation transitions, which are understood as providing potentially unlimited movement through a space in a specified direction. We discover an unexpected phenomenon of self-organization of gliders in clusters, which resembles the flock organization of birds...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
#8
Tamara O Perdue, Ann Schreier, Melvin Swanson, Janice Neil, Robert Carels
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This research study explores the experience of post-operative bariatric surgery patients as they adjust to diminished weight and differentiates that adjustment from the more general concept of body image. BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is an effective way to reduce weight and co-morbidities associated with obesity. Complete success requires that patients must adjust psychologically as they lose weight. If this does not occur, bariatric patients may experience a 'mind-body lag' in which the patient's internal body image lags behind the external changes...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
#9
Brett Scholz, Julia Bocking, Michelle Banfield, Chris Platania-Phung, Brenda Happell
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study is to explore whether and how the expectations of consumers to be 'representative' influences consumers' ability to contribute to health services partnerships. BACKGROUND: Health standards call for services to partner with consumers in service development and governance. While existing research criticises the assumption that individual mental health consumers working with mental health services must be representative of consumers more broadly, research has yet to explore whether this requirement exists for consumers of other health services...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
#10
Hyosub Kim, YeJe Park, Kyungtae Kim, H-S Sim, Jaewook Ahn
Dynamics of large complex systems, such as relaxation towards equilibrium in classical statistical mechanics, often obeys a master equation that captures essential information from the complexities. Here, we find that thermalization of an isolated many-body quantum state can be described by a master equation. We observe sudden quench dynamics of quantum Ising-like models implemented in our quantum simulator, defect-free single-atom tweezers in conjunction with Rydberg-atom interaction. Saturation of their local observables, a thermalization signature, obeys a master equation experimentally constructed by monitoring the occupation probabilities of prequench states and imposing the principle of the detailed balance...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
#11
Minghua Zhang, Jiyong Fu, A C Dias, Fanyao Qu
We present a theory to address the photoluminescence (PL) intensity and valley polarization (VP) dynamics in monolayer WSe$_2$, under the impact of excitonic dark states of both excitons and biexcitons. We find that the PL intensity of all excitonic channels including intravalley exciton (X$_{\rm b}$), intravalley biexciton (XX$_{\rm k,k}$) and intervalley biexciton (XX$_{\rm k,k^\prime}$) in particular for the {XX$_{\rm k,k}$} PL is enhanced by laser excitation fluence. In addition, our results indicate the anomalous temperature dependence of PL, i...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
#12
Serife Gokce Caliskan, Mehmet Dincer Bilgin, Mehmet Polatli
It is known that signals recorded from physiological systems represent nonlinear features. Several recent studies report that quantitative information about signal complexity is obtained by using nonlinear analysis algorithms. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the causes of mortality worldwide with an increasing prevalence. This study aims to investigate nonlinear parameters such as largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and correlation dimension of electrodermal activity signals recorded from healthy subjects and patients with COPD...
May 17, 2018: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
#13
Nuttida Rungratsameetaweemana, Sirawaj Itthipuripat, Annalisa Salazar, John T Serences
Two factors play an important role in shaping perception: the allocation of selective attention to behaviorally relevant sensory features, and prior expectations about regularities in the environment. Signal detection theory proposes distinct roles of attention and expectation on decision-making such that attention modulates early sensory processing whereas expectation influences the selection and execution of motor responses. Challenging this classic framework, recent studies suggest that expectations about sensory regularities enhance the encoding and accumulation of sensory evidence during decision-making...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
#14
Jodi Anthony, Roberta Goldman, Vaughan W Rees, Rochelle L Frounfelker, Jessica Davine, Robyn R Keske, Daniel R Brooks, Alan C Geller
PURPOSE: As public housing agencies and other low-income housing providers adopt smoke-free policies, data are needed to inform implementation approaches that support compliance. DESIGN: Focused ethnography used including qualitative interviews with staff, focus groups with residents, and property observations. SETTING: Four low-income housing properties in Massachusetts, 12 months postpolicy adoption. PARTICIPANTS: Individual interviews (n = 17) with property staff (managers, resident service coordinators, maintenance, security, and administrators) and focus groups with resident smokers (n = 28) and nonsmokers (n = 47)...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
#15
Bailey Houghtaling, Carmen Byker Shanks, Selena Ahmed, Elizabeth Rink
RATIONALE: While breastfeeding is well recognized as beneficial, rates of breastfeeding among American Indian women are below average and contribute to health inequities. Culturally specific approaches to breastfeeding research are called for to inform appropriate interventions in American Indian communities. Specifically, a grandmother's role in breastfeeding promotion is of great import particularly in American Indian (AI) groups, although is an understudied topic to date. OBJECTIVE: This research seeks to fill a prominent literature gap by utilizing a grounded theory and community-based research approach to inform breastfeeding practices from the voices of grandmothers and health care professionals in a rural AI community in the United States...
May 8, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
#16
Phil Maguire, Philippe Moser, Rebecca Maguire, Mark T Keane
While seemingly a ubiquitous cognitive process, the precise definition and function of surprise remains elusive. Surprise is often conceptualized as being related to improbability or to contrasts with higher probability expectations. In contrast to this probabilistic view, we argue that surprising observations are those that undermine an existing model, implying an alternative causal origin. Surprises are not merely improbable events; instead, they indicate a breakdown in the model being used to quantify probability...
May 17, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
#17
Alexa Ellis, Xiaosu Hu, Craig E Smith, Pamela E Davis-Kean, Ioulia Kovelman
Emerging research suggests that children's ability to divide is the best predictor of later arithmetic development. Although division is typically taught around grade 3, children much younger than this practice division when sharing and allocating resources (e.g. sharing food). To test the hypothesis that social sharing abilities are linked to the emergence of complex numerical division abilities, we examined sharing and division abilities in adults and children. The first study used functional near infrared spectroscopy to examine the neurocognitive bases of division in adults (N=28; age range: 18-23 years) during a task that evaluated their judgment of proportions in the context of sharing, as well as traditional numerical division tasks...
May 16, 2018: Neuroreport
#18
Daniel G A Smith, Lori A Burns, Dominic A Sirianni, Daniel R Nascimento, Ashutosh Kumar, Andrew M James, Jeffrey B Schriber, Tianyuan Zhang, Boyi Zhang, Adam S Abbott, Eric J Berquist, Marvin H Lechner, Leonardo A Cunha, Alexander G Heide, Jonathan M Waldrop, Tyler Y Takeshita, Asem Alenaizan, Daniel Neuhauser, Rollin A King, Andrew C Simmonett, Justin M Turney, Henry F Schaefer, Francesco A Evangelista, A Eugene DePrince, T Daniel Crawford, Konrad Patkowski, C David Sherrill
Psi4NumPy demonstrates the use of efficient computational kernels from the open-source Psi4 program through the popular NumPy library for linear algebra in Python to facilitate the rapid development of clear, understandable Python computer code for new quantum chemical methods, while maintaining a relatively low execution time. Using these tools, reference implementations have been created for a number of methods, including self-consistent field (SCF), SCF response, many-body perturbation theory, coupled-cluster theory, configuration interaction, and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
#19
Victoria J Palmer, Cindy M Gray, Claire F Fitzsimons, Nanette Mutrie, Sally Wyke, Ian J Deary, Geoff Der, Sebastien F M Chastin, Dawn A Skelton
Background and Objectives: Sitting less can reduce older adults' risk of ill health and disability. Effective sedentary behavior interventions require greater understanding of what older adults do when sitting (and not sitting), and why. This study compares the types, context, and role of sitting activities in the daily lives of older men and women who sit more or less than average. Research Design and Methods: Semistructured interviews with 44 older men and women of different ages, socioeconomic status, and objectively measured sedentary behavior were analyzed using social practice theory to explore the multifactorial, inter-relational influences on their sedentary behavior...
May 15, 2018: Gerontologist
#20
Emily C Soriano, Rosmeiry Valera, Elizabeth C Pasipanodya, Amy K Otto, Scott D Siegel, Jean-Philippe Laurenceau
Background: Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is a top ongoing concern of breast cancer (BC) survivors and thus the focus of recent intervention development. The Self-Regulation Model of FCR (Lee-Jones C, Humphris G, Dixon R, Hatcher MB. Fear of cancer recurrence-a literature review and proposed cognitive formulation to explain exacerbation of recurrence fears. Psychooncology. 1997;6:95-105.) states that everyday cancer-related events trigger FCR, which, in turn, leads to specific behavioral responses, including checking the body for signs or symptoms of cancer...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
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